WHAT ACTUALLY IS BW?• Biological warfare (BW) — also known as germ warfare — is the use of biological toxins or infectious agents such as bacteria, viruses, and fungi with intent to kill or incapacitate humans, animals or plants as an act of war.• Bio-terrorism Intentional or threatened use of biological agents to cause fear in or actually inflict death or disease upon a large population for political, religious, or ideological reasons.• Bio-crime The intentional introduction of biological agents into food or water or air to harm or kill a number of individuals.
BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS:-• Consists of either living organisms that can reproduce, such as bacteria, or viruses, or toxic materials produced by living organisms, such as toxins or physiologically active proteins or peptides.• Viruses – Venezuelan Equine Enchephalitis (Very Lethal)• Bacteria – Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)• Toxins – Staphylococcal Enterotoxin and Botulinum Toxin
DELIVERY METHODS:-• Gas release and aerosol releases via airplanes, submarines, bombs, artillery and missiles• HCN missiles and central burster missiles• Poisoned arrows• Poisoned bullets• Poisoned hand grenades• Poisoned letters• Food delivery: food, coffee, water, creams, juice
WHO HAS BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS? • Algeria •Israel • S. Korea • Canada •Italy •Sudan • China • Cuba •Japan •Syria • Egypt •Libya •Taiwan • Ethiopia •Myanmar •U.K • France • Germany •N. Korea •USA • India •Pakistan •Viet Nam • Iran •Former Soviet •Yugoslavia • Iraq Union •South Africa
Why to use biologicalweapons instead ofnuclear weapons?
• Effective and Cheap - 1 gram botulinus intoxication can kill 10 million people. - Purified Botulism is 3 million times more potent than our best chemical weapon. - SCUB Missile filled with Bolulism Toxin would affect an area 16 times greater than our best chemical weapon.
• Cost Comparison• To Affect 1 Square Kilometer of Area - Conventional Weapons $2000 - Nuclear Weapons $ 800 - Chemical Weapons $ 600 - Biological Weapons $ 1Biologics are the “Poor Man’s Atomic Bomb”
• Not Easily Detectable• They cannot be detected by x-rays, dogs, and most devices, making them easy to transport.• Infected humans can serve as transport devices.
• Delayed Onset• Onset can be from a few hours to a few weeks after exposure.• Perpetrators can have escaped by then and have protected themselves with vaccines.
• Easy to Hide Production.• Little is Required.• Natural.
NAME OF SOME AGENTS:-• Bacillus anthracis (Anthrax)• Franciella tularensis (Tularemia)• Variola major (Smallpox)• Botulinum toxin (Botulism)• Yersinia pestis (Plague)• Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers
INSTEAD IT IS A PRIMITIVE WARTECHNIQUE:-• ROMANS: used dead animals to foul enemy’s water.• TARTARS: catapulted dead bubonic plague victims.• BRITISH – FRENCH –INDIAN WAR: gifts of small pox infected blankets were provided by Britishers.
CASE STUDY!!!! A letter containing anthrax was received by Tom Daschle, the leader of the United States Senate. 23 members of his staff and 5 police officers tested positive with nasal swabs. Citizens begin stockpiling Cipro.
This is the letter that was sent to NBCanchor Tom Brokaw with cutaneousanthrax and that infected Brokawsassistant, Erin OConnor. The envelope ispostmarked September 18 from Trenton,N.J. The handwriting is identical to theone sent to the New York Post belowpostmarked on the same date and sentfrom the same place..
CASE STUDY DETAILS:-• on Tuesday, September 18, 2001, Letters containing anthrax spores were mailed to several news media offices and two Democratic U.S. Senators, killing five people and infecting 17 others.• Two more anthrax letters, bearing the same Trenton postmark, were dated October 9, three weeks after the first mailing. The letters were addressed to two Democratic Senators, Tom Daschle of South Dakota and Patrick Leahy of Vermont.• At least 22 people developed anthrax infections, with 11 of these the especially life-threatening inhalational variety. Five died of inhalational anthrax.
• The anthrax letters are believed to have been mailed from Princeton, New Jersey. In August 2002, investigators found anthrax spores in a city street mailbox located at 10 Nassau Street near the Princeton University campus. About 600 mailboxes that could have been used to mail the letters were tested for anthrax, and the Nassau Street box was the only one to test positive.
• The New York Post and NBC News letters contained the following note: 09-11-01 THIS IS NEXT TAKE PENACILIN NOW DEATH TO AMERICA DEATH TO ISRAEL ALLAH IS GREAT
• The envelopes addressed to Senators Daschle and Leahy had the return address: 4th GradeGreendale SchoolFranklin Park NJ 08852The address is fictitious. Franklin Park, New Jersey, exists, but the ZIP code 08852 is for nearby Monmouth Junction, New Jersey. There is no Greendale School in Franklin Park or Monmouth Junction, New Jersey, though there is a Greenbrook Elementary School in adjacent South Brunswick Township, New Jersey, of which Monmouth Junction is a part.