feudalism the dominant social system in medieval Europe, in which the nobility held lands from the Crown in exchange for military service, and vassals were in turn tenants of the nobles, while the peasants (villeins or serfs) were obliged to live on their lord's land and give him homage, labour, and a share of the produce, notionally in exchange for military protection. Chaos : complete disorder and confusion. Constantinople was the capital city of the Roman, Byzantine, Latin, and Ottoman empires. Nostalgia : a sentimental longing or wistful affection for a period in the past.
Norman style :developed in Normandy and England between the 11th and 12th centuries and during the general adoption of Gothic architecture in both countries.
flying buttress, Masonry structure typically consisting of an inclined bar carried on a half arch that extends (“flies”) from the upper part of a wall to a pier some distance away and carries the thrust of a roof or vault. A pinnacle (vertical ornament of pyramidal or conical shape) often crowns the pier, adding weight and enhancing stability. The flying buttress evolved in the Gothic era from earlier simpler, hidden supports. The design increased the supporting power of the buttress and allowed for the creation of the high-ceilinged churches typical of Gothic architecture.
Louis king of France A rose window (or Catherine window) is often used as a generic term applied to a circular window, but is especially used for those found in churches of the Gothic architectural style and being divided into segments by stone mullions and tracery. The name “rose window” was not used before the 17th century and according to the Oxford English Dictionary, among other authorities, comes from the English flower name rose.
Pre independence architecture in india
Development of secular
History and theory of architecture
• Architecture is product of its environment.
Secular architecture in particular evolves to suite the needs of the people.
• Homes, cities, forts, palaces, schools, universities, hospitals, man made
reservoirs, step wells, resting place for travelers etc. are prime examples of
• Monuments such as ceremonial gateways, carved edicts, victory pillars and
towers are also examples of secular architecture.
• Such monuments are globally popular – such as Nelson’s column (to
celebrate victory over the French), Eifel tower (to mark a major
event), Lincoln memorial (honor a great man) etc.
• Secular architecture was built with local material.
• Renaissance architecture is the architecture of the period between the
early 15th and early 17th centuries in different regions of Europe, in
which there was a conscious revival and development of certain
elements of ancient Greek and Roman thought and material culture.
• Stylistically, Renaissance architecture followed Gothic architecture and
was succeeded by Baroque architecture.
• The Renaissance style places emphasis on symmetry, proportion,
geometry and the regularity of parts as they are demonstrated in the
architecture of classical antiquity and in particular ancient Roman
architecture, of which many examples remained.
• Orderly arrangements of columns, pilasters and lintels, as well as the
use of semicircular arches,
hemispherical domes, niches and aedicules replaced the more complex
proportional systems and irregular profiles of medieval buildings.
• During the Renaissance architects began to look back to the Romans and
Greeks for inspiration when designing buildings.
• Much of Renaissance architecture style was taken from Ancient Rome and
Greece and then altered to fit their current lifestyle.
St. Peter's Basilica is a prime
example of Renaissance
What was the Renaissance?
• Period following the middle ages
• “Rebirth” of classical Greece and
• Began in Italy
• Moved to northern Europe
• During the middle ages
• Find God
• Prove pre-conceived ideas
• During the Renaissance
• Find man
• Promote learning
• "The Renaissance gave birth to the modern era, in that it was
in this era that human beings first began to think of themselves
• In the early Middle Ages, people had been happy to see
themselves simply as parts of a greater whole – for example, as
members of a great family, trade guild, nation, or Church.
• This communal consciousness of the Middle Ages gradually
gave way to the individual consciousness of the Renaissance.“
• Pursuit of individualism
• Recognition that humans are creative
• Appreciation of art as a product of man
• Basic culture needed for all
• Life could be enjoyable
• Love of the classical past
Causes of the Renaissance
• Lessening of feudalism
• Church disrespected
• Nobility in chaos
• Growth of Middle Class through trade
• Fall of Constantinople
• Greek scholars fled to Italy
• Nostalgia among the Italians to recapture the glory of the Roman empire
• During the Renaissance more
secular buildings became
• The Roman Classics became a
primary reference at this point
• Architects made the transition
from being skilled laborer to
Features/Characteristics of Renaissance Architecture
Renaissance architecture had some distinct
features that were fairly common to major
• Square - Many buildings were built as square or
rectangle symmetrical shapes.
• Front - The front or "façade" of the buildings were
generally symmetrical around the vertical axis.
• Columns - They used Roman type columns.
• Arches and Domes - Arches and domes were
popular. This was again taken from Roman and
• Ceilings - The ceilings of buildings were generally
flat. Previously in the Middle Ages ceilings were
often left open.
• Braunelleschi was
considered the first
• Helped engineer the dome
of the Florence Cathedral.
• Style spread quickly.
• Florence- soon spreading to the rest of Italy
• France- brought major Italian architects to influence their
• Soon followed by Germany, England, and Russia
Forms of Renaissance Architecture
• French Renaissance Architecture
• Palladian Architecture
• Tudor Architecture
• Elizabethan style prevailed during the
reign of Queen Elizabeth I of England.
• Renaissance motifs were mixed with
Flemish decorative work, such as strap
work, and late-Gothic mullioned and
• The Elizabethan style is more
symmetrical than earlier architecture.
• Elizabethan mansions usually had
numerous towers, gables, parapets,
balustrades, and chimneystacks.
• Pavillions, gardens, fountains, and
terraces were also popular.
• During Elizabeth I reign Characterized by
Dutch gable and Flemish strap work Can
be seen on Wolltan Hall and Burghley
House English Renaissance style
• As the name indicates, Romanesque is
ultimately inspired by Roman architecture.
• Similarities between Roman and
Romanesque include round arches, stone
materials, and the basilica-style plan (used
for secular purposes by the Romans).
• But the influences that led to the
Romanesque style are far more complex
• Romanesque architecture also shows
influences from Visigothic, Carolingian,
Byzantine and Islamic architecture.
• Transition from Renaissance to Gothic styles
• Popular Norman style
Characteristics of Romanesque Architecture
• Reference to the Roman style of building
• Arches that would influence Gothic style
• Most popular in the Netherlands
• Can be seen in the Plan of Saint Gall Church
• Most Romanesque churches (the primary type
of Romanesque architecture) have the
• harmonious proportions
• stone barrel vault or groin vault
• thick and heavy walls
• thick and heavy pillars
• small windows
• round arches supporting the roof
• round "blind arches" used extensively for
Characteristics of Romanesque Architecture
• nave with side aisles (though some modest churches are aisleless)
• galleries above the side aisles, separated from the nave by a triforium
• a transept (section crossing the nave at a right angle, giving the church a
• an apse (semicircular niche, usually in the east end)
• an ambulatory (often with radiating chapels) around the apse
• multiple towers, usually at the west end and over the transept crossing
• sculptured decoration on portals, capitals and other surfaces (except in
• painted decoration throughout the interior (little of which survives today)
• Gothic architecture adopted many of these characteristics, but the major
development that marked the beginning of the Gothic style was the ability
to support heavy stone vaults on much thinner walls. This provided the
opportunity for large glass windows, thinner walls and pillars, and generally
more delicate and more vertical architecture.
• Gothic architecture is a style of architecture
that flourished during the high and
late medieval period.
• It evolved from Romanesque
architecture and was succeeded
by Renaissance architecture.
• Originating in 12th-century France and
lasting into the 16th century, Gothic
architecture was known during the period
as Opus Francigenum ("French work") with
the term Gothic first appearing during the
latter part of the Renaissance.
• Its characteristics include the pointed arch,
the ribbed vault and the flying buttress.
• Gothic architecture is most familiar as the
architecture of many of the
great cathedrals, abbeys and churches of
• It is also the architecture of
manycastles, palaces, town halls, guild halls,
universities and to a less prominent extent,
Characteristics of Gothic Architecture
• Pointed arches
• Flying buttresses
• Ribbed vault
• Mainly used in Cathedrals and castles
• Can be found in universities, churches,
and town halls
• Friend of Louis VI and VII
• Asked to rebuild Church of
• Said to be the first church
built in the Gothic style
• Completed with rose
windows, large pointed
arches, ribbed vaults and
• Mannerism is a period of European art that
emerged from the later years of the
Italian High Renaissance around 1520.
• It lasted until about 1580 in Italy, when
the Baroque style began to replace it,
but Northern Mannerism continued into
the early 17th century.
• Led to Baroque style- has the same
• Period marked with works by Michelangelo,
Giulio Romano, Baldassare Peruzzi, and
Mannerist Architecture continues
• Mannerism art is generally characterized by the
supremacy of form over content.
• The refined technique, virtuosity manner,
demonstrating skill does not meet the poverty
concept, secondary and imitative ideas.
• Mannerism is positioned as a transition from the
classical style of massive, monumental forms in
the decoration of interiors of the Renaissance
(Renaissance) to the new style that promotes the
pomp and grandeur, luxury and inspiration - the
• To Mannerism is characterized by: elongated
shapes, tension poses (kontropost), unusual or
bizarre effects associated with the size, lighting, or
perspective, and bright colors.
The main elements of Mannerism style
• painting walls and ceilings decorated with
frescoes (paintings, ornaments,
psevdolepnina, psevdobarelefy, psevdostatui,
false doors and windows);
• overwrought, the lack of stylistic unity;
• bizarre beauty and expressiveness of the
• superficiality, layouts of buildings, lack of
certain principles of organization forms more
lively and original use of color and form than
in the Renaissance;
• rich, golden, silver inlay;
• rejection of old forms, with their eclectic and
French Renaissance architecture
• French Renaissance architecture is
the name given to the French
architecture, between the 15th and
early 17th centuries, in different
regions of the Kingdom of France.
• Stylistically, Renaissance
architecture followed Gothic
architecture (born in France in the
12th century) and was succeeded
by Baroque architecture.
• Palladianism is a style based on the designs of the 16th-century Italian
architect Andrea Palladio (1508-1580).
• Palladio was inspired by the buildings of ancient Rome.
• In turn, British designers drew on Palladio's work to create a Classical
• Palladian exteriors were plain and based on rules of proportion.
• By contrast, the interiors were richly decorated.
• Palladianism was fashionable from about 1715 to 1760.
The Great Dining Room at
Houghton Hall, designed by
William Kent, 1743. Museum no.
Characteristics Palladian architecture
• Columns with acanthus leaf capitals at the top (called 'Corinthian') are characteristic of
• Scallop shells are a typical motif in Greek and Roman art. The shell is a symbol of the Roman
goddess Venus, who was born of the sea, from a shell.
• Pediments were used over doors and windows on the outside of buildings. They are also found
over inside doors. The design of objects in the Palladian style often incorporates this sort of
• Palladian design tends to be highly symmetrical. This means that when a line is drawn down
the middle, each side is a mirror image of the other. Symmetry and balance were important in
the ancient Greek and Roman architecture that inspired Palladianism.
• Masks are faces used as a decorative motif. They are based on examples from ancient Greek
and Roman art.
• Terms are based on free-standing stones representing the Roman god, Terminus. They consist
of a head and upper torso, often just the shoulders, on top of a pillar and were originally used
as boundary markers.
• A Palladian house is one inspired by
Andrea Palladio (1508-1580), an Italian
mason turned architect who made a
career out of building Villas for Venetian-
• Tudor Houses - Architecture (1485 -
1603) 15th century and 16th century
• The Tudor period is the time when the
Tudor family came to the throne. Henry
VIII is the most famous tudor king.
• You can see many Tudor houses in England
today. Some of them are over 500 years
• Most ordinary homes in Tudor times were
half timbered - they had wooden frames
and the spaces between were filled with
small sticks and wet clay called wattle and
• Tudor houses are known for their 'black-
Characteristics of Tudor houses
• Tudor houses are made from
a wooden framework of beams.
• The timber beams on Tudor
houses are uneven because they
were cut by hand rather than by
• The wooden beams can be seen
on the outside of Tudor houses.
BAROQUE ARCHITECTURE 1600-1750
• Baroque architecture is the building
style of the Baroque era, begun in
late 16th-century Italy, that took
the Roman vocabulary of Renaissance
architecture and used it in a new
rhetorical and theatrical fashion,
often to express the triumph of
the Catholic Church and the
• It was characterized by new
explorations of form, light and
shadow and dramatic intensity.
• The facades consisted of many curves, often
using the double curve (in at the sides, out in
• Baroque pediments (triangular area between
the rooftop and the end of the roofs) were
often highly decorated. The tips were
sometimes turned into scrolls and gilded .
• In these two examples, St. Moise in Venice
(on the right) has a more ornate facade than
does St. Ignatius in Mainz, Germany; however
the interior of St. Ignatius is almost Rococo.
• The most distinct shape of the Baroque style
is the oval. The baroque architects used
marble, gilt, and bronze in abundance on the
• One often finds the interiors surrounded by
numerous gilded puttos (little angels) as well
as some life sized ones.
Characteristics of Baroque Architecture
• Visible statement of wealth and power
• Linked to Counter Reformation
• Baroque- ‘mis-shapen pearl’
• High alters and chapels
• Rococo architects applied Baroque ideas with a lighter, more graceful
• In French, the word rocaille refers to rocks, shells, and the shell-shaped
ornaments used on fountains. During the 1700s, a highly ornamental style
of art, furniture, and interior design became popular in France.
• Called Rococo, the lavish style combined the delicacy of
French rocaille with Italian barocco, or Baroque, details.
• Rococo architecture is actually a later version of the Baroque style.
• While elaborate Baroque architecture is found in France, Italy, England,
Spain, and South America, the softer Rococo styles are found throughout
Germany, Austria, Eastern Europe, and Russia.
• While there are many similarities between the Baroque and the Rococo
styles, Rococo buildings tend to be softer and more graceful. Colors are
pale and curving shapes dominate.
• Appeared first in
• Arranged in “organized
Characteristics of Rococo Architecture
• Organic based objects
• Delicate colors
• Rippling surfaces
• Often used in interior design
• 18th and 19th century
• Marks the growth of the
Roman Catholic Church
• Became popular with the
growth of industrialization and
the need for more churches
Characteristics of Revival Architecture
• Drawing from the previous forms of architecture
• Often used in rebuilding or remodeling
• Mostly used when constructing new churches
• Ideals of Modernism
• Draw from previous
• More practical in
Characteristics of Modern Architecture
• Formal shapes
• Symbolic values of the classics
Architectural Changes in Cities
• Society was agriculturally
based throughout until the
• During the 18th and 19th
centuries change to more
industrialized cities and the
move out to suburbs would