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Twins - how can this be?


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Twins - how can this be?

  1. 1. What are the twins? <ul><li>twins are two offspring resulting from the same pregnancy , usually born in close succession. </li></ul><ul><li>They can be the same or different sex. </li></ul>
  2. 2. Three Types of twins Types of twins identical twins fraternal twins Conjoined twins
  3. 3. stages of twin formation <ul><li>As off springs reproduced by fertilization </li></ul><ul><li>the fertilized egg, now called a zygote divides one time, resulting in two cells. </li></ul><ul><li>By the sixth day after fertilization, the zygote implants itself in the uterine wall and continues to develop for nine months. </li></ul><ul><li>after implantation, the developing baby is called an embryo . </li></ul><ul><li>Around week nine of development, it is called a fetus </li></ul><ul><li>Now we know and twins are formed </li></ul>
  4. 4. facts about twins <ul><li>twins are more common in African American families, and they are least common in the families of Hispanics and Asians. </li></ul><ul><li>Male–female twins are the most common result, about 50 percent and the most common grouping of twins. </li></ul>
  5. 5. 1)identical twins <ul><li>three main types of twins: </li></ul><ul><li>identical twins :occur when a single egg is fertilized to form identical which then divides into two separate embryos . </li></ul><ul><li>They have identical genes. </li></ul>
  6. 6. “ Its like looking like in a mirror” Identical twins <ul><li>identical twins , occur when a single egg is fertilized to form one zygote which then divides into two separate embryos ., </li></ul><ul><li>The two embryos develop into fetuses sharing the same womb. And two identical cells will result. </li></ul><ul><li>If the zygote splits after the first two days after fertilization each cell may develop separately its own placenta and its own sac. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Cases of Identical twins <ul><li>The identical twins can be of separate placentas and separate sacs. </li></ul>Separate placentas separate sacs
  8. 8. Cases of Identical twins <ul><li>The twins share one placentas, and one amnion sac (rarest combination). </li></ul>
  9. 9. fraternal twins <ul><li>fraternal twins :, usually occur when two fertilized eggs are implanted in the uterine wall at the same time. When two eggs are independently fertilized by two different sperm cells. </li></ul><ul><li>The two eggs,, form two zygotes ,. </li></ul><ul><li>They have same or opposite sex and they don't have to look at all alike. </li></ul><ul><li>They have separate placentas </li></ul>
  10. 10. Facts about FRATERNAL twins <ul><li>Africa sees the highest incidence of fraternal twins; Asia, the lowest. </li></ul><ul><li>Female fraternal twins have a one in 17 chance of giving birth to their own set of fraternal twins. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Conjoined twins <ul><li>Conjoined twins are joined at some region of their bodies. The many different types of conjoined twins are classified by the area where the attachment is located: </li></ul>
  12. 12. How twins become conjoined? <ul><li>It results when an embryo start to divide but fails to complete the process, and the result is not quite two children </li></ul><ul><li>The twins originate from a single fertilized egg, so they are always identical and of the same sex. </li></ul><ul><li>It is believed that the first 13 th and 15 th days after fertilization the malformation occurs </li></ul>
  13. 13. Facts about Conjoined twins <ul><li>Joined twins occur in about one in 100,000 pregnancies </li></ul>
  14. 14. cases of Conjoined twins <ul><li>Pygopagus - back-to-back, joined at the rump (about 19 percent) </li></ul>
  15. 15. cases of Conjoined twins <ul><li>Ischiopagus - joined sacrum to sacrum (about six percent) </li></ul>
  16. 16. cases of Conjoined twins <ul><li>Cephalopagus - connected at the head (about two percent) </li></ul>
  17. 17. cases of Conjoined twins <ul><li>Dipygus - one upper body with two lower bodies (including the abdomen, pelvis and legs) </li></ul>
  18. 18. cases of Conjoined twins <ul><li>Thoracopagus - joined at the chest; may share a single heart or have some cardiac connection; some organs in the abdominal region may be malformed (about 40 percent) </li></ul>
  19. 19. cases of Conjoined twins <ul><li>Omphalopagus - joined at the chest (about 33 percent) </li></ul>
  20. 20. cases of Conjoined twins <ul><li>Rachipagus - back-to-back, joined along the spine above the sacrum </li></ul>
  21. 21. Survival rate of conjoined twins <ul><li>The overall survival rate of conjoined twins is somewhere between 5% and 25%. </li></ul><ul><li>If they have separate sets of organs, chances for surgery and survival are greater than if they share the same organs. </li></ul><ul><li>Conjoined twins are rare and have a poor survival rate </li></ul>

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