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Table of Specifications (TOS) and Test Construction Review

Teachers Training

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Table of Specifications (TOS) and Test Construction Review

  1. 1. Table of Specification (TOS) with an Overview on Test Construction Presented by: Arnel O. Rivera Faculty Member BNHS-Villa Maria CAS, LPU-Cavite Presented to the teachers of DepEd Bacoor City June 6, 2016
  2. 2. OUTLINE:  Reading Diet  Introduction  Table of Specification  Situational Judgment Tests (SJT)  Workshop  Wrap-up
  3. 3. For every problem there is a solution. If you are not part of the solution then you are part of the PROBLEM. Chinkee Tan Chink Positive
  4. 4. 13% of students who got low grades in exams are caused by faulty test questions. WORLDWATCH, The Philadelphia Trumpet (August 2005)
  5. 5. Common observation of students on test questions Hindi kasama sa lessons. Masyadong mahaba ang question at mga pagpipilian. Hindi maayos ang layout ng test, putol- putol ang mga sentence. Nakakalito ang mga tanong. Minsan wala sa pagpipiliaan ang sagot.
  6. 6. Possible reasons for faulty test questions: Questions are copied verbatim from the book or other resources. Not consulting the course outline. Much consideration is given to reduce printing cost. No TOS or TOS was made after making the test.
  7. 7. Factors to consider in preparing test questions (Oriondo & Antonio, 1984) Purpose of the test Time available to prepare, administer and score the test. Number of students to be tested. Skill of the teacher in writing the test. Facilities available in reproducing the test.
  8. 8. “To be able to prepare a GOOD TEST, one has to have a mastery of the subject matter, knowledge of the pupils to be tested, skill in verbal expression and the use of the different test format” Evaluating Educational Outcomes (Oriondo & Antonio,1984)
  9. 9. Characteristics of Good Tests Validity – the extent to which the test measures what it intends to measure Reliability – the consistency with which a test measures what it is supposed to measure Usability – the test can be administered with ease, clarity and uniformity
  10. 10. Scorability – easy to score Interpretability – test results can be properly interpreted and is a major basis in making sound educational decisions Economical – the test can be reused without compromising the validity and reliability Other Things to Consider
  11. 11. General Steps in Test Construction DRAFT ORDER TEST ANALYZE SUBMISSION PRODUCE A T.O.S.
  12. 12. Table of Specifications (TOS) A two way chart that relates the learning outcomes to the course content It enables the teacher to prepare a test containing a representative sample of student knowledge in each of the areas tested.
  13. 13. Sample TOS
  14. 14. KPU Paradox Knowledge (Remembering) – answers the question what, where and when? (ano, saan at kailan) Process (Application & Analysis) – answers the question how? (paano) Understanding (Analysis) – answers the question why ?(bakit)
  15. 15. THE LEVELS OF COGNITIVE DOMAIN The levels are the guiding posts in constructing test items. Regardless of what type of teacher-made tests the teacher will prepare, the items must follow the pattern set for evaluation. The following items are features of levels with regards to the objectives of the lessons.
  16. 16. 1. KNOWLEDGE (Remembering) – includes those objectives that deal with recall, recognize facts, terminology, etc. Example: Sino ang kauna-unahang bayani ng Pilipinas na nakipaglaban sa mga Kastila?
  17. 17. 2. COMPREHENSION (Understanding) – includes some level of understanding. It requires the learners to change the form of communication to see the connection or relations among parts of a communication (interpretation) or draw a conclusion (inference). Example: Bakit sa tabing dagat naninirahan ang mga sinaunang Pilipino?
  18. 18. 3. APPLICATION (Applying) – it requires the pupils to use previously acquired information in a setting other than the one in which it was learned. Example: Alin sa mga sumusunod ang uri ng pamumuhay noong panahon ng Martial Law?
  19. 19. 4. ANALYSIS (Analysing) – It requires the pupils to identify the logical errors (point out the prediction or erroneous inference), differentiate among facts, opinions, assumptions, hypothesis or conclusions, draw relationships among ideas or to compare and contrast. Example: Alin sa mga sumusunod ang dapat ginawa ng mga Pilipino upang makamit ang inaasam na kalayaan laban sa mga Kastila?
  20. 20. 5. SYNTHESIS (Creating) – objectives at this level require the pupils to [produce something unique or original. Test questions at this level require the pupils to solve unfamiliar problems or combine parts to form a unique or novel whole. Example: Bilang mag-aaral, paano ka makakatulong sa pagpapanatili ng kalinisan n gating kapaligiran?
  21. 21. 6. EVALUATION (Evaluating) – Under this objective, the learners are required to form judgments about the value of methods, ideas, people or products that have a specific purpose. Example: Alin sa mga sumusunod ang higit na mabisang paraan ng pagsugpo sa ipinagbabawal na gamot?
  22. 22. Tips in Preparing the Table of Specifications (TOS) Don’t make it overly detailed. It's best to identify major ideas and skills rather than specific details. Use a cognitive taxonomy that is most appropriate to your discipline. Weigh the appropriateness of the distribution of checks against the students' level, the importance of the test, the amount of time available.
  23. 23. General Rules in Writing Test Questions Number test questions continuously. Keep your test question in each test group uniform. Make your layout presentable. Do not put too many test questions in one test group.  T or F: 10 – 15 questions  Multiple Choice: max. of 30 questions  Matching type: 5 questions per test group  Others: 5 – 10 questions
  24. 24. Some additional guidelines to consider when writing items are described below: 1. Avoid humorous items. Classroom testing is very important and humorous items may cause students to either not take the exam seriously, become confused or anxious. 2. Items should measure one’s knowledge of the item context not their level of interest. 3. Write items to measure what students know, not what they do not know. (Cohen & Wallack)
  25. 25. What is the effect of releasing a ball in positive gravity? a) It will fall “down.” correct b) It will retain its mass. true but unrelated c) It will rise. false but related d) Its shape will change. false and unrelated Anatomy of a Perfect Multiple Choice Tests
  26. 26. Multiple Choice Questions 1. Use negatively stated stems sparingly and when using negatives such as NOT, underline or bold the print. 2. Use none of the above and all of the above sparingly, and when you do use them, don't always make them the right answer. 3. Only one option should be correct or clearly best.
  27. 27. Multiple Choice Questions: 4. All options should be homogenous and nearly equal in length. 5. The stem (question) should contain only one main idea. 6. Keep all options either singular or plural. 7. Have four or five responses per stem (question).
  28. 28. Multiple Choice Questions: 7. When using incomplete statements place the blank space at the end. 8. When possible organize the responses. 9. Reduce wordiness. 10. When writing distracters, think of incorrect responses that students might make.
  29. 29. Situational Judgment Tests (SJT)
  30. 30. Situational Judgment Tests (SJT) Is a type of test which presents realistic scenarios similar to those that would be encountered in real life. ( you-need-to-know-about-situation-judgement- tests/)
  31. 31. Situational judgment tests (SJT) Situational judgment tests present the test-taker with realistic, hypothetical scenarios and ask the individual to identify the most appropriate response or to rank the responses in the order they feel is most effective. ( nt_test)
  32. 32. Why use SJTs? Situational judgment test’s are designed to clarify the difference between average from superior response. The most effective response will look at the situation from various angles, consider a wider range of action, and take account the long-term consequences of action. (Sharpley, 2010)
  33. 33. Formats in SJT questions Ranking questions ask you to rank in order your response to a situation. Multiple choice questions ask you to choose the most appropriate action or decision to take in a given situation. ( situational-judgement-test.html)
  34. 34. Things to remember in making SJT Questions Since SJT questions require learners to identify the best or worst answer, the stem should be presented in a manner in which the test taker will choose the correct answer by eliminating the distractors.
  35. 35. Things to remember in making SJT Questions In making the choices, the correct answer should always be the one that actually solves the problem or answer the question. Logically, the “correct” answers need to be distinct from the other answer options. Hence if two answer options seem very similar, it would be very difficult to identify the “distractor”. ( judgement-test.html)
  36. 36. Conceptual Framework Concept Ideas Situational Judgemental Test (SJT) Answer
  37. 37. Example: Kalabisan (Surplus) Ang kalabisan ay dahilan upang magkaroon ng pagbaba ng presyo upang makamit ang presyong ekwilibriyo. Answer: D Sa presyong 1,000, ang demand para sa cellphone A ay 10,000. Ngunit ang naprodyus na cellphone A ay 14,000. Ano ang dapat gawin upang magkaroon ng ekwilibriyo? A. Bawasan ang supply B. Bawasan ang demand C. Taasan ang presyo D. Ibaba ang presyo
  38. 38. Knowledge: Alin sa mga sumusunod ang nagpapahiwatig na may kakapusan sa bansa? A. Kung mabilis ang paggawa ng produkto. B. Kung sagana ang produkto sa pamilihan. C. Kung may kaguluhan sa pulitika. D. Kung limatado ang suplay ng kalakal sa bansa.
  39. 39. Process: • Sa papaanong paraan mo maitataguyod ang karapatan sa tamang impormasyon? A. Pag-aralan ang nakatatak sa etiketa ukol sa sangkap, dami, at komposisyon ng produkto. B. Palaging pumunta sa timbangang-bayan upang matiyak na husto ang biniling produkto. C. Pahalagahan ang kalidad at hindi ang tatak ng produkto o serbisyong bibilhin. D. Palagiang gumamit ng recycled na produkto upang mapangalagaan ang kapaligiran.
  40. 40. Understanding: • Maituturing na kagustuhan ang isang bagay kapag higit ito sa batayang pangangailangan. Kailan maituturing na batayang pangangailangan ang isang produkto o serbisyo? A. Magagamit mo ito upang maging madali ang mahirap na gawain. B. Nagbibigay ito ng kasiyahan at kaginhawaan. C. Hindi mabubuhay ang tao kapag wala ang mga ito. D. Makabibili ka ng maraming bagay sa pamamagitan nito.
  41. 41. Understanding: Nagsimula sa maliit na puhunan ang negosyo ni Mang Cenon, hanggang ito ay lumaki at nagkaroon ng iba’t ibang sangay sa Bulacan. Alin ang HINDI dahilan ng kanyang pag- unlad? A. Maayos ang kanyang pangangasiwa. B. Marami siyang kabarkada at kaanak C. Malawak ang kanyang kaalaman sa negosyo. D. Mahusay siyang makitungo sa kanyang mga tauhan.
  42. 42. Things to Remember: Making a good test takes time Teachers have the obligation to provide their students with the best evaluation Tests play an essential role in the life of the students, parents, teachers and other educators Break any of the rules when you have a good reason for doing so! (emphasis mine) (Mehrens, 1973)
  43. 43. POINTS TO PONDER… A good lesson makes a good question A good question makes a good content A good content makes a good test A good test makes a good grade A good grade makes a good student A good student makes a good COMMUNITY Jesus Ochave Ph.D. VP Research Planning & Development Philippine Normal University
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