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Introduction to animal cell culture


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Introduction to Animal Tissue culture

Published in: Health & Medicine
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Introduction to animal cell culture

  1. 1. Introduction to Animal Tissue culture
  2. 2. What is tissue culture?  In vitro culture (maintain and/or proliferate) of cells, tissues or organs.  Types of tissue culture • Cell culture • Primary explant culture • Organ culture 2
  3. 3. Cell culture Explant culture Organ culture 3  Cell culture: Adherent monolayer on a solid substrate (various cell types) suspension in the culture medium (few cell types)  Primary explant culture: A fragment of tissue attachment and migration occurs in the plane of the solid substrate  Organ culture: A spherical or three-dimensional shape specific histological interaction Three major categories of tissue culture Explant: living cells, tissues, or organs from animals or plants that transfer to a nutrient medium.
  4. 4. Cell culture & Enzymatic Dissociation 4 Tissue from an explant is dispersed, mostly enzymatically, into a cell suspension which may then be cultured as a monolayer or suspension culture.
  5. 5. Advantages & Disadvantages  Advantages  Development of a cell line over several generations  Scale-up is possible  Absolute control of physical environment  Homogeneity of sample  Less compound needed than in animal models  Disadvantages  Cells may lose some differentiated characteristics.  Hard to maintain  Only grow small amount of tissue at high cost  Dedifferentiation  Instability, aneuploidy 5
  6. 6. Tissue Culture  Is the growth of tissues or cells separate from the organism.  This is typically facilitated via use of a liquid, semi- solid, or solid growth medium, such as broth or agar. 6
  7. 7. 7  Advantages  Some normal functions may be maintained.  Better than organ culture for scale-up but not ideal.  Disadvantages  Original organization of tissue is lost. Advantages & Disadvantages
  8. 8. Organ culture  The entire embryos or organs are excised from the body and culture  Advantages  Normal physiological functions are maintained.  Cells remain fully differentiated.  Disadvantages  Scale-up is not recommended.  Growth is slow.  Fresh explantation is required for every experiment. 8
  9. 9. EMP04 9
  10. 10. Why do we need Cell culture?  Research ◦ To overcome problems in studying cellular behavior such as:  confounding effects of the surrounding tissues  variations that might arise in animals under experimental stress ◦ Reduce animal use  Commercial or large-scale production ◦ Production of cell material: vaccine, antibody, hormone 10
  11. 11. Initiation of culture 11 Tissue Primary culture Cell line Continuous cell line Subculture Stored Stored Animal Plant Finite numbers Indefinite numbers
  12. 12. Types of Cell culture 1. Primary Cultures  Derived directly from excised tissue and cultured either as:  Outgrowth of excised tissue in culture  Dissociation into single cells (by enzymatic digestion or mechanical dispersion). 12 Primary Culture Preparatio n
  13. 13. Characteristics of Primary Cultures 13 Primary Culture Preparatio n  Characteristics:  Morphologically similar to the parent tissue  Limited number of cell divisions  Best experimental models for in vivo situations
  14. 14. Advantages & Disadvantages ◦ Advantages:  usually retain many of the differentiated characteristics of the cell in vivo ◦ Disadvantages:  initially heterogeneous but later become dominated by fibroblasts.  the preparation of primary cultures is labor intensive  can be maintained in vitro only for a limited period of time.  Difficult to obtain  Relatively short life span in culture  Very susceptible to contamination  May not fully act like tissue due to complexity of media 14
  15. 15. Types of Cell culture 2. Continuous Cultures  derived from subculture (or passage, or transfer) of primary culture  Subculture = the process of dispersion and re-culture the cells after they have increased to occupy all of the available substrate in the culture  usually comprised of a single cell type  can be serially propagated in culture for several passages  There are two types of continuous cultures  Cell lines  Continuous cell lines 15
  16. 16. Types of continuous culture 1) Cell lines  Cell lines derived from primary cultures have a limited life span  After the first subculture, the primary culture becomes cell line  finite life, senesce after approximately thirty cycles of division  usually diploid and maintain some degree of differentiation  it is essential to establish a system of Master and Working banks in order to maintain such lines for long periods 16
  17. 17. Types of continuous culture 2) Continuous cell lines  can be propagated indefinitely  generally have this ability because they have been transformed by:  tumor cells.  viral oncogenes  chemical treatments  Spontaneously  the disadvantage of having retained very little of the original in vivo characteristics 17
  18. 18. Transformation VS Transfection  Transformation ◦ Spontaneous or induced permanent phenotypic changes resulting from change in DNA and gene expression that result and effect in:  growth rate  mode of growth (loss of contact inhibition)  specialized product formation  longevity  loss of need for adhesion  Transfection ◦ Introduction of DNA into a cell (like viral DNA) 18
  19. 19. Cell Culture Morphology  Morphologically cell cultures take one of two forms: ◦ growing in suspension (as single cells or small free-floating clumps)  cell lines derived from blood (leukemia, lymphoma) ◦ growing as a monolayer that is attached to the tissue culture flask.  Cells from solid tissue (lungs, kidney, breast), endothelial, epithelial, neuronal, fibroblasts 19 Hela-Epithelial MRC5-Fibroblast SHSY5Y-Neuronal BAE1-Endothelial MCF-7 breast HT1080- kidney 3LL - lungs
  20. 20. • Excellent model systems for studying:  The normal physiology and biochemistry of cells  The effects of drugs and toxic compounds on the cells  Mutagenesis and carcinogenesis • Used in drug screening and development • Large scale manufacturing of biological compounds (vaccines, insulin, interferon, other therapeutic protein) Cell culture application