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Variable
Hypothesis
Difference
Relationship
BY M.SULEMAN TARIQ
 A variable is defined as a characteristic of the
participants or situation for a given study that
has different values i...
 Types of Hypothesis
◦ Differential Hypothesis
◦ Associational Hypothesis
 Dependant Variable
 Independent Variable
 Mediating Variable
 Moderating Variable
A B
A B
C
A B
C
 Operationalization is the process of defining
a concept so that it becomes measurable
variable
Steps of Operationalization
8
 Does the instrument measure things
consistently?
 Ways to establish reliability
◦ Test-retest
◦ Internal consistency fo...
 .7 = Good
 .8 = Very good, strong
 .9 = or greater -> Excellent
Validity = does the
test measure what
its meant to
measure?
 Categorical Variable
◦ Nominal Variable
◦ Ordinal Variable
 Scale Variable
Gender
 Conveys order
 Directly Measureable
◦ GPA, Age, Height, Weight, Temperature, Salary, Job
Experience
 Instrument Development
 Complete Data Collection
 Coding
 Check and Correct Errors
 Define Variable Name
 Labeling
...
Statistics
The heights (at the shoulders) are: 600mm, 470mm, 170mm, 430mm and 300mm.
 Correlation is Positive when the values increase together, and
 Correlation is Negative when one value decreases as the...
Spss workshop slides
Spss workshop slides
Spss workshop slides
Spss workshop slides
Spss workshop slides
Spss workshop slides
Spss workshop slides
Spss workshop slides
Spss workshop slides
Spss workshop slides
Spss workshop slides
Spss workshop slides
Spss workshop slides
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Spss workshop slides

  1. 1. Variable Hypothesis Difference Relationship BY M.SULEMAN TARIQ
  2. 2.  A variable is defined as a characteristic of the participants or situation for a given study that has different values in that study Morgan et. al (2004)  Base of Research => Variable  Gender: Study 1: Variable Study 2: Constant
  3. 3.  Types of Hypothesis ◦ Differential Hypothesis ◦ Associational Hypothesis
  4. 4.  Dependant Variable  Independent Variable  Mediating Variable  Moderating Variable A B A B C A B C
  5. 5.  Operationalization is the process of defining a concept so that it becomes measurable variable
  6. 6. Steps of Operationalization
  7. 7. 8
  8. 8.  Does the instrument measure things consistently?  Ways to establish reliability ◦ Test-retest ◦ Internal consistency for multiple measures for the same construct  Cronbach’s alpha (Overall  .70)
  9. 9.  .7 = Good  .8 = Very good, strong  .9 = or greater -> Excellent
  10. 10. Validity = does the test measure what its meant to measure?
  11. 11.  Categorical Variable ◦ Nominal Variable ◦ Ordinal Variable  Scale Variable
  12. 12. Gender
  13. 13.  Conveys order
  14. 14.  Directly Measureable ◦ GPA, Age, Height, Weight, Temperature, Salary, Job Experience
  15. 15.  Instrument Development  Complete Data Collection  Coding  Check and Correct Errors  Define Variable Name  Labeling  Define Different Values  Set Missing Value (if any)  Data Entry  Apply Test-Estimate the Model/Variables
  16. 16. Statistics
  17. 17. The heights (at the shoulders) are: 600mm, 470mm, 170mm, 430mm and 300mm.
  18. 18.  Correlation is Positive when the values increase together, and  Correlation is Negative when one value decreases as the other increases
  • psychologistschool

    Sep. 15, 2018

IT ABOUT THE USE OF SPSS SOFTWARE.

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