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Plant exploration, germplasm collection, conservation and utilization

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Sequentially given germplasm exploration, collection, conservation,evaluation and utilization sof Agroforestry plants.
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Plant exploration, germplasm collection, conservation and utilization

  1. 1. Plant Exploration and Germplasm Collection Plant Biodiversity and Conservation (Theory-Elective) Department of Agroforestry and Environmental Science Sylhet Ahricultural University, Sylhet-3100 Presented by: Syed Zahid Hasan Faculty of Agriculture Session: 2015-16
  2. 2. Plant exploration and germplasm collection • Germplasm Exploration • Germplasm Collection • Germplasm Conservation • Germplasm Evaluation • Germplasm Utilization What we will know ?
  3. 3. Germplasm exploration Germplasm: A germplasm is a collection of genetic resources for an organism. Plant exploration: Plant exploration is the act of searching plants or plant parts for the purpose of discovery of information or resources about the plants.
  4. 4. Germplasm exploration & Collection Exploration and collection: This process takes into accounts six important items- 1) Sources of collection: i) Centre of diversity, ii) Gene banks, iii) Gene sanctuaries, iv) Seed companies, and v) Farmers field’s. 2) Priority of collection: The crop species which are in more risk will get priority to collect first. 3) Agencies of collection: For global collection; International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI). 4) Methods of collection: Four principle: i) Through expeditions to the areas, ii) By personal visit, iii) Through correspondence and iv) Through exchange of material. 5) Methods of sampling: 2 sampling methods; i) Random sampling and ii) Biased sampling 6) Sample size: 50 to 100 individuals should be collected per site with seeds per plant.
  5. 5. Germplasm exploration & Collection Why we will collect germplasm ? We will collect germplasm in a given area are that: It is in danger of genetic erosion or even extinction. A clear need for it has been expressed by the users, at national level or internationally. More needs to be known about the germplasm.
  6. 6. Germplasm Collection
  7. 7. Germplasm Collection The germplasm collection of any crop consists of diverse types of collections such as: 2. Those derived from areas of cultivation (a) Commercial types, (b) Obsolete varieties, (c) Primitive varieties, and (d) Special purpose types. 1.Those derived from centres of diversity (a) Primitive cultivars, (b) Natural hybrids between cultigen and (c) wild relatives, (d) Wild relatives (wild and weedy races) and (e) Related species and genera. 3. Those derived from breeding programmes a) Pure line from farmer's stock, b) Elite varieties or hybrids, c) Breeding lines, d) Mutants, e) Polyploids, and f) Intergeneric and interspecific hybrids.
  8. 8. Germplasm Collection Types of collection:  Multi-species VB. species-specific collecting: A region is targeted and an attempt is made to sample as much as possible of the diversity of as many species as possible.  Wild species vs. crop collecting: For wild species, the collecting window will be much narrower, because ripe seeds are generally quickly shed and are usually not available. For crop, collecting from farmers' fields.  Single-visit vs. multiple-visit collecting: A region in the timing of fruiting, due to latitudinal, altitudinal and climatic differences.
  9. 9. Germplasm Collection High Medium Low A B C Wheat, Rice Maize, Barley - Sorghum, Pearl millet Prosomillet & others Amaranth, Buckwheat Chickpea, Pigeon pea Lentil Soybean, Winged bean Groundnut, Sesame, Mustard Safflower Niger Cotton Jute Kenaf/Mesta (Jute) Citrus, banana Mango, Jackfruit, Egg plant - Coconut, sugarcane Tea, arecanut, turmeric, Ginger Table 1: Crop collecting priorities in national context (Arora, 1988) Which germplasm will get priorities for collection locally ?
  10. 10. Germplasm Collection Plant species collection Germplasm collection 1. Wide range of species collected. 1. Narrow range of taxa-crop and wild plants collected. 2. Specific and supra-specific categories represented. 2. Material collected mainly at infra-specific levels. 3. Variation represented in commonly available plants. 3. Variation represented in Commonly available and rare plants. 4. Functional unit is species. 4. Functional unit is a population. 5. Data recorded on limited scale. 5. Data recorded on lvast scale. 6. Material collected and preserved as dried, mounted and identified specimens in Herbarium. 6. Material collected as seed, pollen, embryos, vegetative tissue for multiplication/ conservation. Table 2: Comparison between Plant species collection & Germplasm collection) What is the differences between Plant species collection & Germplasm collection ?
  11. 11. Germplasm Collection Things to be consider:  Seed and vegetative samples should be checked on a regular basis for insect and fungal attack.  If seed samples (or other material) are being actively dried, silica gel may have to be changed and dry samples removed.  Samples of fleshy fruits in plastic bags will need to be aerated regularly .  Drying papers in herbarium presses must be changed every couple of days.  Samples may need to be sent back to the gene bank at various stages during the course of the mission.  Collating, completing and editing the collecting data.  distributing the germplasm samples, reference and collecting data.
  12. 12. Germplasm Collection Germplasm collecting strategies (Hawkes, 1980): A. For seed collections (cultivated and wild species): 1. Collect from 50 individuals per site. 2. Sample as many sites as possible according to availability of time. 3. Choose sampling sites over as broad an environmental range as possible. 4. Change tactics for wild species where necessary. 5. If morphological variation is present, make separate samples of each type. 6. Add biased sampling if some morphotypes are not included in random sampling. 7. Take whole inflorescences, as well as seeds, where necessary. 8. Make herbarium specimens, where possible. 9. Taking photographs of the specimen. 10. Write meticulous field notes.
  13. 13. Germplasm Collection B. i) For vegetatively propagated cultivated species 1. Sample each distinct morphotype. 2. Repeat at intervals over an area. 3. Supplement with seed collections. ** Give same collection numbers if seeds come from the same plants as the vegetative samples. If they are bulked use separate collection numbers. ii) For collecting wild vegetatively propagated species Collect just a single propagule from each 10-15 individuals as a bulk sample.
  14. 14. Germplasm Collection Germplasm activities at a glance: 1) Exploration and collection 2) Conservation 3) Evaluation 4) Documentation 5) Distribution and 6) Utilization.
  15. 15. Germplasm Collection Figure 2: Germplasm selection and process order
  16. 16. Germplasm Conservation
  17. 17. Germplasm Conservation What is the need of Conservation ? • Storage of Economically important, endangered, rare species and make them available when needed. • The conventional methods of storage failed to prevent losses caused due to various reasons.
  18. 18. Germplasm Conservation Methods of Germplasm conservation: 1. In-situ Conservation: Conservation of the germplasm in their natural habitat. 2. Ex-situ Conservation: Conservation the germplasm outside their natural habitats. 3. Cryopreservation: Conservation of biological material at ultra-low temperature (liquid Nitrogen at -196 degree). Two types of cryopreservation: i) Classical cryopreservation: Cooling is performed in the presence of ice (0.5– 2.0°C/min). ii) Vitrification: Cooling normally takes place without ice formation.
  19. 19. Germplasm Conservation Where we will apply Cryopreservation ? • It is ideal method for long term conservation of material. • Disease free plants can be conserved and propagated. • Recalcitrant seeds can be maintained for long time. • Endangered species can be maintained. • Pollens can be maintained to increase longitivity. • Rare germplasm and other genetic manipulations can be stored.
  20. 20. Germplasm Evaluation
  21. 21. Germplasm Evaluation Germplasm evaluation is done for potentially useful variability for further use in genetic enhancement of crops. It usually includes –  Agronomic performance,  Yield and  Reaction to biotic and abiotic stresses, such as drought or pests. The information obtained is used for:  Collection management  Query answering Genetic resources research.
  22. 22. Germplasm Evaluation Figure 3: Germplasm evaluation process.
  23. 23. Germplasm Utilization
  24. 24. Germplasm Utilization Only a small proportion (<1%) of assembled germplasm has been used in crop improvement programs. Reasons for low use of germplasm:  Large size of collections.  Lack of data on traits of economic importance, which shows high genotype × environment interaction.  Restricted access to the germplasm collections.  Inadequate linkages between genebank and users.
  25. 25. Germplasm Utilization Enhancing germplasm utilization :  Developed core and mini core collections of all mandate crops.  Evaluated mini core collections extensively for agronomic and nutritional traits for utilization in crop improvement program.  Characterized about 98 % cultivated accessions.  Developed trait-specific genepools.  Developed composite collections and reference sets of genetically most diverse accessions.
  26. 26. You will find something more in woods than in books. (St. Bernard) Thanks

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