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  1. 1. 2010 1.2 Topic One ANATOMY
  2. 2. What is Anatomy?  Anatomy is the study of the body  Its structure (what its made up of)  Its function (how it all works)  Knowledge of human anatomy allows us to have a better understanding of how our body works at rest and during exercise and allows us to apply this knowledge to our sporting interests.
  3. 3. Body Systems  There are many different systems in your body e.g. Digestive system or reproductive system.  During this topic we will look at 5 of them  Skeletal system  Muscular system  Nervous system  Respiratory system  Cardiovascular system
  4. 4. The Skeletal System
  5. 5. The Skeletal System  Is the foundation on which the body structured.  The skeleton is made up from 206 individual bones that when put together create our shape and form the base for which other tissues, organs and muscles attach to.
  6. 6. Functions of Bones Function Definition Example Support Bones provide a framework that supports the body and cradles the soft organs Spine supports the head and trunk Protection Provides protection for the vital organs in the body Cranium protects the brain, ribs support lungs and heart
  7. 7. Movement Skeletal muscles, which are attached to bones by tendons, use the bones as levers to move the body and its parts Bones move because of joints and muscles e.g. Elbow joint is moved by biceps and triceps Storage Bone serves as a reservoir for minerals Calcium and potassium Supply The bulk of blood cell formation occurs within the bone marrow. Red and white blood cells are formed in the bones.
  8. 8. Bone Classifications  Bones come in many shapes and sizes. The unique shape of each bone allows it to perform its different function.  Bones are classified by their shape as follows;  Long  Short  Flat  Irregular
  9. 9.  Long Bones  Are longer than the are wide e.g. Humerus, femur. They provide movement  Short Bones  Are small cube shaped bones e.g. Carpals and Tarsals. Allows small and fine movements  Flat Bones  Are thin, flat and sometimes curved bones e.g. Bones in the cranium. They provide protection.  Irregular Bones  Are bones that fit into none of the other categories are considered irregular e.g. Vertebrae or pelvis. Allows for fine movement.
  10. 10. The Skeleton  The word skeleton comes from a Greek word meaning ‘dried up body’ or ‘mummy’  The skeleton is made up of 206 bones and can be divided into two skeletons:  The Axial Skeleton  This is the bones that form the central column of the body e.g cranium, vertebral column and rib cage  The Appendicular Skeleton  This is the bones of the upper and lower limbs and the shoulder and hip girdles the attach limbs to the axial skeleton
  11. 11. The Anatomical Position  It is important that when discussing parts of the body; movement that happens; positioning of internal organs, bones and muscles that you apply the standardized anatomical position.  This means that there is a standard way of describing where one body part is in relation another regardless of what position the body is in.
  12. 12. 4 Key Features of the Anatomical Position  Palms are facing forward  Thumbs point away from the body  Standing up straight  Feet together
  13. 13. Terms of Reference  When standing in the anatomical position you can refer to body parts, bones or organs in relation to each other by using the different terms of reference.  Usually we would say that ‘the ears are located of each side of the head to the right and left of the nose’. Using anatomical terms of reference it would translate to ‘the ears are lateral to the nose’  Complete Terms of Reference worksheet
  14. 14. Joints
  15. 15. Joints and Movement  Where two bones meet they form a Joint  Movement can only happen where there is a joint. The amount of movement that happens at a joint is determined by what type of joint it is.  There are 3 types of joints;  Fibrous – immoveable, provide protection e.g. Skull and Pelvis  Cartilaginous – slightly moveable, shock absorption e.g. Vertebrae, ribs  Synovial – freely moveable, provides support and stability e.g. Shoulder, knee
  16. 16.  Two key types of synovial joints are the HINGE joint and the BALL AND SOCKET joint.  Hinge joints allow for movement in one direction  Ball and Socket joints allow for movement in many directions
  17. 17. Movements of Synovial Joints  Synovial joints are the freely moveable joints we are only focusing on two of them – hinge and ball and socket.  The movements that occur at these joints depends on the type of joint it is.
  18. 18. Movement Definition Example Flexion Is a bending action that decreases the angle of the joint and brings the bones involved closer together. Arm - Bending at the elbow Hip – raising the thigh towards the trunk Knee – bending at the knee Shoulder – moving the arm forward Extension Is a straightening action that increases the angle of the joint. Arm – straightening the elbow Hip – moving the leg backward (or lowering the thigh) Knee – straightening the knee Shoulder – moving the arm backward
  19. 19. Abduction Moving a limb or part of a limb away from the midline of the body Moving arms and legs out wards when you do a star jump Adduction Moving a limb or part of a limb towards the midline of the body Bring arms and legs back together when doing a star jump Supination Movement of the hand into a palm up position Remember supination as in a soup bowl. Pronation Movement of the hand into a palm down position The opposite of supination Dorsiflexion Pulling the toes up towards the tibia Toes come up like a dorsal fin on a dolphin Plantarflexion Pointing toes downwards Planting your foot on the accelerator
  20. 20. Summary of Notes so far  Skeleton consists of 206 bones  Skeleton has 5 functions:      Protection Storage Supply Support Movement  When describing body parts we always refer to them how they     are when in the Anatomical Position Movement can only happen where there is a JOINT The type of joint determines what kind of movement happens Two key synovial joints are the HINGE and the BALL AND SOCKET. Flexion, Extension, Abduction, Adduction, Pronation, Supination, Plantarflexion and Dorsiflexion are all ways of describing the movement that is taking place at a joint.
  21. 21. The Muscular System
  22. 22. Functions of the Muscular System  Provide movement  Circulation of Blood  Posture and support  Heat production
  23. 23. Muscle Categories  Voluntary Muscles  Are muscles we have control over and choose when to use e.g. Biceps or Quadriceps  Involuntary Muscles  Are muscles that we do not have control over and do not decide when to use them e.g. heart
  24. 24. Types of Muscles  There are 3 types of muscles in your body  Smooth Muscle – Involuntary  Found in arteries, intestines and organs. The contractions of these muscle fibres are slow and sustained.  Cardiac Muscle – Involuntary  Only occurs in the Heart  Skeletal Muscle - Voluntary     Attached directly to the bone via tendons Contraction and Extension Works in pairs Muscle fibres
  25. 25. Skeletal Muscles  Skeletal muscles make up over 1/3 of your body’s mass – over 650 muscles  Muscles are attached to the skeleton by tendons  Muscles work in pairs to produce movement with one muscle contracting and one muscle relaxing.  Muscles can only pull – they can’t push.  The contracting muscle is the agonist or prime mover, the relaxing muscle is the antagonist.
  26. 26.  Skeletal muscles lie over joints in the body. When a muscle contracts (shortens) the bones that the muscle are attached to are pulled in the direction of the contraction.  In the picture the biceps muscle is contracting (agonist). This muscle lies over the elbow joint. When the bicep contracts it shortens and pulls the bones in the lower arm up in the same direction, causing flexion of the arm at the elbow
  27. 27. Muscle structure
  28. 28. Muscle actions Muscle Main Action(s) Deltiod Shoulder abduction, flexion and extension Pectorals Shoulder adduction and flexion Latissimus dorsi Shoulder adduction and extension Triceps Elbow extension Biceps Elbow flexion Abdominals Trunk flexion and rotation Gluteals Hip abduction and extension Hamstring Knee flexion and hip extension Quadriceps Knee extension and hip flexion
  29. 29. The Nervous System
  30. 30. What does the Nervous System do?  The nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system in your body  It is responsible for all behaviour, every thought, action and emotion.  Cells of the nervous system communicate by means of electrical signals which are rapid and specific and create a response.
  31. 31. Functions of the Nervous System  Sensory Input – your body has millions of sensory receptors that monitor change both in and outside of the body and collect information.  Integration – it processes and interprets all of the information and makes decisions about what to do about it.  Motor Output – creates a response in either muscles or organs in response to changes
  32. 32. Nervous System in Action  When you are driving in your car and see a red light (sensory input), your nervous system integrates this information (red light means ‘stop’) and sends a message to the muscles in your leg and foot to contract and relax to move the foot onto the brake (motor output).
  33. 33. Body Types  There are (basically) three different body types that we’ve found in human beings.  Ectomorph  Mesomorph  Endomorph
  34. 34. Ectomorph •Typically have smaller bone structure. •Small frames. •They are usually very lean. •Have difficulty putting on lots of muscle. •Are usually very strong •The fashion model body type. •Famous Ectomorphs include: •Brad Pitt •Edward Norton •Kate Moss •Cameron Diaz
  35. 35. Endomorph  Smooth, round body  Medium to large bones and joints  Short limbs  High fat content  Gains muscle quickly  Loses weight slowly  Famous Endomorphs:      Jack Black Danny Devito Jennifer Lopez Beyonce Marilyn Monroe
  36. 36. Mesomorph  Naturally lean  Naturally muscular  Naturally strong  Medium sized joints  Broad shoulders  Gains muscle easily  Loses fat easily  Responds quickly to exercise  Famous Mesomorphs include:      Arnold Schwqarzenegger Sylvester Stalllone Madonna Halle Berry Gloria Estefan
  37. 37. Find your body type  Go to the following website:  r3.htm  Take the quiz and find out what your body type is.  Research what exercises you should do for your body type.
  38. 38. Finally…  Gym day tomorrow.  Bring your PROPER gym clothes. No gym clothes, no exercise.  Role Play Videos due on Wednesday. Make sure they are finished! 再见