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Basics of videography


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The presentation covers basics of videography as well as news room operation in television production

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Basics of videography

  2. 2. What is video production? Video production is the process of creating video by capturing moving image and creating combinations and reductions of parts of this video in live production and post-production (video editing).
  3. 3. First step in video production The need for “know-how” • Knowing how to handle the equipment properly and the effects of the various controls. • Knowing how to use the equipment effectively. Developing the skills underlying good camerawork and sound production. • Knowing how to convey ideas convincingly. Using the medium persuasively. • Knowing how to organize systematically. Applying practical planning, preparation, and production.
  4. 4. LEARNING THE BASICS It is not important to know how every function of the equipment works, but it is important to know its capabilities in order to get reliable results. Even with the most sophisticated video and audio equipment, you need to answer only a handful of basic questions to use it successfully: ■ What is the equipment for? ■ What can it do? ■ What are its limitations? ■ Where are the controls and indicators (menus, buttons, etc.)? ■ How and when should they be adjusted? ■ When adjusted, what will the result be? ■ Will problems occur if these controls are misused?
  5. 5. TELEVISION PRODUCTION A television studio is an installation in which video productions take place, either for the recording of live television to video tape, or for the acquisition of raw footage for post-production.
  6. 6. Characteristics of television studio • A professional television studio generally has many rooms, which are kept separate for noise and practicality reasons. These rooms are connected via intercom, and personnel will be divided among those work places.
  7. 7. Generally a television studio consist of the following rooms; •Studio floor •The production control room •The master control room
  8. 8. STUDIO FLOOR The studio floor is the actual stage on which the actions that will be recorded take place. A studio floor has the following characteristics and installations.
  9. 9. A studio floor has the following characteristics and installations. • Decorations and or sets • Cameras on pedestals • Microphone • Lighting rings and associated controlling equipment • Several video monitor for visual feedback from the production control room • A smaller public address system for communication
  10. 10. • A glass window between PCR and studio floor for direct visual contact is usually desired, but not always possible. • While a production in progress, the following people work in the studio floor • The on screen talent themselves and any guests- the subject of the show • A floor director, who has overall charge of the studio area, and who relays timing and other information from the director. • One or more camera operators who operate television camera, through in some instances these can also be operated from PCR using remote heads. • Possibly a tele prompter operator, especially if this is a news broadcast.
  11. 11. PRODUCTION CONTROL ROOM The production control room or studio control room (SCR) is the place in a television studio in which the composition of the outgoing program takes place. An SCR is also often the acronym for the Satellite Control Room, from here TV feeds are sent to & received from the local Satellite used by the TV station
  12. 12. FACILITIES IN PCR Facilities in a PCR includes • A video monitor wall, with monitors for program , preview, videotape machines, cameras, graphics and other video sources. • Switcher, a device where all video sources are controlled and taken to air. Also known as a special effect designer • A vision mixer, a large control panel used to select the multiple-camera setup and other various sources to be recorded or seen on air and, in many cases, in any video monitors on the set. The term "vision mixer" is primarily used in Europe, while the term "video switcher" is usually used in North America. •
  13. 13.  A professional audio mixing console and other audio equipment such as effects devices.  A character generator (CG), which creates the majority of the names and full digital on-screen graphics that are inserted into the program lower third portion of the television  Digital video effects, or DVE, for manipulation of video sources. In newer vision mixers, the DVE is integrated into the vision mixer; older models without built-in DVE's can often control external DVE devices, or an external DVE can be manually run by an operator.
  14. 14.  The technical director's station, with waveform monitors, vector scopes and the camera control units (CCU) or remote control panels for the CCUs.  In some facilities, VTRs may also be located in the PCR, but are also often found in the central apparatus room  Intercom and IFB equipment for communication with talent and television crew  A signal generator to genlock all of the video equipment to a common reference that require color burst
  15. 15. MASTER CONTROL ROOM The room basically acts as a technical hub for broadcast operation channels and the final point before the image, sound and live action is transmitted over-the- air from the actual set on to the TV screens of millions of viewers. In short it is the place where on air signal is controlled.
  16. 16. What does Master Control Room contain? • Video monitors • Videotape machines (used to record the live broadcast) • Video servers • Satellite receivers • Transmission equipment (that allows over-the-air transmission from studio to TV networks)
  17. 17. Objectives of Master Control Room: • To ensure smooth and continuous operation of the broadcast. • The operator is also responsible for the final quality of output ), guest setup, satellite bookings, IP transmission and troubleshooting various related issues.
  18. 18. TELE PROMPTER A teleprompter is a display device that prompts the person speaking with an electronic visual text of a speech or script. Using a teleprompter is similar to using cue cards. The screen is in front of, and usually below, the lens of a professional video camera, and the words on the screen are reflected to the eyes of the presenter using a sheet of clear glass or a specially prepared beam splitter.
  19. 19. THE PRODUCTION CREW PRODUCER • Executive producer • Assistant producer or associate producer
  20. 20. DIRECTOR
  21. 21. OTHER PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE CREW • Floor manager (FM) or stage manager (SM) • Production assistant (PA) • Technical director (TD) or vision mixer • Makeup artist • Graphic designer/operator • Lighting director/ vision supervisor • Camera operator • Camera assistant • Audio mixer/sound mixer/ sound supervisor • Boom operator or audio assistant • Lighting director