Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Application of Enzymes in food industry

Information about enzymes used in food industry in a simpler way

  • Login to see the comments

Application of Enzymes in food industry

  1. 1. Enzymes used in food industry Roll no. 3 M. Sc part 1
  2. 2. Contents What are enzymes? History of enzymes Food industry (Main food processing area) Enzymes used in various food industries Dairy industry Brewing industry Baking industry Wine and fruit juice making industry Meat industry Enzymes used in food industry 2
  3. 3. What are ? A substance produced by a living organism that acts as a catalyst to bring about a specific biochemical reaction. Enzymes used in food industry 3
  4. 4. Enzymes • 2000 BC Egyptian and Sumerains developed fermentation for use in brewing, bread making and cheese making. • 800 BC Calves’ stomach and the enzyme, chymosin, used for cheese making. • 1878 Yeast cells which cause fermentation were identified and the term ‘enzyme’ has first named meaning ‘in yeast’ in Greek. • 1926 Enzymes were first shown to be protein. • 1980 Enzyme preparation was developed to improved the digestibility and nutrient availability for animal feed.Enzymes used in food industry 4
  5. 5. Enzymes used in food industry 5
  6. 6. Food processing combines raw food ingredients to produce marketable food products that can be easily prepared and served to the consumer. Food processing Food processing Enzymes used in food industry 6
  7. 7. Enzymes used in food industries Dairy production Brewing Baking Wine and fruit juice Meat Rennet Lactase Protease Catalases β-Glucanase α-Amylase Protease Amylogluco- sidase Maltogenic amylase Glucose oxidase Pentosenase Pectinase β-Glucanase Protease Papain Enzymes used in food industry 7
  8. 8. Rennet Lactase Protease Catalase Enzymes used in food industry 8
  9. 9. Rennet • Extracted from the forth stomach of young calves • Contains enzymes that cause milk to become cheese • It separates solid curd and liquid whey • Different animal rennet are used for different cheese • Most common vegetable rennet is “thistle” Enzymes used in food industry 9
  10. 10. Lactase • Present in the brush border of the small intestine • Artificially extracted from yeast • Required for the digestion of whole milk • Used in production of lactose free milk • Also used in production of ice cream and sweetened flavoured and condensed milks Enzymes used in food industry 10
  11. 11. Catalase • Produced from bovine livers or microbial sources • Breaks down hydrogen peroxide to water and molecular oxygen • Along with glucose oxidase it is used in treating food wrappers to prevent oxidation • Also used to remove traces of hydrogen peroxide in the process of cold sterilization Enzymes used in food industry 11
  12. 12. Protease • Widely distributed in biological world • Hydrolyses the specific peptide bond to generate para-k-casein and macro peptides in production of cheese • Results in bitter flavour to the cheese and also in desired texture Enzymes used in food industry 12
  13. 13. Protease β – Glucanase α - Amylase Amyloglucosidase Enzymes used in food industry 13
  14. 14. Inside the barley kernel Enzymes used in food industry 14
  15. 15. Protease • Peptidase works to provide the wort with amino acid nutrients that will be used by the yeast. • Protease works to break up the larger proteins which enhances the head retention of beer and reduces haze. • In fully modified malts, these enzymes have done their work during the malting process Enzymes used in food industry 15
  16. 16. β – Glucanase • Beta- Glucanase represents a group of carbohydrate enzymes which break down glycosidic bonds within beta-glucan • Aids in filtration after mashing and brewing Enzymes used in food industry 16
  17. 17. α - Amylase • Converts starch to dextrins in producing corn syrup • Solubilizes carbohydrates found in barley and other cereals used in brewing • Decreases the time required for mashing Enzymes used in food industry 17
  18. 18. Amyloglucosidase • It is not as thermostable as Termamyl • Optimum pH is 6.5 • Long incubation result in caramelisation of the saccharides – resulting in product loss and increase in impurities. Enzymes used in food industry 18
  19. 19. Maltogenic amylase Glucose oxidase Pentosanase Enzymes used in food industry 19
  20. 20. Maltogenic amylase • Flour supplement • It has anti staling effect • It modifies starch while most of the starch starts to gelatinise • Resulting starch granules become more flexible during storage. Enzymes used in food industry 20
  21. 21. Glucose oxidase • Oxidizes glucose and produce gluconic acid and hydrogen peroxide • H2O2 is strong oxidizing agent that strengthens the disulfide and non-disulfide cross-links in gluten • Good working conditions help proper function of bakery system. Enzymes used in food industry 21
  22. 22. Pentosanases • Exact mechanism is not yet discovered • Improves dough machinability, yielding a more flexible, easier-to-handle dough. • The dough is more stable and gives better oven spring during baking Enzymes used in food industry 22
  23. 23. Pectinase β – Glucanase Enzymes used in food industry 23
  24. 24. Pectinase • Prevents pectin from forming haze and hence to get clear solution. • Additionally its is used for extraction of colour and juice from fresh fruit • It breaks down pectin and releases methanol, which in high amounts is hazardous. Enzymes used in food industry 24
  25. 25. β – Glucanase • It accelerates all biological mechanisms linked to maturation on lees • Reduces maturation duration • Improves clarification and filtration, and improves the action of fining agents Enzymes used in food industry 25
  26. 26. Protease Papain Enzymes used in food industry 26
  27. 27. Protease • Cleaves the bond that hold the amino acids together. • As the enzymes break apart proteins, which disrupts or loosens muscle fibres and tenderizes it. Enzymes used in food industry 27
  28. 28. Papain • Found in papaya • 95% of meat tenderizers available in grocery store are made from papain • It is extracted from latex in papaya fruits • These enzymes are purified and sold in powder or liquid form Enzymes used in food industry 28
  29. 29. Conclusion • The enzyme-based processes are advantageous as they can be carried out at moderate reaction conditions with greater specificity in contrast to chemical-based processes. • Market for enzymes in industrial processes is fast growing. Enzymes used in food industry 29
  30. 30. References • Biochemical Society - Danish Society for Biochemistry and Molecular biology • National centre for biotechnology education, UK, university of reading • European food information council, “Modern Biotechnology in Food: Applications of food biotechnology: enzymes”. Enzymes used in food industry 30
  31. 31. References cont. • Production of alcohol from raw wheat flour by Amyloglucosidase and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Thierry Montesinosa, , Jean-Marie Navarroa a Université Montpellier, Accepted 15 March 2000, Available online 7 August 2000 • Wine maker’s academy • Livestrong.com, “Meat Tenderizers & Enzymes” Last Updated: Jun 27, 2015 | By Sandi Busch Enzymes used in food industry 31
  32. 32. Enzymes used in food industry 32
  33. 33. Enzymes used in food industry 33
  34. 34. Enzymes used in food industry 34

×