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Protecting Intellectual Property under Trade Marks and Geographical Indications

Concept of protecting IP under trade marks and Geographical Indicatiopn, Registration proceedures and some examples are presented in the slides.

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Protecting Intellectual Property under Trade Marks and Geographical Indications

  1. 1. 1 Protecting Intellectual Properties under Trade Marks and Geographical Indication By:- Dr. Sujit Kumar U.P. Council of Agricultural Research, Lucknow
  2. 2. Kinds of Property  Movable Property  Car, Pen, Furniture, Dress  Immovable Property  Land, Building  Intellectual Property  Literary works, Inventions  Novel creations of human intellect 2
  3. 3. 3 INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY RIGHTS (IPR)  Intellectual Property (IP) is defined as any “ideas, inventions and original creative work manifested in a tangible form that can be legally protected”.  IPRs provide certain exclusive rights to the creators of IP, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. The purpose of IPR legislation is to protect against unauthorized imitation, copying or deceptive usage of identifying marks.  Rights associated with intellectual property which gives legal protection is referred to as IPR.  When we speak of IP rights, we refer to controlling the way IP is used, accessed or distributed.
  4. 4. Nature of Intellectual Property  Creation of human mind (Intellect)  Intangible property  Exclusive rights given by statutes  Attended with limitations and exceptions  Time-bound  Territorial 4
  5. 5. 5 IP- Duration of Term of Protection  Patents (20 years)  Trademarks (10 years + renewals)  Copyrights in published literary, dramatic, musical, and artistic works (Lifetime of author +60 years).  Copyright in photographs ,cinematographic film, sound recordings –(60 years from year in which it was published)  Broadcast reproduction right-(25 years from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the broadcast is made.)  Performers right-(25 years from the beginning of the calendar year next following the year in which the performance is made)  Industrial designs (10 years+ renewal permitted once for 5 years)  Trade-secrets and know how collectively “proprietary technology” (contract period-protected by contract provisions, doctrine of breach of trust)
  6. 6. 6 Trademark
  7. 7. 7 Indian Trademark Act a) The first statutory law related to trademark in India was the Trade Marks Act, 1940 which introduce d a machinery for the registration & statutory protection of trademarks in India. b) This Act of 1940 was replaced by the Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 which consolidated the provisions related to trademarks contained in other statutes like – the Indian Penal Code, Criminal Procedure Code and the Sea Customs Act. c) The Trade and Merchandise Marks Act, 1958 was again repealed by the Trade Marks Act, 1999 and is the current governing law related to registered trademarks. This Act came into force w.e.f. September 15, 2003 vide notification in the official gazette.
  8. 8.  A name of an enterprise or a Mark capable of being represented graphically, distinguishing the goods or services of one person from those of others e. g., LUX, Godrej, TVS ,Telco, 555, APPLE  Trade Mark can be - o sign , words, letters, numbers, o drawings, pictures, emblem, o colours or combination of colours, o shape of goods, o graphic representation or packaging or o any combination of the above as applied to an article or a product. 8 Trademarks
  9. 9. 9  Must be graphically represented  Must be distinctive / distinguishable  Must not be descriptive  Must not be deceptively similar to known /well- known marks /Generics • ORS: ORS-L, ORZ • Cefixime – ZIFI, CEFI, Cefixin Avoid – Geographical Indications / Deities National Leaders / Heroes / Symbols / Laudatory words Characteristics of Trademarks
  10. 10. 10 Kinds of Trademarks • Word Mark • Device Marks (Signs, Symbols, Logos) • Collective Marks • Certification Marks • Service Marks
  11. 11. Registration of Trade Mark  Trade Marks are registered by national trade mark registries and are valid in that country  Registration is made after examination and publication  Period of registration is for 10 years but can be renewed indefinitely 11
  12. 12. WELLKNOWN MARKS •Coca Cola for soft drink •Toblerone (Triangular- shaped chocolates) Trade Names •Godrej- Furniture, Refrigerators, Storewell, Compactor etc •GE- Bulbs 12
  13. 13. Forms of Trademarks  Visual: Words, letters, numerals, devices including drawings and symbols or 2-D representations of object or a combination of two or more of these, colour combinations or colour per se, 3-D sign as shape of goods or packaging.  Audio: Sounds, Musical Notes  Olfactory: Smells 13
  14. 14. What is protected and what’s not?  Right to use TM in relation to goods/ services as registered are protected (If TM consists of several parts, protection is for TM as a whole)  State Emblems, Official Hallmarks, Emblems of Intergovernmental Organizations cannot be used as TM. 14
  15. 15. 15 Geographical Indications
  16. 16. 16 G.I. (Geographical Indications) Name or sign used on goods originating from specific geographical origin or location and possess qualities, reputation or characteristics that are essentially attributable to that place of origin.
  17. 17. Geographical Indication India, as a member of the World Trade Organization (WTO), enacted the Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act, 1999 has come into force with effect from 15th September 2003.  Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Act, 1999  Geographical Indications of Goods (Registration & Protection) Rules, 2002 17
  18. 18. Registration  In India, geographical indications have to be registered.  Geographical Indications Registry examines and publishes the application before registration  Registration is valid for 10 years but can be renewed indefinitely 18
  19. 19. The GI Act, 1999  Punishment for falsifying GI: Imprisonment between 6 months to 3 years, & Fine between Rs. 50,000/- and Rs. 2 lakh  Registration: Controller General of Patents, Designs and Trade Mark shall be the Registrar of GI  Who can Apply: Any association of persons or any organization or authority under law representing the interest of procedures of concerned goods.  Duration: 10 years ( Renewed from time to time after payment of prescribed fee). Can be kept alive for an indefinite period 19
  20. 20. Some GIs of India 20
  21. 21. Geographical Indications Registered in Uttar Pradesh 21 No. Geographical Indication Type 1. Allahabad Surkha Agricultural 2. Lucknow Chikan Craft Handicraft 3. Mango Malihabadi Dusseheri Agricultural 4. Banaras Brocades and Sarees Handicraft 5. Handmade Carpet of Bhadohi Handicraft 6. Agra Durries Handicraft 7. Farrukhabad Prints Handicraft 8. Lucknow Zardozi Handicraft 9. Banaras Brocades and Sarees (Logo) Handicraft 10. Kalanamak Rice Agricultural 11. Firozabad Glass Handicraft 12. Kannauj Perfume Manufactured 13. Kanpur Saddlery Manufactured 14. Moradabad Metal Craft Handicraft 15. Saharanpur Wood Craft Handicraft
  22. 22. Agricultural Based Geographical Indications Registered in India 22 No. Geographical Indication State 1. Darjeeling Tea (word & logo) West Bengal 2. Kangra Tea Himachal Pradesh 3. Coorg Orange Karnataka 4. Mysore Betel leaf Karnataka 5. Nanjanagud Banana Karnataka 6. Mysore Jasmine Karnataka 7. Udupi Jasmine Karnataka 8. Hadagali Jasmine Karnataka 9. Navara rice Kerala 10. Palakkadan Matta Rice Kerala 11. Malabar Pepper Kerala 12. Allahabad Surkha Uttar Pradesh 13. Monsooned Malabar Arabica Coffee Karnataka 14. Monsooned Malabar Robusta Coffee Karnataka 15. Spices - Alleppey Green Cardamom Kerala 16. Coorg Green Cardamom Karnataka 17. Eathomozhy Tall Coconut Tamil Nadu
  23. 23. 23 No. Geographical Indication State 18. Pokkali Rice Kerala 19. Laxman Bhog Mango West Bengal 20. Khirsapati (Himsagar) Mango West Bengal 21. Fazli Mango West Bengal 22. Naga Mircha Nagaland 23. Nilgiri(Orthodox) Logo Tamil Nadu 24. Assam (Orthodox) Logo Assam 25. Virupakshi Hill Banana Tamil Nadu 26. Sirumalai Hill Banana Tamil Nadu 27. Mango Malihabadi Dusseheri Uttar Pradesh 28. Vazhakulam Pineapple Kerala 29. Devanahalli Pomello Karnataka 30. Appemidi Mango Karnataka 31. Kamalapur Red Banana Karnataka 32. Bikaneri Bhujia Rajasthan 33. Guntur Sannam Chilli Andhra Pradesh 34. Mahabaleshwar Strawberry Maharashtra Continue…..
  24. 24. 24 No. Geographical Indication State 35. Central Travancore Jaggery Kerala 36. Wayanad Jeerakasala Rice Kerala 37. Wayanad Gandhakasala Rice Kerala 38. Nashik Grapes Maharashtra 39. Byadgi chilli Karnataka 40. Gir Kesar Mango Gujarat 41. Bhalia Wheat Gujarat 42. Udupi Mattu Gulla Brinjal Karnataka 43. Ganjam Kewda Rooh Orissa 44. Ganjam Kewda Flower Orissa 45. Madurai Malli Tamil Nadu 46. Bangalore Blue Grapes Karnataka 47. Kalanamak Rice Uttar Pradesh 48. Kaipad Rice Kerala 49. Kolhapur Jaggery Maharashtra 50. Nagpur Orange Maharashtra Continue…..
  25. 25. GIs Registered in Different Categories 25 Agricultural, 26% Manufacture, 8% Food, 2% Handicraft, 64%
  26. 26. 26