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NATIONALISM IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE
Social Studies for 10th EGB
Teacher: Mauricio Torres
Introduction
• Before looking at how nationalism
affected the Ottomans, we have to
look further back, at how different
nat...
The Millet System
• Sultan Mehmed established a system
later known as the millet system, in
order to deal with the differe...
« Turks »
• People commonly think of the
Ottoman Empire as a “Turkish”
empire. This is far from the truth.
– While the sul...
Nationalism
• For the word nationalism, we can
find two important definitions:
– : a feeling that people have of being
loy...
European Nationalism
• During the 18th and 19th
centuries, European
nationalism dictated that the
ethnic minorities of the...
European Aid & Encouragement
• European powers sought to eliminate the
Ottoman Empire.
– For this reason they encouraged a...
Nationalist movements
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Arab: early 20th century
Albanian: late 19th century
Armenians: mid 19th century
...
Turkish Nationalism!
• Perhaps the most odd form of
nationalism during the decline of the
Ottoman Empire was the nationali...
Turkish Nationalism!
• To this effect, they moved away
from pan-Islamism and more to a
« Turkish Identity » movement.
• Th...
Consequences
• Many nationalities gathered a
need for independence and
attempted (end some
succeeded) to break away from
t...
Final partition
End of the Empire
• After the Balkan Wars that
preceeded WWI and also itself, the
Ottoman Empire ceased to exist.
– Many o...
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Nationalism in the Ottoman Empire

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Nationalism in the Ottoman Empire

  1. 1. NATIONALISM IN THE OTTOMAN EMPIRE Social Studies for 10th EGB Teacher: Mauricio Torres
  2. 2. Introduction • Before looking at how nationalism affected the Ottomans, we have to look further back, at how different nationalities originally were a source of strength for the Ottomans.
  3. 3. The Millet System • Sultan Mehmed established a system later known as the millet system, in order to deal with the different religious minorities within the empire. For example: – Christians were allowed to live much like they did before Ottoman rule. – They were allowed to chose their own religious leaders, collect their own taxes, use their own language, and even to have their own courts where Christians were tried according to Christian laws
  4. 4. « Turks » • People commonly think of the Ottoman Empire as a “Turkish” empire. This is far from the truth. – While the sultans from the beginning to the end were Turkish, the general populace was a wide variety of peoples. • With the millet system, different nationalities, ethnicities, cultures, a nd religions were allowed to thrive.
  5. 5. Nationalism • For the word nationalism, we can find two important definitions: – : a feeling that people have of being loyal to and proud of their country often with the belief that it is better and more important than other countries – : a desire by a large group of people (such as people who share the same culture, history, language, etc.) to form a separate and independent nation of their own
  6. 6. European Nationalism • During the 18th and 19th centuries, European nationalism dictated that the ethnic minorities of the Ottoman Empire should not have a Turkish sultan. – Nationalism meant that they had to break free of the Ottoman Empire and be led by their own people.
  7. 7. European Aid & Encouragement • European powers sought to eliminate the Ottoman Empire. – For this reason they encouraged and supported nationalist movements and revolts within the realm. • The first to do this, were the Greeks between 1821-1832. – They accomplished their goals with the help of the British, Russians and French.
  8. 8. Nationalist movements • • • • • • • • • Arab: early 20th century Albanian: late 19th century Armenians: mid 19th century Bosniaks: late 19th century Bulgarians: late 19th century Greeks: early 19th century Macedonians: late 19th century Romanians: early 19th century Serbians: early 19th century
  9. 9. Turkish Nationalism! • Perhaps the most odd form of nationalism during the decline of the Ottoman Empire was the nationalistic ideas of the Turks. – They were the most relevant ethnic group within the empire, and had every reason to succeed. • In response to the revolts of the Greeks, Armenians, Serbians, and others, the Turkish leaders in the Ottoman Empire needed to find a way to counter the effects of such revolutions.
  10. 10. Turkish Nationalism! • To this effect, they moved away from pan-Islamism and more to a « Turkish Identity » movement. • They promoted the ideas that Turkish pride should be emphasized in the same way nationalist pride was prevalent throughout Europe. • This policy was promoted by the same political group (the Young Turks) that promoted secularism and a movement away from Islam throughout the 1800s.
  11. 11. Consequences • Many nationalities gathered a need for independence and attempted (end some succeeded) to break away from the Ottoman Rule, causing a great loss of territory. • Turkish nationalism rose and pushed for a country based on ethnic union instead of having Islam as its base.
  12. 12. Final partition
  13. 13. End of the Empire • After the Balkan Wars that preceeded WWI and also itself, the Ottoman Empire ceased to exist. – Many of its territories became independent, giving rise to new nations and mandates. – This gave birth to the modern Arab world and Turkey (the successor of te empire), led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.

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