What is video production?
Video production is the process of creating
video by capturing moving image and
creating combinations and reductions of
parts of this video in live production and
post-production (video editing).
First step in video production
The need for “know-how”
• Knowing how to handle the equipment properly and the effects
of the various controls.
• Knowing how to use the equipment effectively. Developing the
skills underlying good camerawork and sound production.
• Knowing how to convey ideas convincingly. Using the medium
• Knowing how to organize systematically. Applying practical
planning, preparation, and production.
LEARNING THE BASICS
It is not important to know how every function of the equipment works, but it is
important to know its capabilities in order to get reliable results. Even with the
most sophisticated video and audio equipment, you need to answer only a
handful of basic questions to use it successfully:
■ What is the equipment for?
■ What can it do?
■ What are its limitations?
■ Where are the controls and indicators (menus, buttons, etc.)?
■ How and when should they be adjusted?
■ When adjusted, what will the result be?
■ Will problems occur if these controls are misused?
A television studio is an
installation in which
video productions take
place, either for the
recording of live television to
video tape, or for the
acquisition of raw footage for
Characteristics of television studio
• A professional television studio generally has many
rooms, which are kept separate for noise and
practicality reasons. These rooms are connected via
intercom, and personnel will be divided among those
Generally a television studio consist of the
•The production control room
•The master control room
The studio floor is the
actual stage on which the
actions that will be
recorded take place. A
studio floor has the
A studio floor has the following characteristics and
• Decorations and or sets
• Cameras on pedestals
• Lighting rings and associated controlling equipment
• Several video monitor for visual feedback from the production control room
• A smaller public address system for communication
• A glass window between PCR and studio floor for direct visual
contact is usually desired, but not always possible.
• While a production in progress, the following people work in the
• The on screen talent themselves and any guests- the subject of
• A floor director, who has overall charge of the studio area, and
who relays timing and other information from the director.
• One or more camera operators who operate television camera,
through in some instances these can also be operated from PCR
using remote heads.
• Possibly a tele prompter operator, especially if this is a news
PRODUCTION CONTROL ROOM
The production control room or studio
control room (SCR) is the place in
a television studio in which the
composition of the outgoing program
takes place. An SCR is also often the
acronym for the Satellite Control Room,
from here TV feeds are sent to & received
from the local Satellite used by the TV
FACILITIES IN PCR
Facilities in a PCR includes
• A video monitor wall, with monitors for program , preview, videotape machines, cameras,
graphics and other video sources.
• Switcher, a device where all video sources are controlled and taken to air. Also known as a
special effect designer
• A vision mixer, a large control panel used to select the multiple-camera setup and other
various sources to be recorded or seen on air and, in many cases, in any video monitors on
the set. The term "vision mixer" is primarily used in Europe, while the term "video
switcher" is usually used in North America.
A professional audio mixing console and other audio
equipment such as effects devices.
A character generator (CG), which creates the majority of the
names and full digital on-screen graphics that are inserted into
the program lower third portion of the television
Digital video effects, or DVE, for manipulation of video
sources. In newer vision mixers, the DVE is integrated into the
vision mixer; older models without built-in DVE's can often
control external DVE devices, or an external DVE can be
manually run by an operator.
The technical director's station, with waveform monitors, vector
scopes and the camera control units (CCU) or remote control
panels for the CCUs.
In some facilities, VTRs may also be located in the PCR, but are
also often found in the central apparatus room
Intercom and IFB equipment for communication with talent
and television crew
A signal generator to genlock all of the video equipment to a
common reference that require color burst
MASTER CONTROL ROOM
The room basically acts as a
technical hub for broadcast
operation channels and the final
point before the image, sound and
live action is transmitted over-the-
air from the actual set on to the TV
screens of millions of viewers. In
short it is the place where on air
signal is controlled.
What does Master Control Room contain?
• Video monitors
• Videotape machines (used to record the live
• Video servers
• Satellite receivers
• Transmission equipment (that allows over-the-air
transmission from studio to TV networks)
Objectives of Master Control Room:
• To ensure smooth and continuous operation of
• The operator is also responsible for the final
quality of output ), guest setup, satellite
bookings, IP transmission and troubleshooting
various related issues.
A teleprompter is a display device that
prompts the person speaking with
an electronic visual text of a speech or script.
Using a teleprompter is similar to using cue
cards. The screen is in front of, and usually
below, the lens of a professional video camera,
and the words on the screen are reflected to
the eyes of the presenter using a sheet of clear
glass or a specially prepared beam splitter.
THE PRODUCTION CREW
• Executive producer
• Assistant producer or
OTHER PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE CREW
• Floor manager (FM) or stage manager (SM)
• Production assistant (PA)
• Technical director (TD) or vision mixer
• Makeup artist
• Graphic designer/operator
• Lighting director/ vision supervisor
• Camera operator
• Camera assistant
• Audio mixer/sound mixer/ sound supervisor
• Boom operator or audio assistant
• Lighting director