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ORAL HABITS and INHIBITION THERAPY DR LAKSHMI RAVI Reader, Dept of Orthodontia  St GDC
Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Thumb/Finger Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Pacifier Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Lip...
DEFINITIONS <ul><li>HABIT Is  defined as a fixed or constant practice established by frequent repetition  -  Dorland. </li...
Bad oral habits can destroy your child’appearance
Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>The presence of an oral habit in the 3 to 6 year old is an important finding in the c...
Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity is the amount of force that is applied to t...
Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>DURATION PLAYS THE MOST CRITICAL ROLE IN TOOTH MOVEMENT!!! </li></ul>
<ul><li>A child who sucks intermittently with high intensity may not produce much tooth movement at all, whereas a child w...
Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that 4 to 6 hours of force per day are ne...
Cause <ul><li>Feeling of LOST </li></ul><ul><li>Rebel </li></ul><ul><li>Attention Seeking </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation </li...
Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>Some Important Questions to Consider/Ask </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How long has the child...
Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>Depending on the willingness of the child to stop the habit, three different approach...
Oral Habits --Introduction--
Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>Reminder Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reminder therapy is appropriate for those who ...
 
Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>Reward Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A contract is agreed upon between the child and ...
Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>Appliance Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appliance therapy should only be used when re...
Oral Habits --Thumb and Finger Habits-- <ul><li>Is defined as placement of the thumb into various depths into the mouth. <...
<ul><li>The classic symptoms of an active habit are reported to be the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.Anterior open bi...
Oral Habits --Thumb and Finger Habits-- <ul><li>Anterior open bite , the lack of vertical overlap of the upper and lower i...
 
Oral Habits --Thumb and Finger Habits-- <ul><li>Facio-lingual movement of the incisors  depends on how the thumb or finger...
 
 
Oral Habits --Thumb and Finger Habits-- <ul><li>Maxillary arch  constriction is due to the change in equilibrium balance b...
 
Oral Habits --Thumb and Finger Habits-- <ul><li>Timing of treatment is critical. </li></ul><ul><li>The child should be giv...
 
 
Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>There are two major categories of commonly used appliances: </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>Removable Appliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Modified Hawley </li></ul></ul>
Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>Fixed Appliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples:  Hayrake Appliance </li></ul></u...
PALATAL CRIB
<ul><li>Palatal crib to be used if no posterior cross bite exits </li></ul><ul><li>Post cross bite-Maxillary expansion app...
Palatal crip with quad helix
 
Posterior tongue crib
Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>Fixed Appliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples (continued): Blue grass  Applianc...
Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>Blue grass  Appliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on a concept from the horse in...
Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>Blue grass  Appliance (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely well tolerated...
Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>Construction of the  Blue grass  Appliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt bands on ...
Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>Construction of the  Blue grass  Appliance (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pla...
 
 
Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>A Little About the Teflon Roller </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beveled on 3 sides </li><...
Oral Habits --Pacifier Habits-- <ul><li>Dental changes created by pacifier habits are similar to changes created by thumb ...
Oral Habits --Pacifier Habits-- <ul><li>Pacifier habits are theoretically easier to stop than digit habits.   </li></ul><u...
Oral Habits --Lip Habits-- <ul><li>Habits that involve manipulation of the lips and perioral structures are termed lip hab...
 
<ul><li>The above mentioned problems are most common in the mixed and permanent dentitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment de...
 
<ul><li>LIP BUMPER </li></ul>
Oral Habits --Tongue Thrust and Mouthbreathing Habits-- <ul><li>Tongue Thrust   Defined as a condition in which the tongue...
<ul><li>Mouth breathing -Habitual respiration through the mouth instead of nose. </li></ul><ul><li>CLINICAL FEATURES </li>...
<ul><li>Tongue thrust is characteristic of the infantile and transitional swallows   </li></ul><ul><li>Further research su...
Oral Habits --Tongue Thrust and Mouthbreathing Habits-- <ul><li>Often individuals appear to be mouthbreathers because of t...
ADENOID FACE
CAUSE <ul><li>Retained infantile swallow </li></ul><ul><li>Obstruction of the nasal airway </li></ul><ul><li>Lip in compet...
Various causes of nasal obstruction
Evaluation <ul><li>Cotton whiff method  </li></ul><ul><li>Double mirror method </li></ul><ul><li>Water holding method </li...
<ul><li>ORAL SCREEN/VESTIBULAR SCREEN </li></ul>
A kraus modification. Oral screen with breathing holes Oral screen + tongue crib
Modification of Hotz
Oral Habits --Nail Biting-- <ul><li>Nail biting is a habit rarely seen before 3 to six years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>The...
Oral Habits --Bruxism-- <ul><li>Bruxism is a grinding or gnashing of the teeth and is usually reported to be nocturnal. </...
CAUSE <ul><li>Occlusal interference </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic problem </li></ul><ul><li>Mental stress (adults) </li></ul>
Oral Habits --Bruxism-- <ul><li>Treatment should begin with simple measures, including the elimination of occlusal interfe...
<ul><li>If neither of these two steps is successful, a mouth guard-like appliance can be constructed to protect the teeth ...
Oral Habits --Self-Mutilation-- <ul><li>Self-mutilation, repetitive acts that result in physical damage to the individual,...
ORAL HABITS <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proffit, William R.  Contemporary Orthodontics , 2 nd  edition, Chapt...
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oral habits

oral habits and inhibition therapy

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oral habits

  1. 1. ORAL HABITS and INHIBITION THERAPY DR LAKSHMI RAVI Reader, Dept of Orthodontia St GDC
  2. 2. Outline <ul><li>Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>Thumb/Finger Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Pacifier Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Lip Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue Thrust/and Mouthbreathing Habits </li></ul><ul><li>Nail Biting </li></ul><ul><li>Bruxism </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Mutilation </li></ul><ul><li>Appliance Therapy </li></ul>
  3. 3. DEFINITIONS <ul><li>HABIT Is defined as a fixed or constant practice established by frequent repetition - Dorland. </li></ul><ul><li>Oral habits in infancy and early child hood can be considered normal. </li></ul><ul><li>Habits beyond 3-4 years may become a symptom and may produce harmful effects on the development of maxillofacial complex </li></ul>
  4. 4. Bad oral habits can destroy your child’appearance
  5. 5. Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>The presence of an oral habit in the 3 to 6 year old is an important finding in the clinical examination. </li></ul><ul><li>An oral habit is no longer considered “normal” for children near the end of this age group. </li></ul><ul><li>If the habit has resulted in movement of the primary incisors, some form of intervention is warranted prior to the eruption of the permanent incisors. </li></ul><ul><li>The types of changes in the dentition that an oral habit may cause vary, depending on the intensity , duration , and frequency of the habit. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>Intensity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Intensity is the amount of force that is applied to the teeth while performing the habit (i.e. Sucking). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Duration </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Duration is defined as the amount of time spent sucking a digit. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Frequency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Frequency is the number of times the habit is practiced throughout the day. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>DURATION PLAYS THE MOST CRITICAL ROLE IN TOOTH MOVEMENT!!! </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>A child who sucks intermittently with high intensity may not produce much tooth movement at all, whereas a child who sucks continuously (for more than 6 hours) can cause significant dental change </li></ul>
  9. 9. Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>Clinical and experimental evidence suggests that 4 to 6 hours of force per day are necessary to cause tooth movement. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important thing to remember about any intervention is that the child must want to discontinue the habit for treatment to be successful. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Cause <ul><li>Feeling of LOST </li></ul><ul><li>Rebel </li></ul><ul><li>Attention Seeking </li></ul><ul><li>Imitation </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic problem </li></ul><ul><li>Occlusal interference </li></ul>
  11. 11. Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>Some Important Questions to Consider/Ask </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How long has the child had the habit? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When does he/she indulge in the habit? Day? Night? Constantly? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does the child indulge in the habit at school? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does anyone ridicule the child in regards to the habit? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Badgering the child about the habit tends to negatively reinforce the habit. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>Depending on the willingness of the child to stop the habit, three different approaches to treatment have been advocated. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>They are : </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reminder Therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reward Therapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Appliance Therapy </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Oral Habits --Introduction--
  14. 14. Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>Reminder Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reminder therapy is appropriate for those who want to stop the habit but need some help to stop completely. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>An adhesive bandage taped to the offending finger can serve as a constant reminder not to place the finger/digit in the mouth. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bitter paste on the digit for digit sucking habit </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The “reminder” must be neutral and not perceived as any form of punishment </li></ul></ul>
  15. 16. Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>Reward Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A contract is agreed upon between the child and parent or between the child and dentist. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The contract simply states that the child will discontinue the habit for a specified period of time and in return he/she will receive a reward if the requirements of the contract are met. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The reward does not need to be extravagant but special enough to motivate the child. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The more involvement the child can take in the project, the more likely the project will succeed. </li></ul></ul>
  16. 17. Oral Habits --Introduction-- <ul><li>Appliance Therapy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appliance therapy should only be used when reminder and reward therapy have failed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The dentist should explain to the patient and parent that the appliance is not a punishment but rather a permanent reminder. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The parent and the child should be informed that certain side effects may temporarily appear after the delivery of an appliance. These include: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eating difficulties. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Speaking/speech problems. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disturbed sleeping patterns. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Habit discouragement appliances should be left in the mouth for six months. Six months allows the habit to be completely extinguished. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 18. Oral Habits --Thumb and Finger Habits-- <ul><li>Is defined as placement of the thumb into various depths into the mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>Thumb and finger habits make up to majority of oral habits. </li></ul>
  18. 19. <ul><li>The classic symptoms of an active habit are reported to be the following: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.Anterior open bite. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.Facial movement of the upper incisors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.Lingual movement of the lower incisors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4.Maxillary constriction. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>5.Posterior cross bite </li></ul><ul><li>6.Hypotonic upper lip and hyperactive lower lip </li></ul><ul><li>7.Compensatory tongue thrust </li></ul>
  19. 20. Oral Habits --Thumb and Finger Habits-- <ul><li>Anterior open bite , the lack of vertical overlap of the upper and lower incisors when the teeth are in occlusion, develops because the digit rests directly on the incisors. A slightly increased vertical opening is created. </li></ul><ul><li>The digit impedes eruption of the anterior teeth, while the posterior teeth are free to erupt. </li></ul><ul><li>Passive eruption of the molars will result in an anterior open bite. </li></ul><ul><li>Although to a lesser degree, anterior open bite can also be caused by intrusion of the incisors. </li></ul>
  20. 22. Oral Habits --Thumb and Finger Habits-- <ul><li>Facio-lingual movement of the incisors depends on how the thumb or finger is placed in the mouth. </li></ul><ul><li>Usually, the thumb is placed so that it exerts pressure on the lingual surfaces of the maxillary incisors and on the labial surfaces of the mandibular incisors. The result is increased overjet. </li></ul>
  21. 25. Oral Habits --Thumb and Finger Habits-- <ul><li>Maxillary arch constriction is due to the change in equilibrium balance between the oral musculature and the tongue. </li></ul><ul><li>When the thumb is placed in the mouth, the tongue is forced down and away from the palate. </li></ul><ul><li>The obicularis oris and buccinator muscles continue to exert a force on the buccal surfaces of the maxillary dentition. </li></ul><ul><li>Without the tongue’s counterbalancing force on the lingual surfaces, the posterior maxillary arch collapses into crossbite. </li></ul>
  22. 27. Oral Habits --Thumb and Finger Habits-- <ul><li>Timing of treatment is critical. </li></ul><ul><li>The child should be given every opportunity to stop the habit spontaneously before the eruption of the permanent teeth. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment is usually undertaken by age 6 years. </li></ul>
  23. 30. Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>There are two major categories of commonly used appliances: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fixed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Removable </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Easily misplaced or lost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patient compliance is a major factor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fixed </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Cemented” in-place using a dental cement/adhesive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not rely on patient compliance </li></ul></ul>
  24. 31. Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>Removable Appliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: Modified Hawley </li></ul></ul>
  25. 32. Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>Fixed Appliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: Hayrake Appliance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Palatal Crib </li></ul></ul>
  26. 33. PALATAL CRIB
  27. 34. <ul><li>Palatal crib to be used if no posterior cross bite exits </li></ul><ul><li>Post cross bite-Maxillary expansion appliance to be added along with palatal crib. </li></ul>Sme quad helix
  28. 35. Palatal crip with quad helix
  29. 37. Posterior tongue crib
  30. 38. Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>Fixed Appliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples (continued): Blue grass Appliance </li></ul></ul>
  31. 39. Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>Blue grass Appliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Based on a concept from the horse industry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Created and designed by Bruce S. Haskell, DMD, PhD and John R. Mink, DDS, MSD </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicated for thumb sucking habits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Utilizes the principles of positive reinforcement </li></ul></ul>
  32. 40. Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>Blue grass Appliance (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely well tolerated by patients and parents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Indicated for children in the early or late mixed dentition who have a desire to stop their thumb sucking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Works through a counter-conditioning response to the original conditioned stimulus for thumb sucking </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extremely high success rate </li></ul></ul>
  33. 41. Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>Construction of the Blue grass Appliance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt bands on the maxillary first permanent molars or second primary molars </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make a compound impression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Place bands in the impression </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pour a cast </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use .045 wire </li></ul></ul>
  34. 42. Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>Construction of the Blue grass Appliance (continued) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Place the beveled teflon roller just distal to the maxillary canines so that it interferes with the thumb </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adapt wire to fit inside maxillary arch and terminate on the lingual surfaces of the molar bands </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solder wire to molar bands </li></ul></ul>
  35. 45. Oral Habits --Appliance Therapy-- <ul><li>A Little About the Teflon Roller </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Beveled on 3 sides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5/8 inch in length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>¼ inch in diameter </li></ul></ul>
  36. 46. Oral Habits --Pacifier Habits-- <ul><li>Dental changes created by pacifier habits are similar to changes created by thumb habits. </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior open bite and maxillary constriction are seen consistently in pacifier suckers. </li></ul><ul><li>Labio-lingual movement of incisors may not be as pronounced as with a digit habit but is usually present nonetheless. </li></ul><ul><li>Manufacturers have developed pacifiers that claim to be more like a mother’s nipple and not as deleterious to the dentition as a thumb or conventional pacifier. </li></ul><ul><li>Research has not substantiated these statements. </li></ul>
  37. 47. Oral Habits --Pacifier Habits-- <ul><li>Pacifier habits are theoretically easier to stop than digit habits. </li></ul><ul><li>The pacifier can be discontinued gradually or at one point in time under the control of the parent. </li></ul><ul><li>In a few cases, the child may subsequently start sucking a finger or thumb. </li></ul>
  38. 48. Oral Habits --Lip Habits-- <ul><li>Habits that involve manipulation of the lips and perioral structures are termed lip habits. </li></ul><ul><li>Although most lip habits do not cause dental problems, lip sucking and lip biting certainly can maintain an existing malocclusion. </li></ul><ul><li>The most common presentation of lip sucking is the lower lip tucked behind the maxillary incisors. </li></ul>
  39. 50. <ul><li>The above mentioned problems are most common in the mixed and permanent dentitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Treatment depends on the skeletal relationship of the child and on the presence or absence of space in the arch. </li></ul>Lingually directed force mandibular teeth Facial directed force maxillary teeth Proclination of the maxillary incisors Retroclination of the mandibular incisors increased amount of overjet Lower arch crowding.
  40. 52. <ul><li>LIP BUMPER </li></ul>
  41. 53. Oral Habits --Tongue Thrust and Mouthbreathing Habits-- <ul><li>Tongue Thrust Defined as a condition in which the tongue makes contact with any teeth anterior to molars during swallowing. </li></ul><ul><li>CLINICAL FEATURES </li></ul><ul><li>Long and narrow face. </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow nose and nasal passage. </li></ul><ul><li>Short and flaccid upper lip. </li></ul><ul><li>Contracted upper arch with cross bite. </li></ul><ul><li>Increased overjet and anterior open bite. </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior marginal gingivitis and dry mouth leading to caries </li></ul>
  42. 54. <ul><li>Mouth breathing -Habitual respiration through the mouth instead of nose. </li></ul><ul><li>CLINICAL FEATURES </li></ul><ul><li>Lowering of the mandible </li></ul><ul><li>Low placement of tongue </li></ul><ul><li>Constriction of maxillary arch </li></ul><ul><li>Posterior cross bite </li></ul><ul><li>Supra eruption of posterior teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Anterior open bite. </li></ul>
  43. 55. <ul><li>Tongue thrust is characteristic of the infantile and transitional swallows </li></ul><ul><li>Further research suggests that tongue thrusting may be able to sustain an open bite but not create one. </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue thrusting should be considered a finding and not a problem to be treated. </li></ul>
  44. 56. Oral Habits --Tongue Thrust and Mouthbreathing Habits-- <ul><li>Often individuals appear to be mouthbreathers because of their mandibular posture or incompetent lips. </li></ul><ul><li>It is normal for a 3 to 6 year old to be slightly lip incompetent. </li></ul><ul><li>Despite the difficulties in identifying mouthbreathing individuals, there is an indication that a weak relationship may exist between mouthbreathing and malocclusions characterized by a long lower face and maxillary constriction. </li></ul>
  45. 57. ADENOID FACE
  46. 58. CAUSE <ul><li>Retained infantile swallow </li></ul><ul><li>Obstruction of the nasal airway </li></ul><ul><li>Lip in competence </li></ul>
  47. 59. Various causes of nasal obstruction
  48. 60. Evaluation <ul><li>Cotton whiff method </li></ul><ul><li>Double mirror method </li></ul><ul><li>Water holding method </li></ul><ul><li>Ent evaluation </li></ul>
  49. 61. <ul><li>ORAL SCREEN/VESTIBULAR SCREEN </li></ul>
  50. 62. A kraus modification. Oral screen with breathing holes Oral screen + tongue crib
  51. 63. Modification of Hotz
  52. 64. Oral Habits --Nail Biting-- <ul><li>Nail biting is a habit rarely seen before 3 to six years of age. </li></ul><ul><li>The number of people who bite their nails is reported to increase until adolescence. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no evidence that nail biting can cause malocclusion or dental change. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no recommended treatment. </li></ul>
  53. 65. Oral Habits --Bruxism-- <ul><li>Bruxism is a grinding or gnashing of the teeth and is usually reported to be nocturnal. </li></ul><ul><li>Most children engage in some bruxism that results in moderate wear of the primary canines and molars. </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely, does the wear endanger the pulp by proceeding faster than secondary dentin is produced. </li></ul>
  54. 66. CAUSE <ul><li>Occlusal interference </li></ul><ul><li>Systemic problem </li></ul><ul><li>Mental stress (adults) </li></ul>
  55. 67. Oral Habits --Bruxism-- <ul><li>Treatment should begin with simple measures, including the elimination of occlusal interferences and occlusal equilibration if necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>If occlusal interferences are not located or equilibration is not successful, referral to appropriate medical personnel should be considered to rule out any systemic problems (intestinal parasites, allergies, endocrine disorders, etc.). </li></ul>
  56. 68. <ul><li>If neither of these two steps is successful, a mouth guard-like appliance can be constructed to protect the teeth and try to eliminate the grinding habit. </li></ul>
  57. 69. Oral Habits --Self-Mutilation-- <ul><li>Self-mutilation, repetitive acts that result in physical damage to the individual, is extremely rare in the healthy child. </li></ul><ul><li>The incidence of self-mutilation in the mentally retarded population is between 10 and 20%. </li></ul><ul><li>Due to the fact that it always garners attention, it has been suggested that self-mutilation is a learned behavior. </li></ul><ul><li>A frequent manifestation of self-mutilation is biting of the lips, tongue, and oral mucosa. </li></ul><ul><li>Besides behavior modification, treatment for self-mutilation includes use of restraints, protective padding, and sedation. Also, the extraction of selected teeth may be necessary. </li></ul>
  58. 70. ORAL HABITS <ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Proffit, William R. Contemporary Orthodontics , 2 nd edition, Chapter 25, 1993. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Haskell, Bruce S and Mink, John R. “An Aid to Stop Thumb-Sucking: The “Bluegrass” Appliance”, Paediatric Dentsitry, Volume 13, Number 2. </li></ul></ul>

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