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Early history of jefferson county, iowa 08 10

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Early history of jefferson county, iowa 08 10

  1. 1. An Early History ofJefferson County: WHEN iowa is ‘THE wild WEST’<br />
  2. 2. CARNEGIE<br />HISTORICAL MUSEUM<br />- an Iowa Century Museum -<br />
  3. 3. PREHISTORY<br />
  4. 4. Pleistocene<br />Ice Age <br />Migration<br />
  5. 5. Paleo-indians<br />13,500–10,500 years ago<br />Hunters & gatherers first occupy Iowa at <br /> the end of thePleistoceneglacial period.<br /> IOWA is covered by tundra, <br /> coniferforests and <br /> deciduous forests. <br />Clovis Points<br />
  6. 6. Mastodon (left) and mammoth (right) teeth <br />Tooth shapes of these 15,000 year-old molars indicate mastodons browse tree branches, while mammoths graze grasses. Fossils of these extinct Ice Age (Pleistocene) creatures resembling elephants have been widely found across Iowa.<br />
  7. 7. St. Charles LANCE POINT 5000 B.C.<br />ARCHAIC<br /><ul><li>the longest period of Iowa prehistory, lasts about 8,000 years. </li></ul>Populations increase in Iowa despite a changing climate.<br /> In the Late Archaic (5,000–2,800 years ago) the climate becomes similar to modern. Larger populations create<br />The Late Archaic sees the first mound building in Iowa, as well as direct evidence of domesticated plants, and large, long-term settlements. <br />new subsistence strategies. <br />
  8. 8. Woodland period<br />1000 B.C. – 1000 A.D.<br />Native Iowans shift away from hunting & gathering. <br /> More domesticated plants come into use . . .<br />. . . wild food is still important. <br />Hand-built CERAMICS, bows & arrows, burial mounds and evidence of political and social hierarchy become common at Iowa Woodland sites.<br />
  9. 9. Bob Hall, circa 1980<br />Banner Stones and ceremonial flint blades he dug as a boy from burial mounds on the home farm c. 1915.<br />
  10. 10. EARLY RECORDED HISTORY<br />
  11. 11. 1673<br />1st recorded Europeans in Iowa, <br />Jesuit Father Marquette <br />& Louis Joliet <br />Last voyage of the CARNEGIE MUSEUM’s Birch bark canoe, paddled by Bill Kay- Van Buren County . . . . . . October 1969<br />
  12. 12. 1803 Louisiana Purchase<br />4 April 1804<br />Lewis & Clark<br />mention the<br />IOWAY in <br />their journal.<br />The Carnegie Museum<br />has seventy-five artifacts of a type referred to in <br />the expedition records.<br />
  13. 13. The Ioway<br />Chief Mahaska of Iowaville<br />McKinney & Hall diplomatic portrait<br />Iowaville, an Ioway village on the Des Moines River near Ottumwa. The Ioways live there between about 1770 <br />and 1824. They hunt, trap, farm, & trade . . . and . . . defend themselves against other groups.<br />1836 relocation of the Ioways from Western Missouri to Wolf River, Kansas. <br />Corporate Charter of the Iowa Tribe of the Iowa Reservation in Kansas and Nebraska -- Ratified June 19, 1937<br />
  14. 14. Black Hawk war<br />Both Abraham Lincoln and early Jefferson County settlers serve in the Illinois Militia . . . . . . 1832.<br />The U.S. Army moves the Sauk Indian tribe from Illinois to Iowa. The Sauk have run-ins with the native Iowaysand don't like Iowa. Chief Black Hawk leads them back to plant their old fields. <br />Seeing  Indians on their land, white settlers panic & shoot two Indians dead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Black Hawk retaliates.<br />
  15. 15. Black Hawk Purchase<br />
  16. 16. Keokuk & his favorites :<br />Horse Wife Son<br />Circa 1910 litho reproductions of portraits by George Catlin<br />
  17. 17. Black Hawk<br />George Catlin pays scant<br />homage to Keokuk’s old rival.<br />
  18. 18. Sac & Fox Elder<br />By George Catlin<br />Catlin is most famous for documenting tribes of the Great Plains <br />but spends a surprising amount of time painting in Eastern Iowa.<br />
  19. 19. The Mes-kwa-ki<br />Meskwaki means <br />“PEOPLE of the <br />RED EARTH". <br />They are originally from Wisconsin.<br />The French call them "Reynards" or foxes - the Sac (or Sauk) have<br /> a similar language . Both groups<br /> are designated “Meskwaki “<br />by the federal government. <br />The Meskwaki come to Iowa in the mid 1800s after wars with various European settlers & other tribal groups.  <br />The Treaty of 1842 relocates them to Kansas.   Chief Poweshiek's band returns to Iowa and purchases settlement land near Tama.  <br />Ribbon-work by Mrs. Bill Leaf, circa 1915<br />
  20. 20. Pow-a-sheek<br />McKinney & Hall lithograph from an 1830’s oil portrait painted in Washington, D.C.<br />Sauk & Fox War Dance<br />
  21. 21. John huff born 1811<br />First man of European descent known<br /> to visit Jefferson County in 1835 . . . makes barrels and fills <br /> them with wild <br /> honey. $ $ $ $ $<br /> McCormick <br />Reaper 1834<br />John Deere steel plow 1835<br />
  22. 22. Breaking sod<br />Tough root system<br />
  23. 23. The mysteriousiron cross<br />The first settlers<br />encounter it on<br />a limestone bluff<br />near Libertyville.<br />Bill Perry 1953<br />As a Parsons College<br />geology student, Bill<br />finds a hand–forged <br />iron spike embedded<br />at the site. This may<br />be a cross fragment.<br />
  24. 24. Pow-a-sheek<br />encampment is near Lockridge in 1836 when William Coop is born. He is the first pioneer child born in Jefferson County.<br />William Coop & Friend 1981<br />bronze statue by Christopher Bennett<br />
  25. 25. John Rush Parsons 1840’s<br />Plows six mile furrow from his farm to Fairfield . . . . Now Highway 34 <br />Huge sod-breaking plow<br />Eight yoke of oxen<br />Judith Ward is a descendent.<br />
  26. 26. The LINCOLN Romance<br />In 1837, two years after <br />Ann’s death, Mrs. Rutledge <br />moves to Birmingham and brings this walking wheel with her. <br />
  27. 27. Bonnifield cabin 1838<br />Listed on the NATIONAL REGISTER of HISTORIC PLACES<br />. . . where Nancy Bonnifield<br />gives Fairfield its name in 1839.<br />Restoration work 2005 <br />
  28. 28. Buffalo Hunt by George Catlin<br />The last sightings of American Bison in the wild <br />Buffalo Dance<br />by Catlin<br />
  29. 29. IowaStatehood 1846 <br />Texas Statehood, December 29, 1845<br />Iowa Statehood, <br />December 28, 1846<br />
  30. 30. Joel turney<br />Builds wagons for the “49ers”<br /> on their way to California . . . In1888he moves the business from<br />Trenton, Iowa to<br />FAIRFIELD.<br />
  31. 31. Railway service <br />1858 - Irish Catholic<br />workers lay Fairfield’s <br />first railway line.<br />
  32. 32. 1860<br />The Wideawakes<br />This flag is carried <br />in Jefferson County’s<br />largest political rally. <br />Ink drawing by<br />W. H. Jackson<br />The torchlight parade sees 25,000 people in attendance.<br />
  33. 33. – PATRIOTIC IOWA –<br />From Fairfield<br />More Iowans serve per capita than any other state.<br />
  34. 34. Lincoln Sat Here<br />the President and Fairfield’s U. S. Representative,<br /> James Falconer Wilson, sit for<br />Brady Studio portraits. <br />1862-<br />
  35. 35. Lewis b. parsons, jr. 1818 - 1907<br />1863 – Lincoln signs promotion to rank of Captain<br />1865 – Lincoln, Grant & Stanton write testimonials<br /> praising his work as QUARTER MASTER .<br />
  36. 36. !!You’ve won!!<br />It’s official.<br /> Chairman of the House Judiciary Committee, <br /> James F. Wilson calls on Lincoln at the White House <br />
  37. 37. Thomas emersonMaplethorpe<br />1849 - 1922<br />walks from his farm near <br />Wellman to the Iowa City <br />train depot for this newspaper.<br />Emigrated from England at age ten.<br />
  38. 38. Our Congressman <br />rides theLINCOLNFuneral Train.<br />1865 James F. Wilson<br />
  39. 39. The Byrkits were Quaker Conductors <br />on the UNDERGROUND RAIL ROAD<br />Archie<br />Byrkit<br />RIFLE<br />
  40. 40. William Loudeninventor, 1841 - 1931<br />McCormick<br />Reaper 1834<br />1867 LOUDEN Hay Carrier<br />William Louden, the Cyrus McCormick<br /> of Jefferson County . . . . . . . . 30,000 custom barns on every continent, except Antarctica<br />
  41. 41. Stephenson Coverlets<br />the family shear<br />the sheep, spin<br /> & dye the wool <br />Jacquard weave<br />
  42. 42. 1867<br />synergy<br />Louden Hay Carrier =<br />BIGGER barns<br />BIGGER barns = <br />More hay<br />Split rails keep<br />foraging critters<br />OUT !<br />1870’s barbed wire keep<br /> BIGGER herds IN !<br />
  43. 43. Draft horses<br />By the 1880’s imported horses<br /> replace oxen. They are faster.<br />
  44. 44.
  45. 45. The end<br />Mark Shafer<br />Carnegie Historical Museum<br />25 August 2010<br />
  46. 46. credits<br />Carnegie Historical Museum<br />AFairField by Susan Fulton Welty<br />FairfieldattheTurnoftheCentury by Mark Shafer<br />Maasdam Barns Preservation Committe<br />Jefferson County Historic Preservstion Commission<br />Wikipedia GOOGLE Image Search<br />Mrs. Gwen Wells William Perry<br />Bill Cay Mrs. Vera Young<br />Fairfield Public Library<br />Keith Shafer Mrs. Edith Jordan<br />Jefferson County Heritage Trail<br />
  47. 47.
  48. 48.
  49. 49.
  50. 50. If Illinois is the LAND of LINCOLN,<br />Southeast Iowa is the land <br />of his shirt-tail relations<br />

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