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Learned optimism


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Learned optimism

  1. 1. Learned Optimism<br />By Dr. Seligman<br />
  2. 2. Two ways of life<br />Optimism<br />Pessimism<br />
  3. 3. The Optimism Test<br />
  4. 4. Permanance<br />
  5. 5. How do you react to bad events?<br />
  6. 6. Permanance (bad events)<br /><ul><li>Pessimist</li></ul>Optimist<br />Persist forever<br />Temporary<br />My boss is a bastard<br />My boss is in a bad mood today<br />
  7. 7. PmB: Permanance Bad<br />0-1 very optimistic<br />4 average<br />7-8 very pessimistic<br />PmG: Permanance Good<br />7-8 very optimistic<br />4-5 average<br />0-1 very pessimistic<br />Permanance Score<br />
  8. 8. Pervasiveness<br />Pessimist<br />Optimist<br />Universal<br />Specific<br />Good event<br />Bad event<br />Michelle Joyce is unfair.<br />All teachers are unfair.<br />
  9. 9. PvB: Pervasiveness Bad<br />0-1 very optimistic<br />4 average<br />7-8 very pessimistic<br />PvG: Pervasiveness Good<br />7-8 very optimistic<br />4-5 average<br />0-1 very pessimistic<br />Pervasiveness<br />
  10. 10. PvB + PmB<br />0-2 very hopeful<br />12-16 severely hopeless<br />Hope<br />
  11. 11. People who make permanent and universal explanations for their troubles<br />tend to collapse under pressure<br />for a long time and across situations<br />The Hopeless<br />
  12. 12. Personalisation<br />When bad things happen, do we blame ourselves? <br />If so, do we lose self-esteem when bad events strike?<br />
  13. 13. Responsibility for our actions<br />“I’m stupid” <br />vs<br />“You’re stupid”<br />
  14. 14. Responsibility for our actions<br />Depressives<br />Realistic<br />High<br />Low<br />Depressives tend to take way more responsibility for bad events than is realistic<br />
  15. 15. PsB = Personalisation Bad<br />0-1 very high self esteem<br />4 average<br />7-8 very low self esteem<br />
  16. 16. PsG = Personalisation Good<br />7-8 very high self esteem<br />4-5 average<br />0-1 very low self esteem<br />
  17. 17. Total Score<br />G-B<br />Above 8 very optimistic.<br />6 – 7 optimistic<br />3-5 average<br />0 or below very pessimistic<br /> prone to depression<br />
  18. 18. Benefits of Pessimism<br />Pessimists see reality !<br />
  19. 19. Reality<br />Non-depressed people<br />Believe they have more control than they do<br />Overestimated their performance<br />
  20. 20. Pessimism works<br />Companies need pessimists to survive<br />Finance<br />Compliance<br />Pessimism keeps you alive <br />airlines<br />
  21. 21. But...<br />if you are pessimistic….<br />
  22. 22. May be depressed<br />
  23. 23. May be achieving less<br />Your talent<br />Effort<br />Achievement<br />
  24. 24. Your health<br />May have weakened physical health<br />and it gets worse with age.<br />
  25. 25. Life may not be as pleasurable<br />
  26. 26. Bad life events<br />Children may suffering bad life events (divorce, family deaths, etc) <br />will do worst<br />
  27. 27. Pessimism in children’s life<br />But also children who see bad events as permanent, pervasive and personal <br />Will over time get depressed and do badly<br />
  28. 28. At School<br />Explanatory style is <br />as much of a predictor of success <br />as SAT’s or IQ tests <br />
  29. 29. At Work: Met Life study<br />Group A: Regular force<br />Pass Career Profile, insurance industry test<br />Group B: Special Force<br />Failed Career Profile<br />Would not usually be hired anywhere else<br />But scored top half of the optimism test.<br />
  30. 30. Special force At Work<br />1st year<br />Outsold the pessimists in the regular force by 21%<br />2nd year<br />Outsold the pessimists by 57%<br />
  31. 31. Health: Nursing home study<br />The First Floor<br />Extra control and choice in their lives<br />Have to choose omeletes or scrambled eggs for breakfast the night before<br />Have to choose the film to watch before<br />Pick plants if you want and you have to water it.<br />
  32. 32. Health: Nursing home study<br />The Second Floor<br />The same added extra good things but…<br />Omelettes on Mon, Wed, and Fri.<br />Scrambled eggs on the other days<br />Residents from left corridor go Wednesday for the film.<br />Those from right corridor Thursday.<br />Nurse waters plants in the room<br />
  33. 33. Eighteen months later…<br />The First Floor<br />With choice and control<br />More active and happier<br />Lived longer<br />
  34. 34. I am pessimistic.<br />And I think I’m born with it.<br />Really?<br />
  35. 35. Children are …<br />From 9 to 12 years old boys and girls<br />Total average is<br />13.5<br />
  36. 36. But they are open to<br />Adults’ criticism<br />Teacher and parents<br />Life crises<br />
  37. 37. And mother’s explanatory style<br />Mummy, there’s a dent on my side of the car.<br />Damn, Bob will kill me.<br />Daddy told you to always park his new car far away from the other cars<br />Damn, things like this always happen to me. I’m so lazy, I just want to carry groceries a few feet, not a hundred yards. I’m so stupid.<br />
  38. 38. How to become more optimistic<br />
  39. 39. ABC<br />Adversity<br />Beliefs<br />Consequences<br />
  40. 40. Identify ABC<br />A: Someone cuts you off while you are driving<br />B: You think “______________”<br />C: You get pissed off and honk your horn<br />
  41. 41. Record your ABC<br />A: I broke the build. Int. server is not working this morning. <br />B: Why didn’t I notice it yesterday. I am careless and stupid. I have fix it now, and We lost half-day.<br />C: I feel stupid and unprofessional. I’m depressed<br />
  42. 42. Dispute your beliefs <br />Argue with yourself <br />Look for alternative explanations,de-catastrophize<br />
  43. 43. Change your Belifes<br />A: I broke the build. Int. server is not working this morning.<br />B: I was working very hard and got exhausted in the afternoon. I learned that maintanable pace is important. I know what’s broken, so I can fix it very quickly. <br />C: I feel relieved. I learn a lesson and am a better developer now.<br />
  44. 44. Homework<br />Record your ABC<br />Evaluate your ABC and dispute it<br />