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Micro minerals


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Micro minerals

  2. 2. IODINE INTRODUCTION : Iodine is mainly used to make thyroid hormones.  The thyroid helps to regulate the rate at which your body uses energy. It also plays a role in growth and development. You only need very small amounts of iodine for good health. Without iodine your health can be affected over the long term.
  3. 3. Your body does not make iodine so it needs to come from the foods you eat. The iodine content in foods can vary. The mineral content of foods depends on the mineral content of the soil where the food was grown or where the animals were raised.
  4. 4. What is iodine? • Iodine is a mineral that is important for health. It is needed to make the thyroid hormones. These hormones are needed for many body processes including growth, regulating metabolism and for the development of a baby’s brain during pregnancy and early life.
  5. 5. DISTRIBUTION IN THE HUMAN BODY • The total body contains about 20 mg of iodine. • 80% is present in the thyroid gland. • Muscles, salivary glands & ovaries also contain some amount of iodine.
  6. 6. • Iodine is absorbed from upper small intestine. • Iodine is transported in plasma by loosely binding to plasma proteins. • Iodine absorption also occurs through skin & lungs. • 80% of body’s iodine is stored in the organic form as iodothyroglobulin in thyroid gland
  7. 7. • Iodothyroglobulin contains thyroxine, diiodotyrosine, & triiodothyronine. • About 2/3rd of iodine is excreted through urine. • Also excreted through bile, skin & saliva.
  8. 8. FUNCTIONS Elevates pH (Iodine is an alkalinizing agent) Necessary for the production of thyroid hormones Necessary for the production of all the hormones of the body (adrenals, ovaries, testicles, etc.) Responsible for the formation of the normal architecture of the glandular tissue, e.g. breast, thyroid, ovary, & prostate
  9. 9. • Antibacterial • Anticancer • Antiparasitic • Antifungal • Antiviral • Detoxifying agent
  10. 10. SOURCES  Corn, cooked  Green peas, cooked  wheat  Bread (rye, whole wheat, white)  Yogurt  The best natural occurring source of iodine is saltwater seafood. Freshwater seafood also contains iodine.
  11. 11. RDA • Children require about 50 µg per day. • Adults 100 – 150 µg per day. • Pregnant Women 200 µg per day.
  12. 12. DEFICIENCY  A deficiency of iodine in children leads to cretinism and in adults goitre.
  13. 13. GOITER  Abnormal increase in size of the thyroid gland is known as goiter.  Decreased synthesis of thyroid hormones & is associated with elevated TSH.  Goiter is primarily due to a failure in the auto regulation of T3 & T4 synthesis.
  14. 14. Simple endemic goiter • Due to iodine deficiency in the diet. • Mostly found in the geographical regions, where the water & soil are low in iodine. • Consumption of iodized salt is advocated to overcome the problem of endemic goiter. • In certain cases, administration of thyroid hormone is also employed
  15. 15. Critinism • Hypothyroidism in children is associated with physical & mental retardation, known as critinism. Iodine deficiency prophylaxis: • Iodised salt • Iodised oil • Iodised water • Iodine tablets or drops
  16. 16. Toxicity • Most people are very tolerant to excess iodine intake from food with the exception of certain subgroups with autoimmune thyroid disease and iodine deficiency. • High intakes of iodine from food, water and supplements have been associated with thyroiditus, goitre (due to increased thyroid stimulating hormones [TSH] stimulation),hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, sensitivity reactions, thyroid papillary cancer and acute responses in some individuals.
  17. 17. • Symptoms of acute iodine poisoning include burning of the mouth, throat, and stomach, abdominal pain, fever, nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, weak pulse, cardiac irritability, coma and cyanosis
  18. 18. FLUORIDE • It is mainly found in bones & teeth. • The content of fluorine in water is dependent on the soil content of fluorine.
  19. 19. RDA 1-2 mg/ day Drinking water provides fluoride 1 ppm. Fluoride Toxicity Ingested in excessive quantities, fluoride can be toxic. The American Dental Association has recommended that no more than 120 mg fluoride.
  20. 20.  Common signs and symptoms of acute fluoride toxicity include nausea, vomiting, and a drop in blood calcium, general signs of muscle tetany. Signs also include abdominal cramping and pain and increasing hypo calcaemiaand hyperkalemia, leading coma, convulsions, and cardiac arrhythmias.
  21. 21. DISTRIBUTION IN THE HUMAN BODY • 50 % of the absorbed fluoride will be associated with calcified tissue • 50% excreted in urine • 75 to 90 % absorbed from the alimentary tract, more from liquids than solids (10 to 25% excreted via feces) 50:50 distribution is shifted strongly in favor of retention in the very young, greater excretion in later years of life
  22. 22. Types of Dental Flourosis Mild Dental Flourosis (common). Sever Dental Flourosis.
  23. 23. • Unnoticeable, tiny white streaks or specks in the enamel of the tooth. Mild Dental Flourosis
  24. 24. Tooth appearance is marred by discoloration or brown markings. Pitted Enamel, Rough and Hard to Clean. Sever Dental Flourosis
  25. 25. FUNCTION  Strengthening of developing teeth from infancy to adolescence.  Strengthens teeth by the formation of harder enamel by converting HYDROXYAPATITE CRYSTALS to FLUORAPATITE.  Flourapatite is less vulnerable to damage from plaque acids
  26. 26. MAGNESIUM • Magnesium is essential for human life and is involved in the activation of hundreds of enzyme systems. However, only relatively recently has it been recognized as a drug with important clinical uses; the World Health Organization (WHO) recommends the use of magnesium in the management of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia, it is used in the management of tetanus and increasingly for the management of tachyarrhythmias. This tutorial discusses the role of magnesium in the body, disorders of magnesium and its clinical uses.
  27. 27. FUNCTIONS • Magnesium exerts an effect on neuromuscular irritability similar to that of Ca2+, high levels depress nerve conduction & low levels may produce tetany (Hypomagnasemic tetany) • About 70% of body magnesium is present as apatites in bones, dental enamel and dentin • Insulin-dependent uptake of glucose is reduced in Mg2+ deficiency, magnesium supplementation improves glucose tolerance • Magnesium is required for DNA replication process.
  28. 28. Body distribution • The human body contains about 25g of magnesium • About 60% of which is complexed with calcium and phosphorous in bones • About 1% is in ECF and remainder in soft tissues
  29. 29. SOURCES • Magnesium is widely distributed in vegetables & also found in almost all animal tissues • Other important sources are cereals, beans, green vegetables, potatoes, almonds, and dairy products, e.g. cheese
  30. 30. RDA • Adult man : 350 mg/day • Women : 300 mg/day • During pregnancy and lactation : 450 mg/day
  31. 31. Hypermagnesaemia • Increase in serum magnesium than the normal levels is called as hypermagnesaemia • It is uncommon but is occasionally seen in renal failure • It is rarely be caused by intravenous injection of magnesium salts and adrenocortical hypofunction • Symptoms: • Depression of the neuromuscular system is the most common manifestation in Hypermagnesaemia
  32. 32. Hypomagnesaemia • Decrease in serum magnesium levels than the normal range is called as hypomagnesaemia • Magnesium is present in most common food stuffs, low dietary intakes of magnesium are associated with nutritional insufficiency, accompanied by intestinal malabsorption, severe vomiting, diarrhea or other causes of intestinal loss • Symptoms are impaired neuromuscular function, tetany, hyper irritability, tremor, convulsions and muscle weakness