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stress management - kims hospital mba project report


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Stress management can be defined as interventions designed to reduce the impact of stressors in the workplace. These can have an individual focus, aimed at increasing an individual’s ability to cope with stressors. The goal of Stress Management is to manage the stress of everyday life among employees. Many different methods may be employed, such as bio-feedback, meditation and massage. Counselors work with individuals in order to determine what stress management program will work best for that person.

Work plays a critical role in the lives of individuals which has contributed to the phenomenon of stress for both individual employees and the organizations. Stress, at work, is one of the threats in providing a healthy platform of work to employees. The stress induced due to roles performed by individuals as employees at workplace, has been one of the most persuasive organizational stressors, the outcomes of which have been found to be costly to the organization. The previous studies in this area of research indicate that the role stress as a phenomenon has hardly been understood in its entirety and comprehensively in case of commercial banks particularly in the Indian context. The highly competitive banking industry has levied varied role requirements on employees resulting into stress.

Stress is something that happens in our daily lives and is usually associated with a particular event such as work, family or other responsibilities. There are many situations that we cannot control, but there are ways to control how we deal with certain situations. Effective stress management is something that our lives can go a little more smoothly. Stress management is as simple as taking a walk. It was been proven that physical activities would improve a person’s mental health, help with depression, and relieve the side effects of stress. This makes a person’s heart rate increase and will be more likely to be affected by stress. It is vital that stress management techniques are implemented into our daily lives. Coping with stress is an individualized task and one method over another may not be superior. A person that is stressed takes so much away from his or her health and performance levels.

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stress management - kims hospital mba project report

  2. 2. CHAPTER 1
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION Stress management can be defined as interventions designed to reduce the impact of stressors in the workplace. These can have an individual focus, aimed at increasing an individual’s ability to cope with stressors. The goal of Stress Management is to manage the stress of everyday life among employees. Many different methods may be employed, such as bio-feedback, meditation and massage. Counselors work with individuals in order to determine what stress management program will work best for that person. Work plays a critical role in the lives of individuals which has contributed to the phenomenon of stress for both individual employees and the organizations. Stress, at work, is one of the threats in providing a healthy platform of work to employees. The stress induced due to roles performed by individuals as employees at workplace, has been one of the most persuasive organizational stressors, the outcomes of which have been found to be costly to the organization. The previous studies in this area of research indicate that the role stress as a phenomenon has hardly been understood in its entirety and comprehensively in case of commercial banks particularly in the Indian context. The highly competitive banking industry has levied varied role requirements on employees resulting into stress. Stress is something that happens in our daily lives and is usually associated with a particular event such as work, family or other responsibilities. There are many situations that we cannot control, but there are ways to control how we deal with certain situations. Effective stress management is something that our lives can go a little more smoothly. Stress management is as simple as taking a walk. It was been proven that physical activities would improve a person’s mental health, help with depression, and relieve the side effects of stress. This makes a person’s heart rate increase and will be more likely to be affected by stress. It is vital that stress management techniques are implemented into our daily lives. Coping with stress is an individualized task and one method over another may not be superior. A person that is stressed takes so much away from his or her health and performance levels. productivity, increase management pressures, and makes people ill in many ways, evidence of which is still increasing. Workplace stress affects the performance of the brain, including functions of work performance; memory, concentration, and learning. Stress at work also provides a serious risk of litigation for all employers and organizations, carrying significant liabilities for damages, bad publicity and loss of reputation. Dealing with stress related claims also consumes vast amounts of management time. So, there are clearly strong economic and financial reasons for organizations to manage and reduce stress at work, aside from obvious humanitarian and ethical considerations. SCOPE OF THE STUDY
  4. 4. This particular study about work stress management is restricted within the organization. the study is conducted on the employees of the organization. this is not because of non-availability of resources but the nature of the study itself restricts it. it studies the existence or non – existence of stress among the employees in the organization and identifies the factors which are contributing for stress (if any). it also provides the various steps adopted by the organization for managing the work stress of the employees, which can be used as future reference for decision-making and policy making with regard to the employees. this study reveals the morale of the employees OBJECTIVES 1. The objective of the study is to identify the existence of work stress in the organization. 2. If YES, then to study the factors causing stress among the employees 3. To study the impact and usefulness of Work Stress Management and also to suggest measures for coping with stress LIMITATIONS 4. Due to constraints of tie and many other resources this study is confines to manages and officers of KIMS HOSPITAL,HYDERABAD (dist). 5. The opinions, behavior and attitudes of the respondents reflected in this study are restricted to the duration of the research and are subject to change with the passage of time
  5. 5. CHAPTER 2
  6. 6. II. HEALTH CARE INDUSTRY PROFILE The healthcare sector is the sector of the economy made up of companies that specialize in products and services related to health and medical care. The healthcare sector includes publicly-traded companies that power all dimensions of the healthcare industry. Examples of these companies include, but are not limited to, biotechnology companies, health insurance providers, pharmaceutical companies, and companies that manage clinics and hospitals. Companies that produce professional and home health products (for example, blood- pressure monitors, Elastoplasts, Orthopaedic devices, and surgical supplies) are also included in this sector. It comprises of providers of diagnostic, preventive, remedial, and therapeutic services such as doctors, nurses, hospitals and other private, public, and voluntary organizations. It also includes medical equipment and pharmaceutical manufacturers, health insurance firms. The modern health care sector is divided into many sub-sectors, and depends on interdisciplinary teams of trained professionals and paraprofessionals to meet health needs of individuals and populations. The health care industry is one of the world's largest and fastest- growing industries. Consuming over 10 percent of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) of most developed nations, health care can form an enormous part of a country's economy. The health care industry is typically divided into several areas. 2.1 The sector comprises hospital and allied sectors that include: a. Medical care providers that includes physicians, specialist clinics, nursing homes and hospital b. Diagnostic service centres and pathology laboratories c. Medical equipment manufacturers d. Contract research organizations and pharmaceutical manufacturers e. Third party support service providers This third party involves activities of, or under the supervision of, nurses, midwives, physiotherapists, scientific or diagnostic laboratories, pathology clinics, residential health facilities, or other allied health professions, e.g. in the field of optometry, hydrotherapy, Medical massage, yoga therapy, music therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, chiropody, homeopathy, chiropractics, acupuncture, etc... 2.2 Healthcare Industry in India Healthcare in India features a universal health care system run by the constituent states and territories of India. The Constitution charges every state with "rising of the level of nutrition and the standard of living of its people and the improvement of public health as among its primary duties".
  7. 7. The National Health Policy was endorsed by the Parliament of India in 1983 and updated in 2002.However, the government sector is understaffed and underfinanced; poor services at state-run hospitals force many people to visit private medical practitioners, Government hospitals, some of which are among the best hospitals in India, provide treatment at taxpayer expense. Most essential drugs are offered free of charge in these hospitals. Government hospitals provide treatment either free or at minimal charges. For example, an outpatient card at AIIMS (one of the best hospitals in India) costs a onetime fee of rupees 10 (around 20 cents US) and thereafter outpatient medical advice is free. In- hospital treatment costs depend on financial condition of the patient and facilities utilized by him but are usually much less than the private sector. For instance, a patient is waived treatment costs if he is below poverty line. Another patient may seek for an air-conditioned room if he is willing to pay extra for it. The charges for basic in-hospital treatment and investigations are much less compared to the private sector. The cost for these subsidies comes from annual allocations from the central and state governments. Primary health care is provided by city and district hospitals and rural Primary Health Centres (PHCs). These hospitals provide treatment free of cost. Primary care is focused on Immunization, prevention of malnutrition, pregnancy, child birth, postnatal care, and treatment of common illnesses. The Indian healthcare market is one of the prominent contributors to the country’s Gross Domestic Product (GDP) having attracted large number of players- domestic as well as International during the past few years. According to a report, The Indian healthcare market is currently estimated at US$103 billion and is expected to reach US$120 billion by 2015 and US$150 billion by 2017. Highly qualified doctors and scientists, state- of-the-art technology and low costs have helped India become an attractive global destination for medical tourism, clinical studies, and research and development (R&D) programs. Medical tourism too has been rising in recent years. To conclude, the Indian healthcare sector is on a fast growth track. 2.3 INDUSTRYSTRUCTURE National level - The organization at the national level consists of the Union Ministry of Health and Family Welfare. State Level - The organization at State level is under the State Department of Health and Family Welfare in each State headed by Minister and with a Secretariat under the charge of Secretary/Commissioner (Health and Family Welfare) belonging to the cadre of Indian Administrative Service (IAS).
  8. 8. Regional level - Each regional/Zone set-up covers three to five districts and acts under authority delegated by the State Directorate of Health Services. District Level - The district level structure of health services is a middle level management organisation and it is a link between the State as well as regional structure on one side and the peripheral level structures such as PHC as well as sub-centre on the other side. Sub-divisional/Taluk level - At the Taluk level, healthcare services are rendered through the office of Assistant District Health and Family Welfare Officer (ADHO). Community level - one Community Health Centre (CHC) has been established for every 80,000 to 1, 20,000 population, and this centre provides the basic specialty services in general medicine, paediatrics, surgery, obstetrics and gynaecology. 2. 4 PLAYERS IN THE MARKET: Apollo Hospitals Enterprise Limited- Provides healthcare services primarily in India, Mauritius, Bangladesh, and Kuwait. The company's healthcare facilities offer treatment for acute and chronic diseases in primary, secondary, and tertiary care sectors. Its tertiary care hospitals provide care in approximately 50 specialties, including cardiac sciences, oncology, radiology and imaging, gastroenterology, neurosciences, orthopaedics, and critical care services, as well as specialize in minimally invasive surgeries and transplantation. Fortis Healthcare Limited - owns, operates, and manages multi-specialty hospitals. Its healthcare facilities offer a range of specialty medical services, such as cardiac care, orthopedics, neurosciences, metabolic diseases, renal care, oncology, and mother and child care, as well as other services, such as cosmetic surgery, ophthalmology, ear nose throat care, and dermatology Max Healthcare Institute Limited - operates healthcare facilities with indoor and outdoor patient care in India. It provides services in the areas of cardiology, orthopedics and joint replacement, cancer, neurosciences, pediatrics, obstetrics and gynecology, aesthetics and reconstructive plastic surgery, internal medicine, eye and dental care, endocrinology, diabetes, obesity, ENT, metal health and behavioral sciences, physiotherapy and rehabilitation, and nuclear medicine, as well as minimal access, metabolic, and bariatric surgery. Columbia Asia -is an international healthcare group operating a chain of modern hospitals across India, Malaysia, Vietnam and Indonesia. The company's highly skilled medical experts deliver care in hospitals specifically designed for the needs of patients and built for maximum comfort and efficiency. Columbia Asia
  9. 9. Hospitals. Pvt.Ltd. is one of the first healthcare companies to enter India through 100% Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) route. 2.5 INDUSTRYVOLUME The healthcare equipment sector attracted 8.8 per cent of the total investments in terms of deal value with an aggregate of US$249.01 million. The hospital and diagnostics centre in India received Foreign Direct Investment(FDI) worth US$ 1,597.33 million, while drugs & pharmaceutical and medical & surgical appliances industry registered FDI worth US$ 10,318.17 million and US$ 622.99 million, respectively during April 2000 to March 2013, according to data provided by Department of Industrial Policy and Promotion (DIPP). The demand for hospital services has been consistently soaring in the country, with every class of the society demanding better quality and standards of healthcare. Realizing the continuous growing demand, many investors worldwide have expressed their keenness towards investing in the Indian hospital service market. The country is making strides in the right direction as evident from the 100% allowance of FDI in the hospital segment under the automatic route, since January 2000. The World Health Organization estimates there are 9.2 million physicians, 19.4 million nurses and midwives, 1.9 million dentists and other dentistry personnel, 2.6 million pharmacists and other pharmaceutical personnel, and over 1.3 million community health workers worldwide, making the health care industry one of the largest segments of the workforce. The medical industry is also supported by many professions that do not directly provide health care itself, but are part of the management and support of the health care system. The incomes of managers and administrators, underwriters and medical malpractice attorneys, marketers, investors and shareholders of for- profit services, all are attributable to health care costs. 2.6 CURRENT SCENARIO: The healthcare ecosystem in India is at an inflection point. While the outlook for the healthcare industry is optimistic, there is a need to move towards an integrated healthcare delivery system, which leverages technology and has the patient at its centre. Growing population, increasing affordability, comparative cheaper treatment costs as opposed to the west and medical tourism thereof, increased health insurance penetration, increased patient awareness, out-of-the-box unconventional thinking by the healthcare players for better operations, government opening up its arms to PPP and even providing tax holidays will be the key factors to look out for which would drive the future of healthcare in India Customers are growing more aware of their health needs, demand quick response, less waiting times, and above all - demand nearness of the healthcare unit to them.
  10. 10. India presently has a bed deficit of approximately 30 lakh beds as per the WHO recommendation of four beds per 1000 population. Considering even a 250 bedded hospital on an average, the country would need 12000 hospitals in the near future. As almost 80 per cent of this would be fulfilled by the private players, a huge rise in IPO's and premium commanding players in the arena would flutter bringing in interesting times for the healthcare industry. Recent spurt in Public Private Partnership (PPP) projects, and thrust on quality by the government sector and its demand (& mandate in some areas) on National Accreditation Board for Hospitals (NABH) and ISO, a lot of consultancy business is abuzz with the projects galore in the accreditation and Quality management Systems (QMS) field. India to its credit already has one government hospital NABH accredited and many are in the pipeline. With CGHS making NABH mandatory for care and hospitalization cost reimbursements, there is hectic activity seen in hundreds of hospitals waking up to the long due need for quality healthcare and applying for the coveted quality mark. The trend is on a steep rise, and it is just a matter of time when the government launches patient awareness on NABH quality in full swing. This would make the patient demand at least an ISO QMS certified hospital if not NABH. The healthcare industry is estimated at USD 22 billion. Estimated growth at 13 per cent annually assures a return of 15-20 per cent for the healthcare providers. Healthcare sector at present employs 4 million people directly and indirectly. Private healthcare market currently estimated at Rs 690 billion (USD 14.8 billion). 85 per cent private sector Establishments have less than 25 beds. Specialty and super specialty hospitals account for 2 per cent of total institutes. Corporate hospitals constitute less than 1 per cent of all institutes. Private sector accounts for 82 per cent of all out-patient visits. Private sector accounts for 52 per cent of all hospitalization. The Indian healthcare industry, which comprises hospitals, medical infrastructure, medical devices, clinical trials, outsourcing, telemedicine, health insurance and medical equipment, was valued at US$ 79 billion in 2012, and is expected to reach US $160 billion by 2017. The Indian healthcare sector is expected to grow at about 15 percent year-on-year (y-o-y), on account of factors such as rapid growth in infrastructure development, creation of demand for higher levels of healthcare, rising awareness of end users, and launch of innovative insurance, reimbursement, and financing policies. The growth of the Indian healthcare sector is further driven by the 300 million strong middle class populations with significant disposable income, which is likely to demand superior healthcare services. The Indian healthcare industry is seen to be growing at a much rapid pace than it was anticipated before and is expected to become a $238.76 billion industry by 2020. A number of major players in the healthcare sector are actively participating in the growth through expansion plans and putting in huge investments in the sector. According to the Investment Commission of India, the healthcare industry in India has experienced remarkable evolution of an added 12 percent per year during the last 4 years driven by a number of factors such as increase in the average life expectancy and average income levels, and rising awareness for health insurance among consumers.
  11. 11. COMPANY PROFILE TYPE OF BUSINESS ENTITY PRIVATE INDUSTRY HEALTHCARE FOUNDED 1983 HEAD QUARTERS hyderabad, INDIA KEY PEOPLE REVENUE 38.84 billion (US$631 million) (2017) EMPLOYEES 10,000+ WEBSITES At the behest of his father, in 1971, Dr. Reddy left behind a flourishing practice in Boston and returned to India. On his return he found the medical landscape in the country plagued by gaps in infrastructure, delivery and affordability. Things took a turn for the worse when he lost a young patient who just did not have the means to go abroad for treatment. The incident marked a cross road in Dr. Reddy's life and steeled his determination to get quality healthcare to India. He set the blueprint to build India's first multi-specialty private sector hospital. Undaunted and unfazed by the obstacles faced, KIMS Hospitals opened its doors in 1983 and ever since nurtured a goal which read as "Our mission is to bring healthcare of international standards within the reach of
  12. 12. every individual. We are committed to the achievement and maintenance of excellence in education, research and healthcare for the benefit of humanity". In the 30 years since, it has scripted one of the most magnificent stories of success that India has seen. Not only is the KIMS Group one of the largest integrated healthcare groups in the region, it also did successfully catalyze the private healthcare revolution in the country. KIMS today has made every aspect of their lofty mission a reality. Along the way the journey has touched and enriched 39 million lives that came from 120 countries. KIMS Hospitals was the forerunner of integrated healthcare in Asia, as well as globally. Today, the group's futuristic vision has ensured that it has been in a position of strength at every touch point of the healthcare delivery chain. Its presence encompasses over 10,000 beds across 51 hospitals, more than 1500 pharmacies, over 100 primary care & diagnostic clinics, 115 telemedicine units across 9 countries, health insurance services, global projects consultancy, 15 academic institutions and a Research Foundation with a focus on global clinical trials, epidemiological studies, stem-cell and genetic research. Over the past three decades KIMS Hospitals' transformative journey has forged a legacy of excellence in Indian healthcare. The Group has continuously set the agenda and led by example in the blossoming private healthcare space. One of KIMS 's significant contributions has been the adoption of clinical excellence as an industry standard. KIMS pioneered the concept - the group was the first to invest in the pre-requisites that led to international quality accreditation like the JCI and also developed centres of excellence in Cardiac Sciences, Orthopaedics, Neurosciences, Emergency Care, Cancer and Organ Transplantation. Along with excellence the KIMS philosophy rests on the pillars of technological superiority, a warm patent- centric approach, a clear and distinct cost advantage and an edge in forward-looking research. KIMS 's spectacular success rests on sustained commitment and investments in each of these pillars. The Group continues to break new ground in adopting new technology. From leveraging new age mobility, to getting futuristic equipment KIMS has always been ahead of the curve. Currently, the group believes in the tremendous potential of robotics and is investing heavily in making it a real and robust option for all. KIMS pioneered Tender Loving Care (TLC) and it continues to be the magic that inspires hope, warmth and a sense of ease in the patients. KIMS started out with the promise of bringing quality healthcare to India at a price point that Indians could afford. The cost of treatment in KIMS was a tenth of the price in the western world. Today as the group charts out its roadmap to take healthcare to a billion, the focus on driving a strong value proposition remains constant. KIMS 's remarkable story has captured India's attention. For its service to the nation, the Group was felicitated with the honour of a commemorative postage stamp bearing its name. For his untiring pursuit of excellence in healthcare, Dr. Prathap C Reddy, was bestowed with the second highest civilian award, the ‘Padma Vibhushan’, by the Government of India.
  13. 13. Recently KIMS Hospitals celebrated its 30th year. The Group, led by Dr. Prathap Reddy, reaffirmed its goals and redefined their focus. With ambitious projects like KIMS Reach Hospitals, a strong focus on preventive healthcare and an unabated commitment to nurture excellence and expertise in healthcare, KIMS Hospitals envisions for a new horizon - a future where the nation is healthy, where its people are fighting fit, and India emerges as the preferred global healthcare destination. HYDERABAD BRANCH PROFILE The KIMS speciality hospital Jayanagar has started on 25th Mar 2013 inaugurated by Sangita Reddy joint managing Director AHEL. The hospital having 145 beds hospital and 10 emergencies beds and fully fledge operations theters. The hospital has 3 major surgical departments:- 1. Orthopedic 2. Pulmonology 3. Neurology. The hospital has having following functional departments:- o Finance Department
  14. 14. o Human Resource Department o Marketing/Healthcare Services Department o IT Department. o Medical Records Department(MRD) o Pharmacy Department. o Nursing Department. o CSSD o Stores Department o Housekeeping department o Food and beverages o Bio medical o Security KIMS Hospitals Group is one of the largest healthcare groups in Asia. Referred to as the 'Architects of Healthcare in India', the KIMS Hospitals group, with the help of latest technology and exceptionally committed medical practitioners, provide outstanding healthcare facilities to people from all walks of life. In keeping with our vision of "Touching a Billion Lives"; we offer you the latest KIMS Specialty Hospital at Jayanagar, Bangalore. This new hospital works in conjunction with our flagship hospital on Bannerghatta Road. The KIMS Specialty Hospital, Jayanagar is a referral trauma & poly-trauma centre that specializes in Orthopaedics (Joint Replacements, Sports Medicine & Trauma), Neurosciences (Brain & Spine care) and Critical Care (Pulmonology, Interventional Pulmonology.) At KIMS Specialty Hospital, Jayanagar we unite exceptional clinical care and superior technology. We are dedicated to providing you with the best medical facilities and reach out to you in every possible way. Only at KIMS Values: The confluence of seven values results in a ray that represents KIMS 's leadership in Indian Healthcare. A ray that is the beacon for millions looking for a cure… looking for hope. Ownership: We value integrity and the promotion of the just use of resources entrusted to us for the enhancement of human life.
  15. 15. Quality: Always pursuing Quality, our Hospital envisions more efficient, equitable care at all levels of a patient's experience. Through a consensus-based process, clinical quality and efficiency measures meets the needs and expectations of the general public, government, providers and practitioners. Compassion: We value a quality of presence and caring that accepts people as they are and fosters healing and wholeness. Innovation: We embrace change and work to improve all we do in a fiscally responsible manner. Patient Centric: In all our endeavours, we are guided by the needs of the patient, creating a partnership that is effective and personal across the continuum of care. We put our patients first as we seek to exceed the expectations of our customers with superior service, outstanding clinical care and unsurpassed responsiveness. Teamwork: System effectiveness is built on the collective strength and cultural diversity of everyone, working with open communication and mutual respect. Respect for all: We use 'Namaste' as the salutation when meeting patients, guests, employees in person or telephonically. We greet each individual, those we serve and those with whom we work, with the highest professionalism and dignity KIMS Anthem: A truly inspiring anthem commemorating our 25th year came to sparkling life on 5th Feb 2008, as it was launched with a vibrant live rendition by its composers – Shankar, Ehsaan and Loy. Composed in 4 languages, English, Hindi, Tamil and Telugu, it truly captures the spirit of KIMS Hospitals. GROWTH OF THE ORGANISATION Since its inception, KIMS Hospitals has seen three decades and each has brought with it, its own share of cherished memories. 1980 to 1990: KIMS Hospitals was inaugurated in 1983 by Shri Giani Zail Singh (President of India). The first KIMS Hospital was in Chennai. The hospital commenced commercial operations the next year. 1991 to 2014:  In 1998 KIMS Hospital Chennai was awarded the ISO 9002 Certification.
  16. 16.  Dr. Prathap C Reddy received the prestigious Sir Nilrattan Sirca Memorial Oration (JIMA) Award for single-handedly making super speciality care available to a vast section of society.  KIMS Hospitals, New Delhi became the first hospital in India to receive accreditation from JCI, USA. Subsequently six of our hospitals got the JCI accreditation.  KIMS continued to grow as a healthcare powerhouse. It added hospitals in Ahmadabad, Bilaspur, Mysore, Kolkata and Kakinada among others.  In 2002, SACHi - The Saving a Child's Heart initiative was launched. SACHi is a community service initiative aimed at providing quality paediatric cardiac care to children from underprivileged sections of society.  In 2006, KIMS Hospitals was nominated as the Consumer Healthcare Super Brand in an independent survey conducted by the Super Brand Council, in association with AC-Nielsen.  The first functional Health City in Asia was launched by KIMS in 2007.  KIMS Hospitals at Bangalore and Kolkata were accredited by the Joint Commission International (JCI), USA.  KIMS Specialty Hospitals, Chennai successfully conducted exultant Micro vascular free tissue transfer and Aesthetic surgeries on more than 1000 patients.  Full Field Digital Mammography with Tom synthesis (3D) system, first-of-its-kind in South Asia was launched at KIMS Speciality Hospital, Chennai. VISION & MISSION :- Vision: KIMS 's vision for the next phase of development is to 'Touch a Billion Lives'. Mission: "Our mission is to bring healthcare of International standards within the reach of every individual. We are committed to the achievement and maintenance of excellence in education, research and healthcare for the benefit of humanity". 2.3 PRODUCTS, SERVICES & FACILITIES:- A) PRODUCTS:- KIMS Hospitals:
  17. 17. KIMS Hospitals Enterprise Limited has over 8500 beds across 51 hospitals in India, rest of Asia and Africa. The hospitals are multi specialty tertiary care facilities with centres-of-excellence in medical disciplines including Cardiology, Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Gastroenterology, Orthopaedics & Joint Replacement Surgery, Neurology, Critical Care Medicine, Nephrology, Oncology, Hand & Micro Surgery and Reproductive Medicine. Reach Hospitals KIMS Hospitals is proud to present its latest visionary development - KIMS Reach Hospitals: An endeavour to bring world-class healthcare to smaller urban centres and rural India; A concrete effort towards building a healthier nation, starting from the grass-roots. KIMS Pharmacy KIMS Pharmacy, a division of KIMS Hospitals Enterprise Ltd., is India's first and largest branded pharmacy network, with over 1500 pharmacies across 20 states. Accredited with International Quality Certifications, KIMS Pharmacy offers genuine medicines round-the-clock, through the network of 24 hour pharmacies. KIMS Pharmacy also provides customer care at any time of the day. Nurse Station: Nurse Station TM is a unique initiative where an KIMS nurse is stationed at KIMS Pharmacies to assist with minor treatments and health emergencies. The objective of the Nurse Station TM is to provide quick treatment in the most convenient way. The service is especially meant for the elderly who find it inconvenient to wait for long hours at clinics and hospitals for minor treatments, and frequent checkups. It is also of great help to patients who find it difficult to move out of their house and travel large distances for treatment, like pregnant women, bedridden patients and patients recuperating after a surgery. The service also monitors the status of people with chronic problems such as blood pressure, diabetes etc. KIMS Hospitals Education and Research Foundation: The KIMS Hospitals Group has laid a lot of importance on education and research. AHERF has been set up with the prime objective of establishing, maintaining and supporting educational and research activities. Several institutions have been set up at various KIMS locations to fulfil these objectives. The KIMS Group runs 10 schools and colleges of Nursing, 2 institutions of Hospital Administration and a college of Physiotherapy Health Knowledge City: As healthcare requirements escalate, the demand on resources will only increase. New initiatives like KIMS Reach Hospitals and other concerted efforts to increase the healthcare cover in India will mean that the current resource pool will have to be augmented tremendously. To add to this, rising global demand will only increase the strain on trained resources. Keeping this in mind, KIMS Hospitals is planning its advanced Knowledge City in Aragonda, Andhra Pradesh. state-of-the-art centre is designed to train 2000 learners at one time, and will offer courses for Medical Staff, Nursing Staff, Paramedical Staff, Executives and Support Staff. This
  18. 18. integrated facility, will have simulation labs, classrooms, a hospital, a medical college, residential facilities, and will be looking at developing 25,000 skilled healthcare worker per year. B) SERVICES:- CORE SPECIALITIES: 1. Bones and Joints 2. Brain and Spine 3. Emergency 24×7 4. Pulmonology and Critical Care KIMS DIGNOSTICS: 1. Radiology Services 2. Laboratory Services 3. Blood Bank KIMS CLINIC: 1. Endocrine and Bone Health 2. ENT 3. Heart Care 4. General Medicine 5. Gastroentology 6. Minimal Access Surgery 7. Cancer 8. Cosmetology 9. Nephrology and Urology. C) FACILITIES:- Parking Internet Laundry Services Telecommunication Services
  19. 19. Interpretation Services Bank & ATM Money Transfer & Currency Exchange Intercontinental Food Cafeteria 2.4 COMPETITORS: a) NIMS HOSPITAL NIMS Hospital (formerly Wockhardt Hospitals) Bangalore is a part of the 40 hospitals chain of Fortis Healthcare. The Fortis Hospitals network consists of 11 hospitals focusing on the high end tertiary care around the specialties of cardiac care – adult and paediatric cardiology and cardiac surgery, complex brain & spine surgeries, orthopaedics and joint replacement surgery and minimal access surgery. b) MAXCURE HOSPITAL MAXCURE Hospital in Bangalore is considered to be India’s first hospital to be ISO 9001:2000 certified for Clinical, Nursing, Diagnostics and Allied Areas. Also, the hospital is the winner of the Golden Peacock National Quality Award 2005 in the service category. MAXCURE Hospitals is an integrated hospital service system that provides healthcare from the smallest to the most complex medical problems. c) YASHODA HOSPITAL The YASHODA Hospitals is a landmark healthcare services institution that enjoys a unique reputation of being a popular destination for both Indian and international patients seeking treatment at an affordable cost. The YASHODA Hospitals has lent its unique dimension of human touch to the complex science of healthcare. The YASHODA Hospitals` mission is to maintain a high degree of quality and care to any patient seeking medical aid is sacrosanct to its highly acclaimed and equipped team. Bangalore, now boasts of YASHODA Hospital’s two tertiary care multi-specialty hospitals with 665 beds and four clinics and the professionalism of its consultants and surgeons that compares well with their international peers.
  20. 20. d) APPOLO HOSPITAL APPOLO hospital is located in the heart of the Bangalore city. APPOLO Hospital has grown over the years with substantial increase in bed strength, infrastructure and an assurance of quality patient care with human touch using state-of-the art technology with quality health care under one roof. APPOLO hospital has to its credit as the first Multispecialty hospital in the country to receive the coveted ISO-9002 certification award which has been recently upgraded to ISO 9001:2008. Further,it has also been awarded the prestigious NABH (National Accreditation Board for Hospitals & care providers) certification on 18th July 2011. 2.5 ORGANISATION STRUCTURE: 3. DEPARTMENTAL STUDY In order to function efficiently and effectively every organization has a functional department. It’s important to divide departments so that the work is divided into units and departments. This division of work is helping in bringing specialization in various activities of concern and helps in putting right men on right job which can be done by selecting people for various departments according to their qualifications, skill and experience. This is helping in defining the jobs properly which clarifies the role of every person. KIMS Hospitals has the following departments:  Finance Department  Human Resource Department
  21. 21.  Marketing Department/Healthcare Service Department  IT Department.  Medical Records Department  Nursing Department. FINANCE DEPARTMENT Finance is regarded as the life blood of a business enterprise. This is because in the modern money oriented economy. Finance is the one of the basic foundation of all kind of activity. It is the master key which provides access to the entire source for being employed in manufacturing and merchandizing activities. It has rightly been said that the business needs money to make more money. However it is also true that money begets more money, only when it is properly managed. Hence, efficient management of every business enterprise is closely linked with efficient management of its finance. Meaning of Business Finance: In general finance may be defined as the provision of money at the time it is wanted. However, as a management function it has a special meaning. Finance function may be defined as the procurement of funds and their effective utilization. Some of the authoritative definitions are as follows: “Business finance is that business activity which is concerned with the acquisition and conservation of capital funds in meeting financial needs and overall objectives of far business enterprise.” “Business finance can broadly be defined as the activity concerned with planning, rising, controlling and administrating of the funds used in the business.” DEPARTMENT STRUCTURE:-
  22. 22. Finance Functions at KIMS Hospitals: There exists an inseparable relationship between finance and other functional Departments such as marketing, HR, IT etc. Almost all kinds of business activities, directly or indirectly involve the acquisition and use of funds. The finance function of raising and using money although has a significant effect on other functions, yet it needs not necessarily limit or constraint the general running of the business. The functions are:  Proper use and allocation of funds.  Taking sound financial decisions.  Improving profitability through proper financial controls. Finance functions are performed simultaneously and in the normal course of the Business and they need skilful planning, control and execution Hospital Information System (HIS): In KIMS Hospitals Ltd, financial control is carried out by the back on the monthly and year basis. Accounting Revenue, Purchase Bills, etc. The Organization controls finance by “Hospital Information System” (HIS) which is made by Wipro. Billing: The billing department has three different sections: 1. Inpatient Billing. 2. Outpatient Billing (Consultation)
  23. 23. 3. Outpatient Billing (X-rays, tests, etc.) 1 Inpatient Billing At the time of Discharge the patient activity chart is sent to Inpatient pharmacy, food and dietary departments to note the medicine and food expenses. There are two ways of paying the bill that is, in the form of cash or credit. If the patient doesn’t have health Insurance then, the bill is paid on cash basis. If the patient has health insurance, the bill is faxed or sent to the Insurance Company for the necessary approval. Approval of medical expenses incurred by the patient and the same is collected with the credit period of 30 days. 2 Outpatient Billing ( Consultation ) Any outpatient has to pay the fixed amount of consultation charges every time they consult doctors. The billing is done for the same. 3 Outpatient Billing (X-ray, tests, etc) This section of billing prepares a final bill based on different tests such as x-rays, scanning, etc. the patient has undergone and the amount is collected in cash for the same. The Performa statement containing various heads under which transactions takes place in KIMS hospital are shown below to in the below table. Expenditure. Income. Purchase Account Direct Expenses Indirect expenses Employees cost. Finance Charges Sales and Marketing Cost. . Direct Incomes Inpatient Income Outpatient Income Lab Income. Consultation Income. Other Incomes Pharmacy Rent Income. Canteen National Insurance. Total Expenses Total Income. Expenses under Purchase Accounts include Consumables of various departments, this expense includes Ambulance charges  Bio-medical waste and Corporation tax
  24. 24.  Food and Beverages  Lab test charges, etc.  Employees cost include  Boarding and Lodging  Hostel charges, PF contributions  Training expenses, salaries and wages, etc. Finance charges include bank charges, Credit charges , Interest on loans, administration cost includes Electricity charges, Internet charges, Legal expenses, Office expense, sales and marketing, advertisements, publicity-Camp, sales promotion, etc. 3.2 HUMAN RESOURCE DEPARTMENT: According to Edward Flippo, “Human Resource management is the organizing, directing and controlling of the procurement, development, compensation, integration, maintenance and separation of human resources to the end that individual, organizational and societal objectives are accomplished.” Human resource management is a management function that helps manages, recruits, select, train and develops members for an organizations. KIMS Hospitals is a vibrant Company with over 300 employees. It is a rare mixture of cultures. KIMS Hospitals is today in the eminent position of the India's Top-most best Hospitals powered by its most important resource - "people”. KIMS Hospital’s "People Philosophy” is driven by the KIMS Hospitals Human Resources General Manager which says:  Attract good people.  Retain the better people.  Advance the best people. Structure of the department:
  25. 25. KIMS Hospitals offers: KIMS hospitals give an opportunity to work with one of the India’s best Hospitals. o Career growth based on performance. o Attractive, Market based Pay that is linked to performance. o Structured career leadership program for high performers to manage their careers. o Need based and value added training program to prepare employees for future growth. KIMS Hospitals recruits personnel mainly in the areas: 1. Doctors (All specialties). 2. Nurses. 3. Security guards, peons, helpers, receptionists, etc 4. Billing manager, financial controller, finance manager, Financial analyst 5. Computer Science Engineers 6. KIMS Hospitals also takes in candidates for Front office staff, Maintenance Department, etc. No Discrimination Policy KIMS Hospitals is an equal opportunity employer which employs personnel irrespective of class, creed, family background, religion and sex. Recruitment: “It is the process of searching for and obtaining application for job among them the right people can be selected.” The process of recruitment is as follows: 1. Pre- recruitment Process
  26. 26. In pre-recruitment, HR manager brings indents from all other department and analysis it. If a vacancy is filled up by giving additional responsibility to the co-worker/employees of the department, than there is need of recruiting procedures. 2. Planning Recruitment KIMS Hospitals has decided a job specification & job description for each position in the organizations. Different qualification & experience is required for each job. If any vacancy generates among one of the department, than it should be fulfilled with regard to job specification & job description, which is being formulated by organization. 3. Searching : (a)Source Activation- Human resource manager verified that there is any vacancy exist or will exist, but here no actual recruiting take place until manager gives permission. (b) Selling- Selling the organization means both message & media should be well selected. The organization gives its advertisement in its local newspaper for welcoming of more & more applicant. 4. Screening The purpose of screening is to remove from the recruitment process at an early stage, those applicants who are unqualified for the jobs. The screening can save a great deal of time and money. The HR executives scrutinize and short list all application and shortlist applicant list is sent to HR manager. Then, only eligible application are called for interview 4. Evaluation & Control Evaluation and control is necessary to carry out recruitment process at low cost. KIMS hospitals control its cost by way of: o By avoiding recruiting unsuitable candidates for the selection process. o The Organization has a systematic and well planned recruiting procedure so there is no overtime cost. Recruitment in KIMS Hospitals can take place in any of the following ways: Advertisement o Walk-ins o On the campus recruitment o Employment Exchange o Casually Called o Recommendation of Managers and Executives Advertisement:
  27. 27. In this source cost per person is low so the firm gives an advertisement in newspaper, in magazine to recruit employees for managerial jobs. Employment Exchange: Government of India has established employment exchange. So, public and firms also some takes advantages of it. Recommendation: When there is need, company recruits the person who is recommended by manager or executives. KIMS Hospitals uses the recommendation of managers and executives for the recruitment. Selection: KIMS hospitals uses the below procedure for selection. 1. Preliminary interview. 2. Application Form: Detail about age, education etc. 3. Employment Test and Interview. 4. Physical Fitness: Medical Examination. 5. Final Selection After the selection of candidate he has been given temporary period for 12 months. He work effectively and efficiency than he becomes a permanent employee. Induction: When a new person is appointed in the firm, they know little about his Industry, his staff, his heads, his workers. So he needs to be given info about his work, about his head. This process is called Induction. This is the process to give information to fresh candidates about the firm. When a fresh candidate knows about his department, he does not feel burden at the time of starting of his job. Training and development: Training is a short term process utilizing a systematic and organized by which non-managerial personal learn technical and soft skills. In-service educational programme for nurses and Continuous Medical Education for Doctors (CME) is done for doctors. These programmes are mainly focused to focus soft skills. An employee maybe sponsored for full or part time training programmes outside the organization. Annual training plans are drawn up based on Organization’s initiatives development priorities. Training plans are regularly reviewed. Effectiveness is measured using specified qualitative indicators. At the beginning of the year, ambitious plans are set in terms of numbers of man days per employee. We know that there are so many method of training which can be described as follows: o On-the job method o Job rotation method
  28. 28. o Training by experienced person o Apprenticeship o Conference method Also, Training need analysis is done for the existing employees to see if they are weak in soft skills, being regularly absented. Performance Appraisal: The management will appraise and maintain performance record of employees periodically and or as and when required. o Normally, Performance appraisal is before conformation and thereafter before granting annual increments. o The method used for performance appraisal is solely decided by the management presently KIMS hospitals are using Bell curve i.e., 180°apprisal. And the conclusion of such appraisal will be final and will be binding upon concerned. o All Promotions, demotion, transfer; annual increments will also be done on the basis of performance appraisal ratings and other factors of suitability relevant for a particular position of job. Promotion and Transfer: According to Dale Yoder; “Promotion is a movement to a position in which responsibilities and presumable prestige are increased.” When any vacancy created due to reason of any retirement or termination the vacant post is filled up.” From the next category persons taking into consideration their seniority services of a capable person is not available in second category than post is filled up by advertisement. In KIMS Hospitals they give promotion on the basis of merits, vacancy and the capacity of employee. They give promotion on the basis of previous history and better performance of the candidates. The prompted employee will be on for a period as specified in the promotion letter. If the performance of employee is found satisfactory or above during the end of probation period, the employee will become permanent employee in the promoted position. Yoder and associates have defined transfer as “ a lateral shift causing movement of individuals from one positions of another usually without involving and market change in duties, responsibilities, skills needed or compensation. A transfer is horizontal or lateral movement of an employee. Transfer is interdependent. Transfer is done to train the employee in all aspects on their field. These are no written ground rules or policy for the transfer. In KIMS Hospitals an employee is transferred on the basis of merits, vacancy and the capacity of employee mainly in the administrative departments. Superannuation:
  29. 29. In KIMS Hospitals, every employee shall compulsorily retire on the date when the employee attains the age of 58 years or earlier if the employee becomes medically unfit. The management in its discretion can re- employ the medically fit employee on some Terms and conditions agreed. Leave: Official permission to be absent from work or duty, as that granted to corporate personnel or any other employee is called leave and the period of time granted by such permission is called leave of absence. To ensure smooth uninterrupted operations of the organization regular attendance for work is a vital factor. This requires that employee plan their leave. Leave rules will be different for different employees. Types of leave: In KIMS Hospitals, Leave application should be submitted to HR executive at least a day before and with their Department head’s approval. Dismissal: An employee is liable to be dismissed for misconduct after being given maximum three warnings depending on the degree of misconduct. 3.3 MARKETING DEPARTMENT: Marketing generally refers as the task of creating, promoting and delivering goods and services to consumers and business. Marketing managers seeks to influence the level of timing and composition of demand to meet the organization’s objectives. Marketing people are involved in 10types of entities: goods, services, experiences, events, persons, places, properties, organization, information and ideas. The marketing concept rests on four pillars: target market, customer needs, integrated marketing and profitability. Marketing is defined as a societal process by which individuals and groups obtain what they need and want through creating, offering and freely exchanging products and services of value with others. KIMS Hospitals believes in creating relevant brand differentiation and building a strong Brand with the public and making loyal customers. This focus along with continuous innovation in all aspects of brand marketing and sales has helped to transform the KIMS Hospital brand into ‘trust marks and love marks’. Structure of the department:
  30. 30. Marketing Objectives: o To bring in referrals from Doctors to increase the revenue and customers. o Generating need, through awareness with regular free medical camps. o Walk-ins –usually through media and from other people Marketing plan & strategy: o Marketing plan & its strategies makes service race in competitive situation and executes brand image, which gives loyal customers/patients to the company. o Strengthen KIMS Hospital’s business in existing geographies. o Expansion into new geographies. o Boost Management Strength
  31. 31. Marketing at KIMS : The work of marketing department in KIMS Hospitals is to create awareness about the packages and services offered by the Hospital, to inform the public about the wellness centre (Hospital) and the benefits out of it and to inform the Doctors (General practitioner) outside the hospital regarding their specialty in the Hospital. Also, the marketing Department has to look after all the advertisements in TV, newspaper, etc. The Hospital has different packages like corporate packages and other special packages. KIMS Hospitals conducts different camps such as “Free Neurology & Neuro Surgery Camp”, etc to treat people and create awareness to the public in different areas. They also create and design attractive and informational brochures and distribute them to people to create awareness of the services provided by the hospital. One of the Programs which are undertaken by the Hospital is Preventive Health care. It says “Fitness is about being aware of one’s weakness”, “Its one thing to feel fit and quite another to be really so”. This program is basically health check up for different categories of people namely; Cardiac health check up, Diabetic health check up, Executive health check up, Master health check up, Preventive Health check for Women, Pre- Marital Health check for Men and employment health check. The comprehensive program leaves nothing to chance and certifies one’s fitness in absolute detail. Market segmentation: “It consists of a group of customer who share similar set of wants” Divided into 5 major segments: 1. Corporate 2. Public sector units 3. Banks 4. Doctor referrals Positioning: Each brand endeavours to build a lasting relationship with the buyer and is strongly positioned in its particular segment. KIMS Hospitals thrives on the ‘landmark healthcare services’ which is well equipped with the state- of-the-art medical equipments.
  32. 32. 3.4 INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT IT management is the discipline whereby all of the technology resources of a firm are managed in accordance with its needs and priorities. These resources may include tangible investments like computer hardware, software, data, networks and data centre facilities, as well as the staffs who are hired to maintain them. Managing this responsibility within a company entails many of the basic management functions, like budgeting, staffing, and organizing and controlling, along with other aspects that are unique to technology, like change management, software design, network planning, tech support etc. The information relating to Hospital management is stored through electronic data processing, also called as electronic data processing (EDP).The IT department mainly takes IT standard policy to implement in the Hospital for the deployment of infrastructure to improve productivity. Hospital Information System: KIMS Hospital uses Hospital Information System (HIS) which has 18 modules. The HIS is designed by Wipro. The information regarding Doctors, patients and employees are maintained in SQL (sequential query language) as back end and visual Basic in the front end with the facility of LAN. The information is more accessible and up to date. Functions: The main functions of this department are: o To maintain patient’s database o To maintain billing records o Providing and solving grievances regarding hardware and software network in the hospital. o To maintain biometric attendance
  33. 33. o Discharge summary, purchase and sales records o Admissions. 3.5 MEDICAL RECORDS DEPARTMENT: Medical Records is defined as a clinical, scientific administrative and legal document relating to patient care in which are recorded sufficient data written in sequence of events to satisfy the diagnosis and warrant treatment and end result. All the sufficient clinical information pertaining to the patient must be incorporated in to the patient medical record. The content of medical record must be sufficiently detailed & organized to enable the medical care team responsible for the patient to provide continuity of care, to determine at any time the status of patient and to review the diagnostic and therapeutic procedure performed and the patients expenses to treatment. Contents of MR: It can be classified under the following categories: 1. Patient:- Sociological 2. Clinical: - all information regarding the disease, diagnosis and treatment procedure and all events of patient during his stay in hospital. 3. Medico legal:- patients consent for surgery/treatment 4. Internal & external correspondence & communication regarding patients: - patients correspondence, referrals to other extremes experts, consultant & their opinion, LIC related. MRD in KIMS Hospital: This decentralized MRD caters to all out patient and in patient in the hospital having 4trained staff. It plays an important role in hospital management. It is the back bone of the hospital. The MRD works 8am to 8pm. Structure of the MRD:
  34. 34. Functions: o Primary function is to ready availability of MR o Its responsible for creation, care, collect, code, storage, issue and retrieval of health information o To file and keep records as well as Maintaining confidentiality of records o To co-operate with the health care professionals in order to obtain comprehensive patient records o To assemble the MR in accordance with prescribed order o To retrieve the MR to meet the need of patient, doctors and studies. o To control the movement of patient files o To maintain different registers for information retrieval from MRD o To inform communicable diseases and vital statistics to government authority o To give adequate information to the insurance o To inform long stay record to medical superintendent 3.6 NURSING DEPARTMENT Nurses do more than care for individuals. They have always have been at the forefront of change in health care and public health.
  35. 35. Nurses advocate for health promotion, educate patients and the public on the prevention of illness and injury, provide care and assist in cure, participate in rehabilitation, and provide support. No other health care professional has such a broad and far-reaching role. Many lives have been saved because an attentive nurse picked upon early warning signs of an upcoming crisis like cardiac arrest or respiratory failure. Nursing care at KIMS hospital: At KIMS hospital, the responsibilities of staff nurses reach out far and wide across the medical discipline. Structure of Nursing Department: 139 Nurses are working in this department. There are 3 shifts from 8 am to 2 pm, 2 to 8pm and one night shift from 8 pm to 8 am. Night shift Nurses will get a break of one hour in the middle of their schedule and 6 days in a month a nurse will get night duty. The ratio of patient nurse ratio is as follows: o Semi-Private ward: 1:4. o Post-Operation ward: 1:3. o ICU (ventilation): 1:1. o ICU (non-ventilation): 1:2. In every floor there are counters for nurses and each nurse will be guided by their supervisor.
  36. 36. For the nurses to be efficient, In-service educational programmes are conducted regularly. And nurses have to give pre and post tests. Performance appraisal is done yearly for the regular nurses and half-yearly for the fresher nurses. Also, Nurses are sent to Camps organized by the marketing department of the hospitals and some nurses are also sent to corporate business houses. In KIMS Hospital attention is given towards the welfare of the nurses by providing them regular training programmes. They support them by giving those Transportation facilities, security, etc.
  37. 37. CHAPTER 3
  38. 38. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY INTRODUCTION: Under Research Methodology various steps that are generally adopted by a researcher in studying his research problem along with logic Behind them is discussed. The researcher methodology has many dimensions and research methods to constitute a part of the research methodology. It is necessary for the researcher to design the methodology for his problem as it may differ from problem to problem. In the process of conduction the study, the researcher has followed the following methodology Field Study:The researcher has conducted the study among the executives andoffices level employees in KIMS HOSPITALS. Since employees were operating, study on the whole system could not be undertaken as a whole and is restricted to with in the unit of the company. Collection Of Data Primary Data: Primary data was collated within the employees of organization through survey and personnel interview. Secondary Data: Secondary data was collected from various published books, companies’ web sites and company old records. Research Design The research designs under taken for the study is in descriptive one. Themethodology involved in this design is mostly qualitative in a nature. Types of Study o The present study is partly exploratory, partly descriptive and partly causal. o It is exploratory because it is concerned with identifying the existence andnon-existence of stress. o It is descriptive as it aims to describe the various internal and externalfactors that contribute to stress. o It is causalas it aims to analyze the causes for stress and the effect of stress in the performance of the employees. Sample Design A sample of 80 employees is taken out of a total population of 250employees (58%), based on judgment sampling. The sample is selected insuch a way that it includes the employees of all ages, different designationsfrom different educational streams with distinct experience from variousdepartments Hence the sample is a representative of the population and an unbiased mix of all factors. Sample Size Out of the total universe 250 employees a total of employees a total of 80 employees belonging to different units of APIL namely: Research Instrument The research instrument used for the survey is a structured undisguisedquestionnaire. The questionnaire has been framed in structures andundisguised form, with a total
  39. 39. number of 20 questions. It has both open endedand closed ended questions. The information collected through personalinterview is also being used. Pre-testing was conducted to find if there were any discrepancies in the questionnaire designed necessary changes were made after designing the questionnaire for which data was collected Diagrams used Bar Charts Pie Charts
  40. 40. CHAPTER 4
  41. 41. Introduction to stress management Stress has been called “the invisible”. It is a disease that may affect you, your organization, and any of the people in it, so you cannot afford to ignore it. EVOLUATION OF STRESS: The Garden of Eden began as a tranquil stress environment. However when Adam was given the tantalizing chance to eat the forbidden fruit, he was trust into mankind’s first stressful situation. Adam was offered a choice and, as we know, decision-making is the breeding ground for conflict, frustration and distress. DEFINITION: Stress in individual is defined as any interference that disturbs a persons’ healthy mental and physical well being. It occurs when the body is required to perform beyond its normal range of capabilities. Stress is the way that you react physically, mentally and emotionally to various conditions, changes and demands in your life. High levels of stress can affect your physical and mental well being and performance. The results of stress are harmful to individuals, families, society and organizations, which can suffer from “organization stress”. Ivancevich and Matteson define stress as individual with the environment. Behr and Newman define job stress as “a condition arising from the interaction of people and their jobs and characterized by changes within people that force them to deviate from their normal functioning”. Stress is a dynamic condition, which an individual is confronted with an opportunity, constraint or demand related to what he or she desires and for which the outcome is perceived to be both uncertain and important. Stress is associated with constraints and demands. The former prevent you from doing what you desire, the latter refers to the loss of something desired. Stress is highest for those individuals who perceive that they are uncertain as to whether they will win or lose and lowest for those individuals who think that winning or losing is certainty. Canadian physician Hans Selye (1907-1982) in his book the stress of life 1956 popularized the idea of stress. According to Selye, the General Adaptation Syndrome consists of three phases. Ce level begins to decline irreversibly. The organism collapses. Alarm Reaction: The first is the alarm phases. Here the individual mobilizes to meet the threat. The alarm reaction has two phases. The first phases includes in initial “stock shock phase” in which defensive mechanism become active. Alarm reaction is characterized by autonomous excitability; adrenaline discharges; increase heart rate, ulceration. Depending on the nature & intensity of the threat and the condition of the organization the period of resistance varies and the severity of symptoms may differ from
  42. 42. “mild invigoration” to “disease of adaptation”. · Resistance: The second is the phase of resistance. The individual attempts to resist or cope with the threat. Maxim um adaptation occurs during this stage. The bodily signs characteristic of the alarm reaction disappear. It the stress persist, or the defensive reaction proves ineffective, it may overwhelm the body resources. Depleted of energy, the body enters the phase of third. Exhaustion: Adaptation energy is exhausted. Sings of the alarm reaction reappear, and the resistance level begins to define irreversibly. The organism collapses. Peptone has attempted / identified three important sectors of life in which Stress originates. These are job and the organization The social sector Intrapsychic sector Job and organization, refers to the totality of the work environment (task, atmosphere, colleagues, compensation, policies, etc.). The social sector refers to the other such factors. The Intrapsychic sector encompasses those things, which are intimate, and persona, like temperament, values, abilities and health. It is contended that stress can originate in any of these sectors or in combinations thereof. In the figure below it can be seen that the magnitude of stress emanating from the stress to learner limit of the individual to handle these stress. This indicates a balanced state.
  43. 43. ORGANIZATION-INDIVIDUAL NORMAL INTERACTION PATTERN S.T.L – STRESS TOLERANCE LEVEL In the figure we find that job and organization loads have increased and have made a dent in the personality. In this stage, we find minor surface changes taking place, which are quite manageable. MINIOR SURFACE CHANGES Adaptation attempt a) Extra effort b) Excessive concern of task c) Worries d) Anxiety In the stage three and the figure below, we find that job and organizational loads have become unmanageable and interact with intrapsychic loads. This is the stage at which he negative consequences of the stress become
  44. 44. apparent. Most of the stress related diseases emerge at this point. When the situation persists we move into the next stage in which we start operating beyond the “stress tolerance limit”. MAJOR SURFACE DISFIGURATION Frantic copying 1. Extra ordinary effort 2. Worry and anxiety about the self 3. Onset of physiological symptoms 4. Aggressive tendencies Several types of breakdowns and cracks are observable in this stage i.e., fourth stage. If unchecked the situation may culminate into the last and most intense phase wherein complete disintegration of personality takes place. At this stage, the individual requires proper psychological and medical care. The figure below depicts the fourth and fifth stage.
  45. 45. BREAKDOWNS AND CRACKS: FAILURE IN COPING A. Work related symptoms Lack of concentration Affected clarity of thinking & decision – making Frequent absenteeism Affected team work Aggressive behavior B. Physiological symptoms Headache / Migraine Insomnia Lack of appetite Digestive disorders Sexual disorders Temperamental changes. Pestonjee has also developed a model to explain how we cope with stress reactions. It is called the BOUNCE model because the behavioral decomposition taking place due to stress tense to get reflected in interpersonal reactions. The reactions are received & analyzed by the environment, which in turn, bounce back signals to the individuals to bring about a change either at the orgasmic level or at the response level. THE BOUNCE MODEL STRESSORS BORNOUT STRESS SYNDROME (BOSS):- Boss can lead to at least four types of stress related consequences such as, depletion of energy reverses, lowered resistance to illness, increased dissatisfaction and pessimism and increased absenteeism and inefficiency at work. Veningle and spradley have identified five distinct stages of BOSS.
  46. 46. HONEYMOON STAGE:- This stage can be describe as accounting for the euphoric feeling of encounter with the new job such as excitement, enthusiasm, challenge and pride. Dysfunctional features emerge in two ways first; the energy reverses are gradually depleted in coping with the demands of a challenging environment. Second, habits and strategies for coping with stress are formed in this stage which is often not useful in coping with later challenges. FUEL SHORTAGE STAGE:- This stage can be identified as composed of the value feelings of loss, fatigue and confusion arising from the individual’s overdraws on reverses of adaptation energy. Other symptoms are dissatisfaction, inefficiency, and fatigue and sleep disturbances leading to escape activate such as increased eating, drinking & smoking. CRISIS STAGE:- When these feelings and physiological symptoms persist over period of time, the individual enters the stage of crisis. At this stage he develops “escape mentality” and feels oppressed. Heightened pessimism, selfdoubling tendencies, peptic ulcers, tension headaches, chronic backaches, blood pressure. HITTING THE WALL STAGE:- This stage of BOSS is characterized by total exhaustion of one’s adaptation energy, which may mark the end of one’s professional career. While recovery from this stage elude may be resourceful to tide over the crises. TYPES OF STRESS:- · It the stress for the day to day adaptability of man to his environment and results in the maintenance of internal steady state (homeostasis) it is know as neustress. For example, one produces neustress in order to breath, work. · Stress is through of in negative terms. It is thought to be caused by something bad (for example the boss gives a formal reprimand for poor performance). It the stress response is unfavorable and potentially disease producing, this is known as distress. Constant worry in a susceptible individual can lead to ulcers. If the stress response is favorable and results is favorable and results in improvement in physical and / or mental functioning, it is called estruses. This is the positive, pleasant side of stress caused by stress caused by good things. For examples an employee is offered a job promotion at another I. DEFINING STRESS AT WORK Change in working practices, such as the introduction of new technology or the alternation of new technology or the alternative of targets, my cause stress, or stress may be built into an organizations’ structure. Organizational stress can be measured by absenteeism and quality or work. ORGANIZATIONAL STRESS:-
  47. 47. Stress affects as well as the individual within them. An organization with a high level of absenteeism, rapid staff turnover, deteriorating industrial and customer relations, a worsening safety record, or poor quality control is suffering from organizational stress. FOLLOWING THE PAT OF STRESS THROUGH IN ORGANIZATION:- The below chart shows one example of the structure of a department in an organization, indicating typical causes of stress that may effect stress at certain levels in the structure, and particular. Causes that are affecting individuals. Stress is contagious; anyone who is not performing well due to increases the amount of pressure on their colleagues, superiors, and subordinates. The cause may range from unclear or overlapping job descriptions, to lack of communication, to poor working conditions, including “sick building syndrome” POTENTIAL SOURCES OF STRESS: There are three categories of potential stressors: § Environmental factor § Organization factor § Individual factors Environmental factors: Just as environmental uncertainty influences the design of an organization. Changes in business cycle create economic uncertainties. Political uncertainties:
  48. 48. If the political system in a country is implemented in an orderly manner, there would not be any type of stress. Technological uncertainties: New innovations can make an employee’s skills and experiences obsolete in a very short period of time. Technological uncertainty therefore is a third type of environmental factor that can cause stress. Computers, robotics, automation and other forms of technological innovations are threat to many people and cause them stress. Organization factors: There are no storages of factors within the organization that can cause stress; pressures to avoid error or complete tasks in a limited time period, work overload are few examples. Task demands are factors related to a person’s job. They include the design of the individual’s job working conditions, and the physical work layout. Role demands relate to pressures placed on a person as a function of the particular role he or she plays in the organization. Role overhead is experienced when the employees is expected to do more than time permits. Role ambiguity is created when role expectations are not clearly understood and employee is not sure what he / she is to do. Interpersonal demands are pressures created by other employees. Lack of social support from colleagues and poor. Interpersonal relationships can cause considerable stress, especially among employed with a high social need. Organizational structure defines the level of differentiation in the organization, the degree of rules and regulations, and where decisions are made. Excessive rules and lack of participation in decision that affect an employee are examples of structural variables that might be potential sources of stress. Potential sources
  49. 49. Organizational leadership represents the managerial style of the organizations senior executive. Some executive officers create a culture characterized by tension, fear, and anxiety. They establish unrealistic pressures to perform in the short-run impose excessively tight controls and routinely fire employees who don’t measure up. This creates a fear in their hearts,which lead to stress. Organizations go through a cycle. They are established; they grow, become mature, and eventually decline. An organization’s life stage - i.e. Where it is in four stage cycle-creates different problems and pressures for employees. The establishment and decline stage are particularly stressful. Individual factors:
  50. 50. The typical individual only works about 40 hrs a week. The experience and problems that people encounter in those other 128 non-work hrs each week can spell over to the job. Family problems: National surveys consistently show that people hold family and discipline, troubles with children are examples of relationship problems that create stress for employee and that aren’t at the front door when they arrive at work. Economic problems: Economic problems created by individuals overextending their financial resources are another set of personal troubles that can create stress for employees and distract their attention from their work. CAUSES OF STRESS
  51. 51. Society the working world and daily life have changed almost beyond recognition in the past 50 years. These changes have contributed to a major increase in stress. Stress is caused from both outside & inside the organization & from groups that employees are influenced by & from employees themselves. Stressors: The agents or demands that evoke the potential response are referred to as stressors. According to Syele a stressors is “Whatever produces stress with or without functioning hormonal or nervous systems”. Extra organizational stressors: Extra organizational stressors have a tremendous impact on job stress. Taking an open system perspective of an organization, it is clear that job stress is not just limited to things that happen inside the organization, during working hours. Extra organizational stressors include things such as social / technological change, the family, relocation, economic & financial conditions, race & class, residential or community conditions. Organizational stressors: Besides the potential stressors that occur outside the organization, there are also those associated with the organization itself. Although the organization is made up of groups & individuals, there are also more macrolevel dimensions unique to the organization that contains potential stressors. MACRO-LEVEL ORGANIZATIONAL STRESSORS: POLICIES o Unfair, arbitrary performance reviews. o Rotating works shifts. o Inflexible rules. o Unrealistic job descriptions. STRUCTURES o Centralization; Lack of participation in decision making. o Little opportunity for advancement. o A great amount of formalization. o Interdependence of departments. o Line-Staff conflicts.
  52. 52. PHYSICAL CONDITIONS o Crowding & lack of privacy. o Air pollution. o Safety hazards. o Inadequate lighting. o Excessive, heat or cold. PROCESS o Poor communication. o Poor / inadequate feedback about performance. o Inaccurate / ambiguous measurement of performance. o Unfair control systems. o Inadequate information. GROUP STRESSORS: The group can also be a potential source of stress. Group stressors can be categorized into three areas. 1. Lack of groups cohesiveness:- “Cohesiveness” or “togetherness” is a very important to employees, especially at the lower levels of the organizations. If the employee is denied the opportunity for this cohesiveness because of the task design, because the supervisor does things to prohibit or limit it, or because the other members of the group shut the person out, this can be very stress producing. 2. Lack of social support:- Employees are greatly affected by the support of one or more member of a cohesive group. By sharing their problems & joys with others, they are much better off. It this type of social support is lacking for an individual, it can be very stressful. 3. Intra-Individual, interpersonal & inter-group conflict:- Conflict is very closely conceptually or hostile acts between associated with in compatible or hostile acts between intra-individual dimensions, such as personal goals or motivational needs / values, between individuals within a group, & between groups. INDIVIDUAL STRESSORS: In a sense, the other stressors (Extra organizational, organizational, & Group stressors) all eventually get down to the individual level. For example, role conflict, ambiguity, self-efficacy & psychological hardiness may all affect the level of stress someone experiences.
  53. 53. CONSEQUENCES OF STRESS The effect of stress is closely linked to individual personality. The same level of stress affects different people in different ways & each person has different ways of coping. Recognizing these personality types means that more focused help can be given. Stress shows itself number of ways. For instance, individual who is experiencing high level of stress may develop high blood pressure, ulcers, irritability, difficulty in making routine decisions, loss of appetite, accident proneness, and the like. These can be subsumed under three categories: o Individual consequences o Organizational consequence o Burnout Individual consequences: Individual consequences of stress are those, which affect the individual directly. Due to this the organization may suffer directly or indirectly, but it is the individual who has to pays for it. Individual consequences of stress are broadly divided into behavioral, psychological and medical. Behavioral consequences of stress are responses that may harm the person under stress or others. Behaviorally related stress symptoms include changes in productivity, turnover, as well as changes in eating habits, increased smoking or consumption of alcohol, paid speech, and sleep disorders. Psychological consequences of stress replace to an individual mental health and well-being from or felling depressed. Job related stress could cause dissatisfaction, infact it has most psychological effect on the individual and lead to tension, anxiety irritability, and boredom. Medical consequences of stress affect a person’s well being. According to a research conducted, it revealed that stress could create changes in metabolism, increase heart and breathing rates, increases blood pressure bring out headaches and induce heart attacks. Organizational consequences: o Organizational consequences of stress have direct affect on the organizations. These include decline in performance, withdrawal and negative changes in attitude. o Decline in performance can translate into poor quality work or a drop in productivity. Promotions and other organizational benefits get affected due to this. o Withdrawal behavior also can result from stress. Significant form of withdrawal behavior is absenteeism.
  54. 54. o One main affect of employee stress is directly related to attitudes. Job satisfaction, morale and organizational commitment can all suffer, along with motivation to perform at higher levels. Burnout:- A final consequence of stress has implementation for both people and organizations. Burnout is a general feeling of exhaustion that develops when an individual simultaneously experiences too much pressure and few sources of satisfaction. Managing stress in the work place Every responds to stress in a different way, it is only by understanding the nature of individual responses that you can start fighting stress yourself and others. Reduction or elimination of stress is necessary for psychological and physical well being of an individual. Efficiency in stress management enables the individual to deal or cope with the stressful situations instead of avoidance. Strategies like tie management, body-mind and mind-body relaxation exercise, seeking social support help individual improve their physical and mental resources to deal with stress successfully. Apart from helping employees adopt certain coping strategies to deal with stress providing them with the service of counselor is also useful. Many strategies have been developed to help manage stress in the work place. Some are strategies for individuals, and other is geared toward organizations. Individual coping strategies: Many strategies for helping individuals manage stress have been proposed. Individual coping strategies are used when an employee under stress exhibits undesirable behavior on the jobs such as performance, strained relationship with co-workers, absenteeism alcoholism and the like. Employees under stress require help in overcoming its negative effects. The strategies used are: Exercise:- One method by which individual can manage their stress is through exercise. People who exercise regularly are known to less likely to have heart attacks than inactive people are. Research also has suggested that people who exercise regularly feel less tension and stress are more conflict and slow greater optimism. Relaxation:-
  55. 55. A related method individual can manage stress is relaxation. Copying with stress require adaptation. Proper relaxation is an effective way to adopt. Relaxation can take many forms. One way to relax is to take regular vacations; people can also relax while on the job (i.e. take regular breaks during their normal workday). A popular way of resting is to sit quietly with closed eyes for ten minutes every afternoon. Time management:- Time management is an often recommended method for managing stress, the idea is that many daily pressures can be eased or eliminated if a person does a better job of managing time. One popular approach to time management is to make a list, every morning or the thins to be done that day. Then you group the items on the list into three categories: critical activities that must be performed, important activities that should be performed, and optimal or trivial things that can be delegated or postponed, then of more of the important things done every day. ROLE MANAGEMENT:- Some what related to time management in which the individual actively works to avoid overload, ambiguity and conflict. SUPPORT GROUPS:- This method of managing stress is to develop and maintain support group. A support group is simply a group of family member or friends with whom a person can spend time. Supportive family and friends can help people deal with normal stress on an ongoing basis. Support groups can be particularly useful during times of crisis. BEHAVIORAL SELF-CONTROL:- In ultimate analysis, effective management if stress presupposes exercise of self-control on the part of an employee. By consciously analyzing the cause and consequences of their own behavior, the employees can achieve self-control. They can further develop awareness of their own limits of tolerance and learn to anticipate their own responses to various stressful situations. The strategy involves increasing an individuals control over the situations rather than being solely controlled by them. COGNITIVE THERAPY:- The cognitive therapy techniques such as Elli’s rational emotive model and Meichenbaum’s cognitive strategy fir modification have been used as an individual strategy for reducing job stress. COUNSELING: Personal counseling help employees understand and appreciate a diverse workforce, the holistic approach adopted by the counselor gives him a comprehensive view of the employee as client and enable him to deal
  56. 56. the issues of work related problems in a larger context with his awareness of the inter-relationship among problems in adjustment with self, other and environment and that a work concern will effect personal life and vice-versa, the employee would receive help regarding the problem in all life. One of the advantage of the individual interventions is the individual can use these skills to improve the quality of life in offer domains like family, social support and self, thus reducing the negative carry of experiences in these domains into the work life which might effect his occupation mental health. ORGANIZATIONAL STRATEGIES:- The most effective way of managing stress calls for adopting stressors and prevent occurrence of potential stressors.’ Two basic organizational strategies for helping employees manage stress are institutional programs and collateral programs. Work Design Stress Management programs Work schedules Health promotions programs Culture Other programs Supervision Institutional programs:- Institutional programs for managing stress are undertaken to established organizational mechanism for example, a properly designed job and word schedules can help ease stress. Shift work in particular can nstantly have to adjust their sleep and relaxation patterns. Thus, the design of work schedules should be a focused of organizational efforts to reduce stress. The organization’s culture can also used to help to manage stress. The organization should strive to foster a culture that reinforces a healthy mix of work and nonworking activities. Finally, supervision can play an important institutional role in overload. In managing stress. A supervisor is a potential manager source of overload. If made aware of their potential for assigning stressful amounts of work, supervisors can do a better job keeping workloads reasonable. COLLATERAL PROGRAMS: In addition to their institutional efforts aimed at reducing stress, many organizations are turning to collateral programs. A collateral stress program in an organizational program specifically created to help employees deal with stress. The organizations have adopted stress management programs, health promotion programs and other kinds of programs for this purpose.
  57. 57. CHAPTER V
  58. 58. 1. Howoften do you say the word “I am busy or I am having hard time” At the work place? Options Response(%) Very often 9 often 26 Rarely 28 Very rarely 25 never 12 Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (52%) rarely and very rarely says that they are busy at work place.
  59. 59. 2. You think physical environment problem in the work place causeStress? ( Temperature, lighting, gases, dust ) Options Response(%) Strongly agree 9 AGREE 26 Cannot say 28 Disagree 25 Strongly disagree 12 Interpretation: Opinion of study reveal that, majority of the respondents (62%) agree with physical environment (Temperature,Lighting, Gases and Dust) causes Stress.
  60. 60. 3. You feel time pressure to complete work? Options Response(%) Strongly agree 10 agree 41 Cannot say 13 Disagree 28 Strongly disagree 8 Interpretation: The finally yet importantly, the question asked about the employees, majority of the employees (51%) of the KIMS agree and strongly agree with above statement
  61. 61. 4. Do you feel lack ofco-operation in office? Options Response(%) Very often 9 often 26 Rarely 16 Very rarely 17 never 32 Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (68%) faced lack of co-operation in office remaining (32%) of employees never faced lack of co-operation in organization.
  62. 62. 5. Family problems cause stress? Options Response(%) Strongly agree 19 AGREE 41 Cannot say 11 Disagree 19 Strongly disagree 10 Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (60%) strongly agree and agree with family problems causes stress.
  63. 63. 6. Do you have problem of BP / sugar / any other health problems? Options Response(%) Very often 5 often 17 Rarely 19 Very rarely 12 never 47 Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (47%) said don’t love health problems like BP, sugar.
  64. 64. 7. Physical exercise & yoga reduce the stress? Options Response(%) Strongly agree 39 AGREE 36 Cannot say 11 Disagree 9 Strongly disagree 5 Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (75%) agree with above statement that by doing physical exercise & yoga stress will be reduced.
  65. 65. 8. ``Meditation & prayer to reduce the stress? Options Response(%) Strongly agree 40 AGREE 37 Cannot say 14 Disagree 6 Strongly disagree 3 Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (77%) agree with above statement that meditation & prayer to reduce the stress.
  66. 66. 9. Lack of communication causes stress? Options Response(%) Strongly agree 13 AGREE 55 Cannot say 17 Disagree 9 Strongly disagree 6 Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (68%) agree with above statement i.e. lack of communication causes stress.
  67. 67. 10.Spending time with your family reduces stress? Options Response(%) Strongly agree 35 AGREE 44 Cannot say 9 Disagree 8 Strongly disagree 4 Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (79%) agree with above statement i.e. appending more time with family reduces stress.
  68. 68. 11. Improving working conditions, reduces the stress? Options Response(%) Strongly agree 26 AGREE 56 Cannot say 8 Disagree 7 Strongly disagree 3 Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (82%) agree with improving working conditions in office stress will be reduce.
  69. 69. 12 Rational allocation ofwork reduces the stress? Options Response(%) Strongly agree 11 AGREE 55 Cannot say 20 Disagree 10 Strongly disagree 4 Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (66%) agree with rational allocation of work reduces the stress.
  70. 70. 13.Financial motivations reduce the stress? Options Response(%) Strongly agree 12 AGREE 43 Cannot say 32 Disagree 10 Strongly disagree 3 Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (55%) agree with above statement i.e. financial motivation reduces the stress.
  71. 71. 14.Need for family counseling is required? Options Response(%) Strongly agree 11 AGREE 29 Cannot say 28 Disagree 19 Strongly disagree 13 Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (40%) agreed that family counseling is needed to plan and over come the stress.
  72. 72. 15.Relaxation reduces the stress? Options Response(%) Strongly agree 32 AGREE 48 Cannot say 13 Disagree 6 Strongly disagree 1 Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (80%) agree with above statement i.e. relaxation (holydays, leaves, family, tours etc.) reduces stress
  73. 73. 16 .Following safety precautions reduces the stress? Options Response(%) Strongly agree 15 AGREE 50 Cannot say 21 Disagree 10 Strongly disagree 4 Interpretation: As is evident from the chart, majority of the respondents (65%) agree with above statement i.e. following safety precautions stress is reduced.
  74. 74. CHAPTER VI
  75. 75. FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS FINDINGS: The finding of the present revealed the following. o Most of the respondent fall under law stress category. o Thee is in significance relationship between stress &demography factors i.e. age, experience & designation. o The following dimensions of personal policies & practices of the organization have contributed to stress among employees. o Respondents who fall under the E2A & E5 grade are more stressed in comparison with the other grade. o The organization falls a very tall structure of stress among hierarchy & this is one of the reasons for employees being stressed. o There is no significancant difference of stress among employees working in plant & other departments. o The employees working in the plat gave a positive response in answering the questionnaire SUGGESTIONS: A Small percentage of the employees did have high stress. Person facing stress at the organizational level of lot of psychological problems in the form of decreased motivation, absenteeism low productivity targets not being achieving etc. as a reedy for the above said employees facing stress are advised to attend stress management courses which will help them to build coping strategies and cause out their stress. The stress management cause comprise of a package program consisting of: Relaxation Positive outlook towards works / responsibilities Self analysis through personality type testes Inter personal skill development Protection yoga cum meditation Time management Since T & D job related factors,performance appraisal & job satisfaction were perceived stressful by the employees, the employees should be counseled regarded the matter At the individual level the employees could practice a relaxing holiday (where in quality time is spent with the family) every fortnight or mouth Realize excessive use of tea / coffee cigarette is not answer to stress
  76. 76. Try to get 6-7 hrs of continuous sleep per day CONCLUSION The aim was to find the stress levels, personality type of the employees. This was done using a detailed questionnaire. The study reveled that fall under low stress category only a small percentage is highly stressed & needed prevailing in the organization to some extent. At the end of the study, we can conclude that through there are signs of stress among the employees & such stress is affecting their behaviors, it can be controlled & reduced effectively. This can be done by giving counseling & incorporating the suggestions given here in at individual & organization level.
  77. 77. CHAPTER VII
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