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Land use transportation relation

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Land use transportation relation under the subjet of Infrastructure & Transportation planning, TCP-1

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Land use transportation relation

  1. 1. Graduate Report Presentation on Land Use – Transport Relationship ME – TCP, Year – I, Semester – I Under the subject of INFRASTRUCTURE & TRANSPORTATION PLANNING (Subject Code : 3714803) SARVAJANIK COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY, SURAT FACULTY OF CIVIL ENGINEERING MASTER OF ENGINEERING (TOWN AND COUNTRY PLANNING) Affiliated with GUJARAT TECHNOLOGICAL UNIVERSITY
  2. 2. CONTENTS 2  Introduction  Relationship between Land Use and Transportation  Compact City  Transit - Oriented Development(tod)  Land Use – Transport Models  Conclusion  References
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION 3 • The connection between transportation and land use is a fundamental concept in transportation. Transportation and land use are inexorably connected. • Everything that happens to land use has transportation implications and every transportation action affects land use. • Land development generates travel, and travel generates the need for new facilities, which in turn increases accessibility and attracts further development. • Accessibility can be measured by the number of travel opportunities or destinations within a particular travel radius, measured in terms of either travel time or distance. • Mobility is a measure of the ability to move efficiently between origins and the destinations. • Mobility is directly influenced by the layout of the transportation network and the level of service it offers.
  4. 4. 4 Source : Indirect and Cumulative Effects Analysis for Project Induced Land Development WisDOT 1996 Fig.1 : Transportation’s Role in Land Use
  5. 5. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LAND USE AND TRANSPORTATION 5 • Effective utilization of land stimulates urban activities, roads and other transportation facilities are maintained so as to follow for new transportation related activity. • When cities are growing slowly, it is easy for land utilization and traffic planning to match pace. • In times of rapid economic growth, demand for land use accelerates and development of transportation facilities may be unable to keep up. • Many cities experience a high degree of economic growth will therefore experience heavy congestion and other transportation problems. • When transportation facilities are poor, the floor area ratio can be kept low and then the ratio can be increased according to the progress of transportation infrastructure development. • During the time when its impossible to expand the road networks and other transportation facility with rise in demand, policies to regulate demand is implemented, called as Transportation Demand Management.
  6. 6. 6 Source : Chapter 2, Transportation and Land Use, Akinori Morimoto, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University Fig. 2 : Relationship between Land use and Transportation
  7. 7. 7 Direction Factor Impact on Expected Impacts Land Use ⇓ Transport Residential Density Trip Length Higher residential density alone will not lead to shorter trips. A mixture of workplaces and residences can lead to shorter trips if travel costs are increased Trip frequency Little impact expected. If trips are shorter, more trips may be made. Mode choice Minimum residential densities are a prerequisite for efficient public transport. More walking and cycling trips will be made only if trips become shorter Employment density Trip length Concentration of workplaces in few employment centres tends to increase average trip lengths. A balance of workplaces and residences in an area would lead to shorter work trips only if travel becomes more expensive. Trip frequency Little impact expected. If trips are shorter, more trips may be made. Mode choice Concentration of workplaces in few employment centres may reduce car use if supported by efficient public transport. More walking and cycling trips will be made only if trips become shorter Table 1 : Theoretical expected Impacts of Land-Use
  8. 8. 8Table 1 : Theoretical expected Impacts of Land-Use Direction Factor Impact on Expected Impacts Land Use ⇓ Transport Neighbourhood design Trip Length Attractive public spaces and a variety of shops and services can induce more local trips. Trip frequency If trips are shorter, more trips may be made. Mode choice Street layout, pedestrian spaces and cycling lanes could lead to more walking and cycling. Location Trip Length More peripheral locations tend to have longer trips. Trip frequency No impact expected Mode choice Locations close to public transport stations should have more public transport trips
  9. 9. 9 Direction Factor Impact on Expected Impacts Transport ⇓ Landuse Accessibility Residential location Locations with better accessibility to workplaces, shops, education and leisure facilities will be more attractive for residential development Industrial location Locations with better accessibility to motorways and railway freight terminals will be more attractive for industrial development and be developed faster. Office location Locations with better accessibility to airports, high-speed rail railway stations and motorways will be more attractive for office development Retail location Locations with better accessibility to customers and competing retail firms will be more attractive for retail development, have higher land prices and be faster developed. Table 2 : Theoretical expected Impacts of Transport
  10. 10. 10 Direction Factor Impact on Expected Impacts Transport ⇓ Transport Accessibility Trip length Locations with good accessibility to many destinations will produce longer trips Trip Frequency Locations with good accessibility to many destinations will produce more trips. Mode Choice Locations with good accessibility by public transport will produce more public transport trips. Travel Cost Trip length There is a strong inverse relationship between travel cost and trip length Trip Frequency There is a strong inverse relationship between travel cost and trip frequency. Mode Choice There is a strong relationship between travel cost and choice of travel mode. Travel Time Trip length There is a strong inverse relationship between travel time and trip length Trip Frequency There is a strong inverse relationship between travel time and trip frequency. Mode Choice There is a strong relationship between travel time and choice of travel mode. Table 2 : Theoretical expected Impacts of Transport
  11. 11. COMPACT CITY 11 What is Compact city ? A compact city is one in which functions required for daily life are aggregated in the city centre, and one with a maintain- able city structure that retains an appropriate population density while remaining resident-friendly and environmentally friendly. • It is important that aggregation along public transportation lines strikes a proper balance between the use of automobiles and public transportation. • In periods of population growth there is a tendency for urban areas to encroach on green spaces, while in periods of population decline there is a tendency for green space to expand into urban areas.
  12. 12. 12 Network Compact City A network-type compact city is one in which the various attractive features of the city are aggregated (compacted) in multiple areas that are connected (networked) by various modes of transportation, with a focus on highly convenient public transportation. Fig. 3 : Network Compact City Source : Chapter 2, Transportation and Land Use, Akinori Morimoto, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University
  13. 13. TRANSIT - ORIENTED DEVELOPMENT(TOD) 13 • TOD means urban development that is centred on public transportation and avoids overreliance on automobiles. Its fundamental concepts were proposed in the 1980s by Calthorpe • TOD is performed with an emphasis on three important elements, called the three D’s: – Density : Maintenance of public transportation requires ensuring a certain degree of population density. That degree will vary somewhat depending on regional characteristics. – Diversity : It is important that commercial, medical, welfare, and other public functions be aggregated around train stations, so that basic life activities can be performed within walking distance. – Design : Good spatial design is vital to inducing land use. Attractive spaces have an effect on how people choose where to live.
  14. 14. 14 Fig. 4 : Conceptual diagram of TOD Source : Calthorpe, Peter. 1993. The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream. Princeton Architectural Press
  15. 15. 15 Urban area aggregation through implementation of TOD • Cities are connected with other cities by rapid rail systems and other forms of high-speed public transportation, and the downtown areas of those cities are connected to their suburbs by light rail transit (LRT) and bus rapid transit (BRT) systems, thus providing public transportation that is both punctual and fast. • TOD is mainly implemented along such public transportation routes. Providing high levels of public transportation service in such areas over a long period of time and in a punctual manner promotes urban aggregation. • Elderly people are encouraged to live in TOD areas, while large families who most greatly benefit from the utility of automobiles are encouraged to raise their children in the green-rich areas of the suburbs. • Selection of residential areas according to lifestyle thus allows for urban planning that best accommodates all generations.
  16. 16. 16 Fig. 5 : Urban Space Design implementing TOD Source : Chapter 2, Transportation and Land Use, Akinori Morimoto, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University
  17. 17. LAND USE – TRANSPORT MODELS 17 • The purpose of land use transport models is to assess the policy impacts in terms of the implications of the future growth patterns on both land use and travel related issues. • From the early developments of land use transport models to the latest state of art, can be broadly classified into three categories 1) Early Land Use Transport models 2) Intermediate era models 3) Modern era models.
  18. 18. 18 Early Land Use Transport models • There are several techniques which are representatives of earliest efforts in the development of urban development models and which continue to serve (either in original or modified form) a great number of transportation studies. • These are developed primarily for location of residential activities. In addition, many of these techniques can be applied without using computer or simple programs can be prepared for use on a computer. • These simple techniques are considered most practical use in smaller urban areas because they require less time, cost and data. Various Early Land Use Models i) The Activity Weighted Technique iv) The Intervening Opportunities ii) The Density Saturation Gradient Method v) The Delphi Technique iii) The simple Accessibility Model
  19. 19. 19 Intermediate Era Models • This was the golden era of developments in land use transport modelling. • a special group of models like ‘empiric model’ has been developed and applied, the widest group of models is led by the work of I. S. Lowry (1964). Various Intermediate Era Models i) Empiric Model (1965) v) Wilson Model ii) The Lowry Model (Lowry, 1964) vi) Projective Land Use Model iii) Garin Model vii) Hutchinson’s Model (1975) iv) Time Oriented Metropolitan Model viii) Sarna’s Model (1979)
  20. 20. 20 Modern Era Models • 1980s has seen a very interesting development in the area of land use transport modelling. • The relationship between land use and transport means that any policy, relating to land use development or transport facilities, will inevitably affect the other dimension though not necessarily on the same time scale. Various Modern Era Models i) Amersfoot Model v) LILT Model ii) CALUTAS Model vi) Osaka Model iii) Dortmund Model vii) SALOC Model iv) ITLUP Model viii) TOPAZ Model
  21. 21. 21 CONCLUSION • Land use will result from investments into transport and that favourable public policy can promote urban development of the city. • Land use decisions directly impact the transportation system and its facilities in the region. • The impacts of transport policies on transport patterns are clearer and stronger compared to the interplay of land use and transport. • Urban public transport plays a crucial role in the land use policy, particularly when the development of new railway systems drastically reduces the costs of everyday commuting. • Land Use generates vehicle trips leading to traffic congestion and costly roadway capacity improvements. But, it can be avoided up to certain extent by proper land use planning. • Mode choice is dependent upon the relative attractiveness of a mode compared to all other. The fastest and cheapest mode is likely to have the highest modal share.
  22. 22. REFERENCES 22 • Akinori Morimoto, Transportation and Land Use, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University • Calthorpe, Peter. 1993. The Next American Metropolis: Ecology, Community, and the American Dream. Princeton Architectural Press • Indirect and Cumulative Effects Analysis for Project Induced Land Development WisDOT 1996 • IIT Bombay, Class Notes, Fall 2006, Module 4 • Wegener, Michael & Fuerst, Franz. (2004). Land-Use Transport Interaction: State of the Art. SSRN Electronic Journal. 10.2139/ssrn.1434678.
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