An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), commonly known as a Drone, is an aircraft without a human pilot on board. UAVs can be remote controlled aircraft (e.g. flown by a pilot at a ground control station) or can fly autonomously based on pre-programmed flight plans or more complex dynamic automation systems
A UAV is defined as being capable of controlled, sustained level flight and powered by a jet or reciprocating engine. In addition, a cruise missile can be considered to be a UAV, but is treated separately on the basis that the vehicle is the weapon.
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are aircrafts that fly without any humans being onboard. They are either remotely piloted, or piloted by an onboard computer. This kind of aircrafts can be used in different military missions such as surveillance, reconnaissance, battle damage assessment, communications relay, minesweeping, hazardous substances detection and radar jamming. However they can be used in other than military missions like detection of hazardous objects on train rails and investigation of infected areas. Aircrafts that are able of hovering and vertical flying can also be used for indoor missions like counter terrorist operations
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IntroductionAn unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), known as adrone, is an aircraft without a human pilot.Drone stands for Dynamic Remotely OperatedNavigation EquipmentIts flight is either controlled autonomously bycomputers or under the remote control of a piloton the ground
Birth of uAv’sThe earliest attempt at a powered unmannedaerial vehicle was A. M. Lows "Aerial Target" of1916After World War-I, including the first scale RPV,developed by the film star and model airplaneenthusiast Reginald Denny in 1935The birth of U.S. UAVs began in 1959 whenUnited States Air Force officers, concerned aboutlosing pilots over hostile territory.The August 2 &4, 1964,U.S. Navy initiatedAmericas highly classified UAVs into their firstcombat missions of the Vietnam War.
uAv is A “system”Unmanned AircraftTransportableGround control SystemCockpit
Sub-System of UAVsCOMMUNICATIONS:-Operates on ultra high frequencyCommunicates with ku-band systemOperates with uplink frequencies from 15.15 to 15.35 GHzand downlink frequency 14.40 GHz to 14.83 GHzNAVIGATION:-Avionics use satellite based system such as GPS and WAASIt calculates position automatically
MONITORING:- Includes GPS system High resolution video camera Super high resolution still camera COLLISION AVOIDANCE SYSTEM:- Use traffic and collision system Smaller aircraft use simple traffic alerting system Aircraft use ground proximity warning system WEATHER SYSTEM:- Use weather radar and lighting detector system
INDIA HAVING UAVDEVELOPED BY DRDO &HALLAKASHYA DRDO RUSTOMDEVELOPED BY ADEFLUFFY PAWAN NISHANT
DRDO Rustom• Rustom is a Medium AltitudeLong Endurance unmannedcombat air vehicle beingdeveloped by DRDO.• Digital Flight Control andNavigation System, AutomaticTake off and Landing.• Aerodynamic configurations,High aspect ratio wing,Composite airframeintegrated with propulsionsystem, De-icing system forwings
DRDO Nishant• The DRDO Nishant is an developed by Indias ADE .• Day/night capability training vehicle.• Its range of Service ceiling:3,600 m (upto 11,800 ft)
LAKSHYA PTALakshya is anIndian remotelypiloted high speedtarget drone systemdeveloped by ADE ofDRDO.Service ceiling:9,000 m (29,528 ft)5,000 metres(16,404 ft) withtowed target.Launch: RocketAssisted
Comparison with US DRONEUS Drone-Global Hawk:• Length-13.5m• Wingspam-35.4m• Height-4.6m• Empty-Weight-3850kg• Max loaded weight-10400kg• Maximum speed-650kmph• Service ceiling-20000m• Endurance-34hoursIndian Drone-Rustom-H:• Length-9.5m• Wingspam-20.6m• Height-6.1m• Empty weight-1800kg• Max loaded weight-2150kg• Maximum Speed-225kmph• Service ceiling-10668m• Endurance-14hours
UAV vs. Manned Aircraft Remotely piloted vehicles will never fully replace mannedaircraft They can perform an increasingly sophisticated array ofmissions due to their small size and decreased radar. To wholly replace man would be expensive and technicallyrisky. UAS should be only considered for certain types ofmissions for which it can be a cost effective With a continuing trend of miniaturization in electronics,the UAV can be made much smaller and cheaper Size largely determined by the size of the payload,
• IN COUNTER TERRORISM ACTIVITY:• IN COMMERCIALAERIALSURVEILLANCE:
IN OIL, GAS AND MINERALEXPLORATION & PRODUCTION:IN TRANSPORTIN SCIENTIFIC RESEARCHIN ARMED ATTACKS:IN SEARCH & RESCUE:
ADVANTAGESDoes not contain, or need, a qualified pilot on boardCan enter environments that are dangerous tohuman lifeReduces the exposure risk of the aircraft operatorPerforming visual or thermal imaging of a regionMeasuring cell phone, radio, or, TV coverage overany terrainCan be programmed to complete the missionautonomously even when contact with its GCS is lost
DISADVANTAGESImmoralCivilian casualtiesAngers many people in foreign countries(infringeupon sovereignty)Can be hacked or given virusesToo small for transportation of materialsLow resistance to weatherCannot refuel in flightIf contact is lost with the ground station, the vehiclemay be lost.
CONCLUSIONUnmanned Aerial Vehicles are an exciting fieldin the world of aviation, with new discoveries.Over the next 16 years, UAVs will become asignificant component of military, civil, andperhaps even commercial aviation.However, the very dynamic nature of the fieldalso creates a significant amount ofuncertainty. The wide range of UAV physicaland performance characteristics, many ofwhich will be very unlike any current aircraft,will place additional challenges on an airtraffic management system.