HISTORY OF REINFORCEMENT MANAGEMENT The term reinforcement was introduced by Pavlov in 1903. The concept of reinforcement means getting the work completed by giving some incentives or rewards to the certain person.
REINFORCEMENT MEANING • The term reinforcement means to strengthen, and is used in psychology to refer to anything stimulus which strengthens, encouraging the designated behavior, or increases the probability of a specific response. • For example, if you want your dog to sit on command, you may give him a treat every time he sits for you. The dog will eventually come to understand that sitting when told to will result in a treat. This treat is reinforcing because he likes it and will result in him sitting when instructed to do so.
Positive Reinforcement Giving a positive response when an individual shows positive and required behavior. Think of it as adding something in order to increase a response. The most common types of positive reinforcement or praise and rewards. • For example: Immediately praising an employee for coming early for job. This will increase probability of outstanding behavior occurring again. Reward is a positive reinforcement.
Negative Reinforcement Negative reinforcement as taking something negative away in order to increase a response. It is a more effective tool for motivating employee behavior. Negative reinforcement encourages employees to perform better so they can have an unpleasant condition removed from their work environment. It is one type of motivational behavior defined by B.F. Skinner. For Example: Driving in heavy traffic is a negative condition for most of us. You leave home earlier than usual one morning, and dont run into heavy traffic. You leave home earlier again the next morning and again you avoid heavy traffic. Your behavior of leaving home earlier is strengthened by the consequence of the avoidance of heavy traffic. Picking up the paper in the morning after it has been delivered at the same time every day .
Punishment Reinforcement: Punishment refers to adding something aversive in order to decrease a behavior.• For example: Disciplining (e.g. spanking) Suspending an employee for breaking the organizational rules. Punishment can be equalized by positive reinforcement from alternative source. Negative reinforcement Punishment involves involves the removal of a either presenting or negative condition in taking away a stimulus order to strengthen a in order to weaken a behavior. behavior.
Extinction Reinforcement When you remove something in order to decrease a behavior, this is called extinction. You are taking something away so that a response is decreased. • For Example: If an employee no longer receives praise and admiration for his good work, he may feel that his behavior is generating no fruitful consequence. Extinction may unintentionally lower desirable behavior.
Why organizations use Reinforcement Management To increase productivity To reduce absenteeism To increase safety behaviors To reduce lost time due to injuries.
FACTOR GIVEN BY REINFORCEMENT MANAGEMENT TO EMPLOYEES Bonus Gifts Holiday Trip Incentives Extra facilities.
CONCLUSION Reinforcement is a keyelement in the successful outcome,for students and for employeeswho working in the organization.