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Brand Personality


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A really nice presentation describing Brand personality in very simple terms

Published in: Business, Technology
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Brand Personality

  1. 1. Brand Personality
  2. 2. What is brand personality? <ul><li>Brand Personality is a set of human characteristics associated with a brand </li></ul><ul><li>Personality is how the brand behaves </li></ul><ul><li>Gender, age, socio-economic class, psychographic, emotional characteristics </li></ul>
  3. 3. Some examples… <ul><li>Marlboro is ‘masculine’ while Virginia Slims is ‘feminine’ </li></ul><ul><li>IBM is ‘older’ while Apple is ‘younger’ </li></ul><ul><li>India Today is ‘old-fashioned’ while Outlook is ‘trendier’ </li></ul><ul><li>Coke is ‘conforming’ while Pepsi is ‘irreverent’ </li></ul>
  4. 4. About brand personality <ul><li>Brand Personality, like human personality, is both distinctive and enduring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both are built over a period of time </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Refers to the outcome of all the consumer’s experiences with the brand </li></ul><ul><li>In other words, the brand’s personality is the weighted average of previous impressions </li></ul><ul><li>In consumer’s mind, these impressions merge to form an overall concept of what to expect from brand </li></ul>
  5. 5. More about it… <ul><li>Brand Personality is eagerly searched by brand strategists and researchers </li></ul><ul><li>Differences in responses by different consumers provide useful insights </li></ul><ul><li>For example, users of a product will perceive a brand different from non-users </li></ul>
  6. 6. In essence… <ul><li>‘ Personality traits are what </li></ul><ul><li>the brand will live and die for’ </li></ul>
  7. 7. Examples… <ul><li>Axe </li></ul><ul><li>Seduction, masculinity, inviduality, unconventionality </li></ul><ul><li>Marlboro </li></ul><ul><li>Masculinity, freedom, adventure </li></ul><ul><li>Levi’s </li></ul><ul><li>Rebellion, sensuality, being cool </li></ul>
  8. 8. Example: Spinz <ul><li>Young </li></ul><ul><li>Modern </li></ul><ul><li>Active </li></ul><ul><li>Outdoor </li></ul><ul><li>Cheerful </li></ul><ul><li>Friendly </li></ul><ul><li>‘ Life of the Party’ </li></ul>
  9. 9. Why use brand personality? <ul><li>Enriches understanding </li></ul><ul><li>Helps gain an in-depth understanding of consumer perceptions of and attitudes towards the brand </li></ul><ul><li>Can provide more insight than is gained by asking about attribute perceptions </li></ul><ul><li>For ex., Microsoft, IBM etc., </li></ul>
  10. 10. Why use brand personality? <ul><li>Contributes to a differentiating identity </li></ul><ul><li>Can differentiate brands especially where brands are similar in product attributes </li></ul><ul><li>In fact, it can define not only the brand but the product class context and experience </li></ul><ul><li>Mercedes Vs BMW ; Clinic Plus Vs Pantene </li></ul>
  11. 11. Why use brand personality? <ul><li>Guides the communication effort </li></ul><ul><li>Communicates the brand identity with richness and texture </li></ul><ul><li>If the brand is specified only in terms of attribute associations, very little meaningful guidance is provided </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is Nike shoes or sports, performance and attitude? </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Why use brand personality? <ul><li>Creates brand equity </li></ul><ul><li>Builds long-term brand equity </li></ul><ul><li>Differentiates the brand and makes it distinct from other competitive offerings </li></ul><ul><li>Serves as a powerful relationship device </li></ul>
  13. 13. How to create brand personality? <ul><li>Personality of a person is affected by everything associated with him – friends, neighbourhood, activities, clothes etc., </li></ul><ul><li>So too is a brand personality </li></ul>
  14. 14. Product-related characteristics <ul><li>Product-related characteristics can be primary drivers of a brand personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Even the product class can affect personality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Banks, Insurance etc., tend to be Competent, Serious, Masculine, Older and Upper-class </li></ul><ul><li>Athletic shoes tend to be Young, Lively, Rugged, Outdoorsy, Adventurous etc., </li></ul>
  15. 15. Product-related characteristics <ul><li>Product attributes can often affect brand personality </li></ul><ul><li>A ‘light’ beer would largely be classy, sophisticated etc., </li></ul><ul><li>A high-priced brand will be considered wealthy, stylish and perhaps snobbish! </li></ul>
  16. 16. User imagery <ul><li>Can be powerful driver of personality because user is already a person and so conceptualizing the personality is reduced </li></ul><ul><li>User Imagery can be people who use the brand or those portrayed in advertising </li></ul>
  17. 17. Sponsorships <ul><li>Activities such as events sponsored by the brand will influence its personality </li></ul><ul><li>Pond’s sponsoring Femina’s ‘Miss India’ contest </li></ul><ul><li>Budweiser sponsoring the blimp in American sporting events </li></ul>
  18. 18. Age <ul><li>How long a brand has been on the market can affect its personality </li></ul><ul><li>New entrants like Apple , Outlook etc., tend to have younger brand personalities than IBM , India Today etc., </li></ul>
  19. 19. Symbol <ul><li>A symbol can be a powerful influence on brand personality since it can be controlled and can have extremely strong associations </li></ul><ul><li>Some examples… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Apple’s bitten apple </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nike’s swoosh </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MetLife’s Peanuts character </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. How it creates brand equity? <ul><li>The ways brand personality can create brand equity are summarized by 3 models: </li></ul><ul><li>The Self-Expression Model </li></ul><ul><li>The Relationship Basis Model </li></ul><ul><li>The Functional Benefit Representation Model </li></ul>
  21. 21. The self-expression model <ul><li>The basic premise is that for some customers, some brands become vehicles to express a part of their self-identity </li></ul><ul><li>This self-identity can be their actual identity or an ideal self to which they might aspire </li></ul><ul><li>Apple is perceived as friendly, unpretentious, irreverent and willing to go against the grain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This is because Mac is easy-to-use and also due to its symbol, advertising, user groups etc., </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of Apple expresses a personal identity of being non-corporate and creative </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. How brand helps express personality? <ul><li>Feelings engendered by brand personality </li></ul><ul><li>There can be a set of feelings and emotions attached to a brand personality, just as there are to a person </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The use of such brands can cause feelings and emotions to emerge </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feelings, when using a Harley-Davidson or Apple would not emerge when using a Honda or Compaq </li></ul>
  23. 23. How brand helps express personality? <ul><li>The brand as a badge </li></ul><ul><li>A brand could serve as a consumer’s personal statement </li></ul><ul><li>Cars, cosmetics, apparels lend themselves to personality expression because their use occurs in a social context with relatively high involvement </li></ul>
  24. 24. How brand helps express personality? <ul><li>The brand becomes part of the self </li></ul><ul><li>The ultimate personality expression occurs when a brand becomes an extension or an integral part of the self </li></ul><ul><li>The executive who wears Allen Solly on a Friday feels semi-casual and waiting to welcoming the weekend! </li></ul><ul><li>The potential to create this oneness with some people can represent a significant opportunity for a brand </li></ul>
  25. 25. The relationship basis model <ul><li>Some people may never aspire to have a certain personality trait but would like to have a relationship with one who has that </li></ul><ul><li>A trustworthy, dependable, conservative personality might be seen boring but sought nevertheless, from banks or financial products </li></ul><ul><li>The concept of a relationship between a brand and a person provides a different perspective on how brand personality might work </li></ul>
  26. 26. The Relationship Basis Model <ul><li>To see how this model works, consider personality types of people with whom we have relationships and the nature of those relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Spirited, young, up-to-date, outgoing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pepsi </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On a weekend evening, it might be enjoyable to have a friend who has these personality features </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. The Relationship Basis Model <ul><li>Two elements affect individual’s relationship with a brand </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship between the brand-as-person and the customer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which is analogous to the relationship between two people </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The brand personality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The type of person the brand represents </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Functional benefit representation model <ul><li>The previous two models provide contexts in which brand personality can be the basis for a brand strategy and a link to the customer </li></ul><ul><li>A brand personality can also play a more indirect role by being a vehicle for representing and cueing functional benefits and brand attributes </li></ul>
  29. 29. Functional benefit representation model <ul><li>Marlboro’s personality of a macho, freedom-loving, adventurous person suggests that the product is strong </li></ul><ul><li>Harley Davidson’s personality of a rugged, macho, I-am-different-kind suggests that the product is a powerful, liberating vehicle </li></ul>
  30. 30. Functional benefit representation model <ul><li>When a visual symbol or image exists that can create and cue personality… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… the ability of the personality to reinforce brand attributes will be greater </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The Energizer rabbit is an upbeat, indefatigable personality who never runs out of energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Just as the battery it symbolizes runs longer than others </li></ul></ul>
  31. 31. Functional benefit representation model <ul><li>A brand personality that represents a functional benefit or attribute may be relatively ineffective if it lacks a visual image established in the customer’s mind </li></ul><ul><li>A country or region of origin can add credibility to an identity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It can generate a strong personality that provides a quality cue and a key point of differentiation </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. To sum up… <ul><li>A brand personality can help a brand in several ways: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It can provide a vehicle for customers to express their own identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A brand personality metaphor helps suggests the kind of relationship that customer has with brand </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brand personalities serve to represent and cue functional benefits and product attributes well </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Importantly, brand personality is often a sustainable point of differentiation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sustainable because it is very difficult to copy a personality </li></ul></ul>