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Smart grid


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Smart grid

  1. 1. SMART GRID AN INTRODUCTION Under supervision of : Submitted By: Mrs. Manjima Bhattacharya Shivangni sharma (Dept. of Electrical Engg.) 15EE221 NIT PATNA M.Tech-PhD DD(PS) 1
  2. 2. CONTENTS • Introduction • Comparison • Features of Smart Grid • Smart Grid Components • Overview • Projects in India • Smart Grid Benefits • Drawbacks • Conclusion • References 2
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION • Simply means a “ Smarter “ Power Grid. • A Smarter grid with improved efficiency and two way communication. • Reducing carbon emissions as it is integrated with renewable energy resources. • A Network created through IT , communication technology and Electrical Power system. • Can handle digital , computerized equipment and technology dependent on it and can automate and manage the increasing complexity and needs of electricity. 3
  4. 4. COMPARISON Characteristics Today’s Grid Smart Grid Communication One Way Two way Customer Interaction Limited Extensive Operation Manual Remote control Generation Centralize Centralized and Distributed Power flow control Limited Extensive 4
  6. 6. SMART HOME 6 Inside Smart home new equipment, appliances, and software are available that use emerging Smart Grid technologies to save energy, seek out the lowest rates, and contribute to the smooth and efficient functioning of our electric grid.
  7. 7. INTEGRATION OF RENEWABLE ENERGY 7 It will give grid operators new tools to reduce power demand quickly when wind or solar power dips.  It will have more energy storage capabilities to absorb excess wind and solar power when it isn't needed, then to release that energy when the wind and solar power dips.  Energy storage will help to smooth out the variability in wind and solar resources, making them easier to use. Building an electric superhighway can also help solve the problem, as it will help to ship the power to where it is needed.
  8. 8. CONSUMER ENGAGEMENT 8 The Smart Grid offers many opportunities for consumers to save energy and for utilities to operate the grid in a more efficient, effective, and reliable way. For instance some utilities will place a remote control switch on the air conditioner on and off during peak power demand . In return customer receive credit on their bill. Some schemes are time -of- use pricing , net metering.
  9. 9. GRID OPERATION CENTRES 9 Primary task of grid is to Make sure that as much power is generated as is being used. Otherwise grid can become unstable. Grid operators also have limited information about how the power is flowing through the grid. Smart Grid technologies offer a new solution to the problem of monitoring and controlling the grid's transmission System. Reducing the need to fire up costly secondary Plants. Grid operators can see and manage electricity consumption in real time. Software could potentially monitor the grid in real time for potential disturbances that could lead to blackouts. Ex. Phasor measurement units
  10. 10. DISTRIBUTION INTELLIGENCE 10 It refers to the part of the Smart Grid that applies to the utility distribution System, that is, the wires, switches, and transformers that connect the utility substation to you, the customers. A key component of distribution intelligence is outage detection and response. By combining automated switching with an intelligent System that determines how best to respond to an outage, power can be rerouted to most customers in a matter of seconds, or perhaps even milliseconds.
  11. 11. PLUG-IN ELECTRIC VEHICLES • For the Smart Grid, plug-in electric vehicles represent a broader technology known as energy storage • PEVs can drastically reduce our dependence on oil, and they emit no air pollutants when running in all-electric modes. However, they do rely on power plants to charge their batteries, and conventional fossil-fueled power plants emit pollution. • PEVs may play an important part in balancing the energy on the grid by serving as distributed sources of stored energy, a concept called "vehicle to grid”. • Some upcoming PEVs are- Chevrolet Volt, a plug-in hybrid, Ford Electric Focus and Nissan Motors - Leaf And a number of startup companies are producing specialty PEVs. 11
  12. 12. SMART GRID COMPONENTS Smart meters Phasor measurement Information transfers Distributed generation 12
  13. 13. SMART METERS • Recognizes and details Electrical consumption. • Relays information to central monitoring station. • Will replace traditional meters. • Power outage notification and power quality monitoring. • Time of day charges. • Information sharing. 13
  14. 14. PHASOR MEASUREMENT Measure AC current waveforms Monitors power Quality Wide Area Measurement system - Provides real-time data - Phasor data Concentrators - Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition system Sends information to central control station for better management 14
  15. 15. INFORMATION TRANSFER Two way communication ZigBee - Uses IEEE 802.15.4 -Low-energy -Fast start up Time -Mesh Topology connection 15
  16. 16. DISTRIBUTED GENERATION Allow the connection of small scale renewable generation -Solar ,Wind, Fuel Cells , Microturbines Generation close to the load, improving Efficiency Customer Interaction Increase Reliablity 16
  17. 17. OVERVIEW 17
  18. 18. PROJECTS IN INDIA  Government of India has proposed to continue R- APDRP(Restructured Accelerated Power Development and Reform Program), an initiative for distribution reform  BESCOM Project Bengaluru-integration of renewable and distributed resources into the grid.  KEPCO Project in Kerala-$10 Billion initiative for Smart Grid  Aggressive deployment of PMU  Northern grid- already installed 4 PMUs,20 more progress  Western grid- 25 PMUs  Eastern Grid-70-80 PMUs  Smart mini grid using only renewable energy source has been commissioned at TERI(The Energy Resource Institution),Gurgaon campus  Dr Sam Pitroda, chairman India Smart Grid Task Force launched the Smart Grid portal in 2013 : 18
  19. 19. Gujarat to get country’s first smart grid Times of India  Like cell-phone users, people may be able to pick a plan for electricity consumption. The Uttar Gujarat Vij Company Ltd (UGVCL) will roll out India's first modernized electrical grid, or the smart grid, in Naroda and Deesa in north Gujarat . The pilot project will study consumer behavior of electricity usage and propose a tariff structure based on usage and load on the power utility. Eventually, it will be rolled out across the state to disincentivize power consumption during peak hours. New meters embedded with SIM cards will be installed in 20,000 residential and industrial units in Naroda to monitor data every 15 minutes on how a particular consumer uses power. 19
  20. 20. SMART GRID BENEFITS Efficiency Distributed Generation Smart metering Energy Management Systems Reliability Wide Area Monitoring Environment Renewable generation Reduce Demand on Centralized Generation facilities 20
  21. 21. DRAWBACKS  Security and Privacy  Some types of meters can be hacked, these hackers:  Gain control of thousand, even millions of meters  Increase or decrease demand of power  Large no. of components  Various technology components:  e.g. Softwares, integrators etc.  Concern that complex rate systems(e.g. variable rates) remove clarity and accountability, allowing the supplier to take advantage of customer 21
  22. 22. CONCLUSION Smart Grid improves existing electrical infrastructure Reliability, efficiency, economically, environmentally Distributed Generation Smart meters Development of new technologies and markets 22
  23. 23. REFERENCES • A. Ipakchi and F. Albuyeh , "Grid of the future" , IEEE Power Energy Mag. , vol. 7 , no. 2 , pp.52 -62 , 2009 • A. Vojdani , "Smart integration" , IEEE Power Energy Mag. , vol. 6 , no. 6 , pp.72 -79 , 2008 • Gilbert N. Sorebo and Michael C. Echols ,”SMART GRID SECURITY” An End-to-End View of Security in the New Electrical Grid • USA Department of energy-Smart Grid – • • Office of Electricity Delivery & Energy Reliability • 23
  24. 24. 24 THANKS..