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USSIAN FEDERATION
IGPE ASSIGNMENT NO 2
Sindoor Naik MBA3
Roll No: 1365
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Pg.2 RUSSIAN FEDERATION HISTO...
2
2
RUSSIAN FEDERATION HISTORY
The Ancient Russians – from 7 to 13 Century
The ancient ancestors of Russians – occu-
pied ...
3
3
The politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) takes place in the
framework of a federal semi-presidential republic. ...
4
4
Еconomy of Russia is a mixed economy with state ownership in strategic areas of the economy. Market reforms of the 199...
5
5
Russian Demographics and Culture
Religion in Russia is diverse, with a 1997 law nam-
ing Christianity, Islam, Buddhism...
6
6
0
1
2
3
4
5
2012 2011 2010
India Russia
Comparative Analysis
GDP comparison between India and Russia in trillion dolla...
7
7
Russia India
Indo-Russian relations refer to
the bilateral relations between
the Republic of India and
the Russian Fed...
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Russian Federation e book

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Russia's History, Politics, Economy and relations with India in short.

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Russian Federation e book

  1. 1. 1 1 USSIAN FEDERATION IGPE ASSIGNMENT NO 2 Sindoor Naik MBA3 Roll No: 1365 TABLE OF CONTENTS Pg.2 RUSSIAN FEDERATION HISTORY Pg.3 Pg.4 Pg.5 Russian Demographics and Culture Pg.6 Comparative Analysis with India Pg.7 Russia-India relations
  2. 2. 2 2 RUSSIAN FEDERATION HISTORY The Ancient Russians – from 7 to 13 Century The ancient ancestors of Russians – occu- pied Eastern European Valley around 7th century. Slavs were just one of several tribes which inhabited the valley, but step by step they became the dominant power. Russians or Rus' were one of the smaller Slavic tribes, but somehow this name was applied later for a greater number of peo- ple who settled in the area between Bal- tic, White, Caspian and Black seas. The Mongol Yoke – 13 to 15 Century In 13th century Kievan Rus’ was attacked by Mongol Empire. The separate armies of prin- cipalities were defeated one by one. As a re- sult most of the Russian principalities were vassalized by Mongol Empire. This was a seminal moment in Russian history, which defined its future development for centu- ries. Republic of Novgorod was the only region which remained independent and was not devastated by the Mongol forces. This is why Novgorod is often considered to be one of the "purest" Russian towns, which still re- tained a lot of the ancient Rus' charm. The Expansion Period – 16 to 18 Century The time from the 16th to 18th century was the period of expan- sion. Russia gained much more territory, established a strong ar- my, and modernized the econo- my. Also, the Ryurik Dynasty has given way to The House of Ro- manov – the second and the last family that ruled the country. Under the famous tsar Ivan The Terrible (Ivan Groznyy) Russia e x p a n d e d d r a m a t i c a l l y : it conquered Tartar states along Volga river and acquired ac- cess to Caspian sea. The colonization of Siberia was also started. The 19th Century, Decembrists, End of Serfdom, Reforms After the death of Peter the Great and until the second half of 19th century Russia remained ambitious and aggressive empire. Russian Emperors were focused on ex- panding the territory and military power of the state. However, it was also the time for a serious po- litical change, and even though a few attempts to reform the country failed, they paved the way for such important events as the abolition of serfdom, forming the first Russian parliament, and important economic reforms. 20th Century – Revolution, Communists, USSR, Stalin's Industrialization The first half of the 20th century was a turbulent time for Russia: the political system was drastically and violently transformed, there was an explosion of avant-garde art, and then Stalin led the country through the violent period of industrialization. Many believe that it was during that time that Russia gained enough force and resources to be able to defeat the Nazis in the WW2. Under Stalin the Soviet Union developed heavy industry, sciences, nuclear technologies. Stalin transformed the weak and ruined agricultural country into the powerful industrial state. The forced industrialization claimed a high price. Most of the population lived in misery, millions of peasants died cause state confiscated all their supplies to feed workers.Present-Day: Capitalism, Sovereign De- mocracy, Eltsin, and Putin Suddenly the old system was dismantled and after a series of political decisions the USSR collapsed in 1990. The new Russia was born from the ashes, but it had a long way to go. The inflation was insane, people did not have enough money, no one knew what was going to happen. Boris Eltsin was a very important figure back then. He emerged from the communist party, but was brave enough to stand on a tank during the Putsch and protect basic democratic freedoms of which nobody really knew back then anyway. In 2000 Vladimir Putin became the 2nd elected president in the Russian history. His approval rat- ings were impressive and he quickly gained even more popularity by resolving the ongoing Chechen conflict and making several strong decisions about the economy and public spheres.
  3. 3. 3 3 The politics of Russia (the Russian Federation) takes place in the framework of a federal semi-presidential republic. According to the Constitution of Russia, the President of Russia is head of state, and of a multi-party system with executive power exercised by the govern- ment, headed by the Prime Minister, who is appointed by the Presi- dent with the parliament's approval. Legislative power is vested in the two houses of the Federal Assembly of the Russian Federation, while the President and the government issue numerous legally binding by-laws. Since gaining its independence with the collapse of the Soviet Union at the end of 1991, Russia has faced serious chal- lenges in its efforts to forge a political system to follow nearly seventy-five years of Soviet rule. For in- stance, leading figures in the legislative and executive branches have put forth opposing views of Russia's political direction and the governmental instruments that should be used to follow it. That conflict reached a climax in September and October 1993, when President Boris Yeltsin used military force to dis- solve the parliament and called for new legislative elections .This event marked the end of Russia's first constitutional period, which was defined by the much-amended constitution adopted by the Supreme Soviet of the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic in 1978. A new constitution, creating a strong presidency, was approved by referendum in December 1993. With a new constitution and a new parliament representing diverse parties and factions, Russia's political structure subsequently showed signs of stabilization. As the transition period extended into the mid-1990s, the power of the na- tional government continued to wane as Russia's regions gained political and economic concessions from Moscow. Although the struggle between executive and legislative branches was partially resolved by the new constitution, the two branches continued to represent fundamentally opposing visions of Russia's future. Most of the time, the executive was the center of reform, and the lower house of the parliament, State Duma, was a bastion of anti-reform communists and nationalists.. Presidential Copy of the Russian Constitution Main office holders Office Name Party Since President Vladimir Putin United Russia 7-May-12 Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev United Russia 8-May-12 The constitution sets few require- ments for presidential elec- tions, deferring in many matters to other provisions established by law. The presidential term is set at six years, and the president may only serve two consec- utive terms. A candidate for president must be a citizen of Russia, at least 35 years of age, and a resident of the country for at least ten years. If a president be- comes unable to continue in office because of health problems, resignation, impeachment, or death, a presidential election is to be held not more than three months later. In such a situation, the Federation Council is empowered to set Presidential Elections The 616-member parliament, termed the Federal Assembly, consists of two houses, the 450-member State Duma (the low- er house) and the 166-member Federation Council (the upper house). Russia's legislative body was established by the constitution approved in the December 1993 referendum. The first elec- tions to the Federal Assembly were held at the same time—a procedure criticized by some Rus- sians as indicative of Yeltsin's lack of respect for constitutional niceties. Under the constitution, the deputies elected in December 1993 were termed "transitional" because they were to serve only a two-year term.
  4. 4. 4 4 Еconomy of Russia is a mixed economy with state ownership in strategic areas of the economy. Market reforms of the 1990s privatized much of Russian industry and agriculture, with notable exceptions in the energy and defense-related sectors. Russia is unusual among the major economies in the way it relies on energy revenues to drive growth. The country has an abundance of natural resources, including oil, natural gas and precious metals, which make up a major share of Russia's ex- ports. As of 2012 oil and gas sector accounted for 16% of the GDP, 52% of federal budget revenues and over 70% of total ex- ports. Russia has a large and sophisticated arms industry, capable of designing and manufacturing high-tech military equipment, including a fifth-generation fighter jet. The value of Russian arms exports totaled $15.7 billion in 2013—second only to the US. Exports $542.5 billion (2012 est.) Export goods petroleum and petroleum products, natural gas, metals, wood and wood products, chemicals, and a wide variety of civilian and military manufac- Imports $358.1 billion (2012 est.)[17] Import goods consumer goods, machinery, vehicles, pharma- ceutical products, plastic, semi-finished metal products, meat, fruits and nuts, optical and medical instruments, iron, 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1 1985 1990 1995 2000 2005 2010 2015 RUSSIA HDI HDI HDI - Health HDI - Education HDI - Income Currency and central bank Russian rouble is the unit of currency of the Russian Federation. It is also accepted as legal tender in Abkhazia and South Ossetia. Russian monetary system is managed by the Bank of Russia. Founded on 13 July 1990 as the State Bank of the RSFSR, Bank of Russia assumed re- sponsibilities of the central bank following the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991.
  5. 5. 5 5 Russian Demographics and Culture Religion in Russia is diverse, with a 1997 law nam- ing Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, and Judaism as important in Russian history. Orthodox Christianity (Russian: Православие Pravoslaviye) is Russia's traditional and largest religion, deemed a part of Russia's "historical heritage" in a law passed in 1997. Rus- sian Orthodoxy is the dominant religion in Russia. About 95% of the registered Orthodox parishes belong to the Russian Orthodox Church while there are a number of smaller Orthodox Churches. However, the vast majority of Orthodox believers do not attend church on a regular basis Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow Kalmyk Buddhist temple Temple of All Religions church in Kazan. The ethnic approach is primarily useful when applied towards ethnic religious communities that are small and/or compact enough to be "left out" of normal public opinion polls. It based on an assumption that 100% of population of every ethnic minority are adherents of their group's traditional religion. A good example of such a religious community is Assyrian Church of the East, represented in Russia by ethnic Assyrians. With the body of followers of less than 15,000, it wouldn't show up or would fall within the margin of error on any reasonable religious self-identification poll, and its size can on- ly be reasonably inferred from census data using the ethnic approach. The ethnic approach is sometimes misused to artificially "inflate" prevalence of cer- tain religions. For example, according to the Russian census of 2002, at least 14 mil- lion people in Russia belong to traditional Islamic ethnic groups, including registered migrants (Tatars, Bashkirs, etcetera). Con- sequently, it is often claimed that Islam has 14 million (or even 20-25 million) adher- ents in Russia. However it should be noted that Russia does not have birth-right citi- zenship, and the children born to immi- grants are not granted Russian passports. Also, among the traditional Islamic ethnic groups, there are large number of people who no longer practice Islam. Sociological approaches 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Distribution of various religions among major ethnic groups in the Russian Federation Russ. Orth. Oth. Orth. Old Believer Protes- tant Cath. Pente- costal Christ. Unff. Non- religious Atheist Muslim Unff. Sunni Musl. Shia Musl. Pagan Tengrist Budd. Juda- ism Hindu A piece of Russian Icon art known as Rublev's Trinity. Russians have distinctive traditions of folk music. Typical ethnic Russian musical instruments are gusli, balalaika, zhaleika, balalaika contra- bass, bayan accordion, Gypsy guitar and garmoshka. Folk music had great influence on the Russian classical composers, and in modern times it is a source of inspiration for a number of popular folk bands, most prominent being Golden Ring, Ural's Nation Choir, Lyudmila Zyki- na. Russian folk songs, as well as patriotic songs of the Soviet era, consti- tute the bulk of repertoire of the world-renown Red Army choir and oth- er popular Russian ensembles. A Balalaika
  6. 6. 6 6 0 1 2 3 4 5 2012 2011 2010 India Russia Comparative Analysis GDP comparison between India and Russia in trillion dollars Rank Country HDI % Increase from 2013 57 Russia 0.778 0.001 135 India 0.586 0.003 India Russia The demographics of India are inclusive of the second most populous country in the world, with over 1.21 billion people (2011 census), more than a sixth of the world's population. Already containing 17.5% of the world's population, India is projected to be the world's most populous country by 2025, sur- passing China, its population reaching 1.6 billion by 2050.Its population growth rate is 1.41%, rank- ing 102nd in the world in 2010.Indian population reached the billion mark in 2000. India has more than 50% of its population below the age of 25 and more than 65% below the age of 35. It is expected that, in 2020, the average age of an Indi- an will be 29 years, compared to 37 for China and 48 for Japan; and, by 2030, India's dependency ra- tio should be just over 0.4. India has more than two thousand ethnic groups, and every major religion is represented, as are four ma- jor families of languages (Indo-European, Dravidian, Austroasiatic and Tibeto-Burman languages) as well as two language isolates (the Nihali language spoken in parts of Maharashtra and the Burushaski language spoken in parts of Jammu and Kashmir). Further complexity is lent by the great variation that occurs across this population on social parameters such as income and education. Only the continent of Africa exceeds the linguistic, genetic and cultural diversity of the nation of India The demographics of Russia is about the demographic features of the population of the Russian Federation,[6] including population growth, population density,ethnic composition, edu- cation level, health, economic status and other as- pects. According to an official estimate for 1 June 2014, the population of Russia is 143,800,000. With the May 2014 annexation of Crimea, the population of Russia has increased to over 146 million. New citizenship rules allowing Russian citizenship to post Soviet peo- ples has gained strong interest with Uzbeks.[8] The population could return to levels seen just before the breakup of the Soviet Union as well as resolve prob- lems of statelessness. The population hit a historic peak at 148,689,000 in 1991, just before the breakup of the Soviet Union, but then began a decade-long decline, falling at a rate of about 0.5% per year due to declining birth rates, rising death rates and emigration.[9] The decline slowed considerably in the late 2000s, and in 2009 Russia recorded population growth for the first time in 15 years, adding 23,300 people. Key reasons for the slow current population growth are improving health care, changing fertility patterns among younger women, falling emigration and steady influx of immigrants from the ex-USSR countries. In 2012, Russia's population increased by 292,400 peo- ple. India vs Russia Demographics 0 0.5 1 1.5 0-14 15-24 25-54 55-64 65 years and over Sex Ratio comparison India vs Russia India Russia 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 1999 2000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 GDP(PPP) in Billion$ India Russia -15 -10 -5 0 5 10 15 1999 2000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Industrial production growth rate (%) India Russia
  7. 7. 7 7 Russia India Indo-Russian relations refer to the bilateral relations between the Republic of India and the Russian Federation. During the Cold War, India and the Soviet Un- ion (USSR) enjoyed a strong strategic, military, economic and diplomatic rela- tionship. After the collapse of the USSR, Russia inherited the close relationship with India, even as India improved its re- lations with the West after the end of the Cold War. The powerful IRIGC is the main body that conducts affairs at the governmental level between both countries. Both countries are members of many international bodies where they jointly collaborate closely on matters of shared national interest. Important examples include the UN, BRICS, G20 and SCO where India has observer status and has been asked by Russia to become a full member. Rus- sia has stated publicly that it supports India receiving a permanent seat on the United Nations Security Council. In addition, Russia has expressed interest in joining SAARC with observer India is the second largest market for the Russian defense in- dustry. In 2004, more than 70% of the Indian Military's hard- ware came from Russia, making Russia the chief supplier of defense equipment. India has an embassy in Moscow and two consulates-general (in Saint Peter s- burg and Vladivostok). Russia has an embassy in New D e l h i a n d f o u r c o n s u l a t e s - g e n e r a l India and Russia have several major joint military pro- grammes including: BrahMos cruise missile programme, 5th generation fighter jet programme, Sukhoi Su- 30MKI programme (230+ to be built by Hindustan Aero- nautics),Ilyushin/HAL Tactical Transport Aircraft $0.00 $2.00 $4.00 $6.00 $8.00 $10.00 $12.00 2009 2010 2011 2012 Trade Volume (Billion $) Indo-Russian trade (2009–12) In February 2006, India and Russia also set up a Joint Study Group to examine ways to increase trade to US$10 billion by 2010 and to study feasibility of a Comprehensive Economic Cooperation Agree- ment (CECA). The group finalized its report after its fourth meeting in Moscow in July 2007. It has been agreed that a Joint Task Force would monitor the implementation of the recommendation made in the Joint Study Group Report, including considering CECA. On 7 November 2009, India signed a new nuclear deal with Russia apart from the deals that were agreed upon by the two countries earlier. [33] India and Russia are in discus- sion for construction of two more nuclear power units at Kudankulam. Two units of the Kudankulam Nuclear Power Plant are already operational. During Russian president Vladimir Putin's visit to India for the 13th annual sum- mit, a co-operative civilian nuclear energy road map was agreed to. Running until 2030, sixteen to eighteen new reactors will be constructed, with installed capacity of 1000 MW each. A 1000 MW reactor costs around $2.5 billion so the deal may touch $45 billion in worth.

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