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Literary Tradition of Tamil-Pathinen Melkanakku


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Assistant Professor
Department of Linguistics
Bharathiar University,Coimbatore-46
Visiting Professor ,ICCR’s Tamil Chair
Institute of Oriental Studies, Dept. of Indology
Jagiellonian University, Krakow-Poland

Published in: Education, Technology
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Literary Tradition of Tamil-Pathinen Melkanakku

  1. 1. Literary Tradition of Tamil ettuthokai pathupattu pathinen melkanakku Dr.S.Sundarabalu Assistant Professor Department of Linguistics Bharathiar University,Coimbatore-46 Visiting Professor ,ICCR’s Tamil Chair Institute of Oriental Studies, Dept. of Indology Jagiellonian University, Krakow-Poland 1
  2. 2. Literary Tradition of Tamil குறள் 2 கற்றதனால் ஆய பயனனன்னகால் வாலறிவன் நற்றாள் னதாழாஅர் எனின் விளக்கம்: தன்னனவிட அறிவில் மூத்த னபருந்தனகயாளரின் முன்னன வணங்கி நிற்கும் பண்பு இல்லாவிடில் என்னதான் ஒருவர் கற்றிருந்தாலும் அதனால் என்ன பயன்? ஒன்றுமில்னல Couplet .2 Thirukkural No fruit have men of all their studied lore, Save they the 'Purely Wise One's' feet adore Explanation What Profit have those derived from learning, who worship not the good feet of Him who is possessed of pure knowledge ? 2 cittaantarettinam Dr.S.Sundarabalu Assistant Professor Department of Linguistics Bharathiar University Coimbatore-46 9715769995
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  4. 4. • The Tamil Sangams or Tamil Cankams were assemblies of Tamil scholars and poets that, according to traditional Tamil accounts, occurred in the remote past. Scholars believe that these assemblies were originally known as kooṭal or gathering. which was also a name for Madurai. • Three assemblies are described. The legend has it that the first two of which were held in cities since "taken by the sea", and the third of which was held during the 5th century BC in the present-day city of Madurai. • The word sangam has its mention in the sense of an 'academy’ 4
  5. 5. Sangam Place of Organisation Chairman Kingdom Books First Thenmadurai Agastya Pandiya No books survived Second Kapatapuram Earlier- Agastya Later- Tolkappiyar (a disciple of Agastaya) Pandiya Tolkappiyam (author - Tolkappiyar) Third Madurai Nakkirar Pandiya covers entire corpus of Sangam Literature 5
  6. 6. Sri Agasthiyar It is believed that sage Agasthiyar was instrumental in spreading the Vedic religion in southern India. Agastya is also recognized as one of Seven Great Sages (Saptarishis). Sage Agasthiyar has also contributed immensely to the four Vedas. Agasthiyar is also the leader of all Siddhas. His contributions are mainly in the fields of Medicine (Siddha) and Astrology - especially Nadi Jodhidam (Jos(i)yam or Jothisyam). He is said to have lived for over 5000 years, and that one of his medicinal preparations, Boopathi Kuligai, is so powerful that it can even bring the dead back to life. Two of his students and disciples were Therayar and Tholkappiar. He is also considered to be the guru of many other Siddhars. 6
  7. 7. • Sangam literature refers to a body of classical Tamil literature created between the years c. 600 BCE to 300 CE. This collection contains 2381 poems composed by 473 poets, some 102 of whom remain anonymous . • The period during which these poems were composed is commonly referred to as the Sangam period, referring to the prevalent Sangam legends claiming literary academies lasting thousands of years, giving the name to the corpus of literature. Sangam literature is primarily secular dealing with everyday themes in a Tamilakam context. 7
  8. 8. • The poems belonging to the Sangam literature were composed by Tamil poets, both men and women, from various professions and classes of society. These poems were later collected into various anthologies, edited, and with colophons (A brief description of publication) added by anthologists and annotators around 1000 AD. 8
  9. 9. • Compilation of literature • The available literature from this period was categorized and compiled in the 10th century into two categories based roughly on chronology. The categories are: • The Major Eighteen Anthology Series (பதினனண்னமல்கணக்கு) comprising • (1)The Eight Anthologies (எட்டுத்னதானக) and (2)the Ten Idylls (பத்துப்பாட்டு) and • The Minor Eighteen Anthology Series (பதினனண்கீழ்கணக்கு) 9
  10. 10. • Classification • Sangam Poems falls into two categories: the 'inner field' (Agam – அகம்), and the 'outer field'(Puram – புறம்) as described even in the first available Tamil grammar, the Tolkappiyam. • The 'inner field' topics refer to personal or human aspects, such as love and sexual relationships, and are dealt with in a metaphorical and abstract manner. The 'outer field' topics discuss all other aspects of human experience such as heroism, valour(courage), ethics, benevolence(kindness), philanthropy(humanity), social life, and customs. 10 Agam in the Sangam literature denotes the subject matters that deal with the intangibles of life such as human emotions, love, separation, lovers' quarrels, etc.
  11. 11. • Nature Poetry: Sangam poetry is nature poetry. The elements of nature are intertwined with love,  valor (Courage and boldness),  agony (The suffering of intense physical or mental pain),  ecstasy (A state of emotion so intense that one is carried beyond rational thought and self-control:) ,  kindness,  war,  Cruelty(Causing suffering; painful),  honor, (High respect, as that shown for special merit)  charity, (relief to the poor)  friendship and many more facets of humanity. 11
  12. 12. • A poem is a literary creation, and poetry is the art form. A poem is a single piece of poetry, complete in itself. • Poetry is the collective term used to describe a group of poems, which may or may not be related by theme, author, or style. 12 poem Poetry
  13. 13. • The Sangam poets never lost sight of the physical world around them. Keenly observing nature, they brought to life the fauna (A catalog of the animals of a specific region or period) and flora (Plants considered as a group, especially the plants of a particular country, region, or time), and used them effectively in almost every poem, to make known human emotions, thereby creating beautiful characters part. • There are over one hundred trees described in the poems. One can travel back in time and see many mammals, reptiles, insects, birds, bushes, vines, flowers, mountains, forests, ponds, waterfalls, rivers and streams in the Tamil country. The sky with the constellations, sun, moon, stars and planets are also used effectively. 13
  14. 14. • Akam: Poems that view life from inside the family, and concern the love between man and woman. • Puram: Poems that view life from outside the family, and deal with topics such as the king, heroism, battle, ethics, and the life of wandering bards and poets • Akam- akathinai • Puram-purathinai • Thinai- behaviour, conduct, character, virtue14
  15. 15. • The Sangam landscape (Tamil: அகத்திணை "inner classification") is the name given to a poetic device that was characteristic of love poetry in classical Tamil Sangam literature. • The core of the device was the categorisation of poems into different tiṇais or modes, depending on the nature, location, mood and type of relationship represented by the poem. 15
  16. 16. • Each tiṇai was closely associated with a particular landscape, and imagery associated with that landscape - its flowers, trees, wildlife, people, climate and geography - was woven into the poem in such a way as to convey a mood, associated with one aspect of a romantic relationship. 16
  17. 17. • Symbolism • Classical Tamil love poetry assigns the human experiences it describes, and in particular the subjective topics that those experiences relate to, to specific habitats(The place where a person or thing is most likely to be found). Every situation in the poems is described using themes in which the time, the place and the floral symbols of each episode are codified. 17
  18. 18. • These codifications are used as symbols to imply a socio-economic order, occupations and behaviour patterns, which, in turn, are symbolized, by specific flora and fauna. • Details of secondary aspects are just as rigidly codified - the seasons, the hour a god, musical instruments and, above all, the sentimental connotations of each landscape: lovers' meetings, patient waiting, lovers' quarrels, separation, and the nervously awaited return. 18
  19. 19. Geographical and non-geographical thinais • Under this codification, the inner universe associated with love is divided into seven modes, or thinai, five of which are geographical and associated with specific landscapes, and two of which are non-geographical and not associated with any specific landscape. Four of the geographical landscapes are described as being landscapes that occur naturally in the Tamil lands. 19
  20. 20. • These are: 1. kuṟiñci (குறிஞ்சி) - mountainous regions, associated with union, 2. mullai (முல்ணை) - forests, associated with waiting, 3. marutam (மருதம்) - cropland, associated with quarreling, and 4. neytal (நெய்தல்) - seashore, associated with pining. 5. The fifth - pālai (பாணை), or desert, associated with separation - is described in the Tolkappiyam as not being a naturally existing landscape. 20
  21. 21. • As we may see, considering both kalavu and karpu, pre–marital and wedded (plus extramarital) love, and both well–matched and ill–matched union, the theory provides for a minute description of the entire range of human erotic experience, for the total love–experience of man and woman. • 21
  22. 22. Phase of love Landscape Union of lovers Kurinci – Hills Domesticity, patient waiting Mullai – Forests Lover’s infidelity (unfaithfulness), sulking scenes Marutam – Cultivated fields Separation, anxious(nervous) waiting Neytal – Sea–coast Elopement (To run away with a lover, especially with the intention of getting married), hardships, separation from lover or parents Palai – Wasteland 22
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  24. 24. • The two non-geographical modes - kaikkilai and peruntiṇai - were seen as dealing with emotions that were unnatural, and therefore were not associated with any specific landscape. Kaikkilai, dealt with unreciprocated or one-sided love, while peruntiṇai, dealt with improper love or love against the rules of custom. 24
  25. 25. Name of the region and poetic name Kurinci Mullai Marutam Neytal Palai Landscape Mountains Forest, pasture Cultivated countryside Seashore Wasteland Season Cold season, early frost Rainy season All seasons All seasons Summer, late dew Time Night Evening Dawn(to begin to grow light after the night) Sunrise Midday Hero Poruppan, verpan, cilampan, natan Natan, tonral Uran, makilnan Cerppan, pulampan Vitalar, kalar, mili Heroine Kuratti, koticci Manaivi, kilatti Kilatti, manaivi Nulaicci, paratti Eyini People Kuravar, kanavar Itaiyar, idaicci Ularar, kataiyar Nulavar, paratai, alavar Eyinai, maravar Occupation Guarding millet fields, honey gathering Pastoral occupation, field work Agriculture Drying fish, selling salt Wayfarers, robbery, fighting Pastimes Bathing in water–falls and streams Bull–fight, kuravai dance Bathing in ponds, festivals, arts Bathing Dancing, fighting Settlements Cirrur, cirukuti Cirrur, pati Perur, mutur Pakkam, pattinam Kurumpu Waters Water–fall, hull–pond Pond, rivulet River, pool, well Well, sea, salt– marches Waterless well, stagnant water Beasts Monkey, tiger, bear, elephant Deer, harc Buffalo, freshwater fish, otter (Animals) any freshwater) Crocodile, shark Wild dog, tiger, lizard, elephant Birds Peacock, parrot Jungle hen, sparrow Heron, stork, swan Sea–gull, marine crow Dove, eagle, kite, hawk Trees Teak, sandal, bamboo, jack Konrai, waterlily, red kantal, pitavam Mango, lotus Punnai, talai–shrub, muntakam, atampu Ulinai, oman, cactus Food Millet, mountain–rice Varaku, tuvarai Rice Fish – Instrument Tontaka–drum, mountain lute Erru–drum, forest–lute Mana–drum, kinai, field–lute Pampai–drum, vilari lute Utukkai–drum, desert– lute Melody type Kurincippan Catari Marutappan Cevvali Curam God Murugan Mayon (Tirumal) Intiran Verunan Korravar (Kali) 25
  26. 26. Pastoral occupation Rivulet Swan Dawn stork Heron shark 26
  27. 27. • A literary tradition is a language that is written and spoken as well. Literary traditions are thought to have a form of an underlying interconnectedness and coherence making them more than work that is from similar geography or group. • The continuity of a literary tradition is derived from two social factors: • first, authors directly and indirectly react to the works of other authors in their tradition; and • second, that authors express themes in their writings that derive from a common cultural tradition with other writers in this literary tradition. 27
  28. 28. • TAMIL LITERATURE The recorded history of the Tamil literature can be grouped broadly into seven periods. They are: 1. Sangam Period - 3rd Century BCE-2nd Century CE 2. Later Sangam Period - 2nd Century CE- 6th Century CE 3. Pallava Period - 6thCentury CE-9the Century CE 4. Chola Period - 9th Century CE-12th Century CE 5. Nayak Period – 13th Century CE-17th Century CE 6. European Period - 17th Century CE-19th Century CE 7. Present Period - 20th Century CE onwards 28
  29. 29. • For our purposes, the Tamil literature may broadly be classified into: (i) Sangam Classics (ii) Bhakthi or Devotional Literature (iii) Ethics, and (iv) Modern Literature 29
  30. 30. • (i) Sangam Classics The early Tamil literatures are called Sangam Classics. Sangam Classics are mostly descriptive. They describe nature, human feelings, love, lovers, husband-wife relations, war, etc. Pathuppattu, an anthology of ten poems, and Ettuthokai, a collection of eight anthologies, are two major Sangam Classics. Above mentioned 36 anthologies has divided in two in the name of Pathinenkizhkankku and Pathinenmelkankku 30
  31. 31. The following are known as Pathuppattu. The following are known as Ettuthokai. 1 Thirumurukarruppadai 1 Narrinai 2 Porunararruppadai 2 Kurunthokai 3 Perumpanarruppadai 3 Aynkurunuru 4 Sirupanarruppadai 4 Pathirruppathu 5 Mullaippattu 5 Paripadal 6 Maduraikanchi 6 Kalithokai 7 Nedunalvadai 7 Agananuru 8 Kurinchippattu 8 Purananuru 9 Pattinappalai 10 Malaipadukadam 31
  32. 32. 1.Ainkurunuru (Tamil: ஐங்குறுநூறு, Aiṅkuṟunūṟu ) a classical Tamil poetic work containing five hundred short poems, and is part of Ettuthokai, an anthology of Sangam literature. The poems in this book were written by five authors and were compiled by Kudalur Kizhar at the request of Chera King Yanaikkatcey Mantaran Ceral Irumporai. 32
  33. 33. 33 ஐங்குறுநூறு 255, கபிலர், குறிஞ்சித் திணை – தணலவன் ததோழனிடம் சசோன்னது குன்றக் குறவன் காதல் மட மகள் வனையை மகளிர்ப் புனையும் சாயலள் ஐயள் அரும்பிய முனலயள் னசய்ய வாயினள் மார்பினள் சுணங்னக. Kuṉṟak kuṟavaṉ kātal maṭamakaḷ Varaiyara makaḷirp puraiyuñ cāyalaḷ Aiyaḷ arumpiya mulaiyaḷ Ceyya vāyiṉaḷ mārpiṉaḷ cuṇaṅkē Meanings: குன்றக் குறவன் கோதல் மடமகள் – loving daughter of the mountain man, வணையை மகளிர் – mountain deities, புணையும் – like, சோயலள் – looks, ஐயள் – beautiful/delicate girl, அரும்பிய முணலயள் – bud like breasts, சசய்ய வோயினள் – she has red mouth, மோர்பினள் சுைங்தக – spots of her breast Ainkurunūru 255, Kapilar, Kurinji Thinai – What the hero told his friend The loving innocent daughter of the mountain man has the looks of mountain deities. She is pretty with her red mouth and budding breasts with spots.
  34. 34. • ஐங்குறுநூறு 256, கபிலர், குறிஞ்சித் திணை – தணலவன் ததோழியிடம் சசோன்னது Ainkurunūru 256, Kapilar, Kurinji Thinai – What the hero said to the heroine’s friend குன்றக் குறவன் காதல் மடமகள் வண்டு படு கூந்தல் தண் தனழக் னகாடிச்சி வனளயள் முனள வாள் எயிற்றள் இனளயள் ஆயினும் ஆர் அணங்கினனள. Meanings: குன்றக் குறவன் – mountain dweller, காதல் மடமகள் – loving naive((naɪˈiːv) simplicity of nature) daughter, வண்டு படு கூந்தல் – bee swarming (A large number of insects) hair, தண் தனழ – cool leaves made into garments, னகாடிச்சி – mountain girl, வனளயள் – bangled girl, முனள – sprouts (To begin to grow;), வாள் – bright, எயிற்றள் – teeth, இனளயள் ஆயினும் ஆர் அணங்கினனள – young girl, but has caused me pain (agony -The suffering of intense physical or mental pain) 34
  35. 35. 35 The mountain dweller’s loving naive daughter, with her bee-swarming fragrant hair, cool leaf clothes, bangles, and bright sprout-like teeth, has caused me agony even though she is just a young girl.
  36. 36. In the poems on Akam, the aspects of love of a hero and a heroine are described. The story of love is never conceived as a continuous whole. A particular moment of love is captured and described in each poem as the speech of the hero or the lady- companion or somebody else. A young man leading a peaceful life of love and affection with his wife is referred as "A bird with two heads and one soul" 2.Akanaṉūṟu It contains 400 Akam (subjective) poems dealing with matters of love and separation. Other names for Akananuru include Neduntogai or ("the long anthology") 36
  37. 37. அகநோனுறு 318, கபிலர், குறிஞ்சி திணை, தணலவி தணலவனிடம் சசோன்னது கான மா அதர் யானனயும் வழங்கும் வான மீ மினச உருமு நனி உைறும் அைவும் புலியும் அஞ்சுதகவுனடய இைவழங்கு சிறு னநறி தமினய வருதி வனை இழி யருவிப் பாட்னடாடு பிைசம் முழவுச் னசர் நைம்பின் இம்னமன இமிரும் பழ விறல் நனந்தனலப் பயமனல நாட மன்றல் னவண்டினும் னபறுகுனவ ஒன்னறா இன்று தனலயாக வாைல் வரினன ஏமுறு துயைனமாடு யாம் இவண் ஒழிய எம் கண்டு னபயரும் கானல யாழ நின் கல் னகழு சிறுகுடி எய்திய பின்னற ஊதல் னவண்டுமாற் சிறினத னவட்னடாடு னவய் பயில் அழுவத்துப் பிரிந்த நின் நாய் பயிர் குறி நினல னகாண்ட னகானட. 37
  38. 38. Akanānūru 318, Kapilar, Kurinji Thinai – What the heroine said to the hero You come alone in the fearful night, when forest animals walk on the paths, elephants roam, loud (roam-To move about without purpose ) thunder roars on the skies above, (roars -deep, prolonged sound ) and there are snakes and tigers on the narrow paths. O man from the country with fruitful mountains, ancient victories, wide spaces, music of waterfalls that mingle with the sounds of humming bees like drum beats that mix with lute strings! If you desire marriage, you will get it. But one thing! From today onward, do not come at night! Should you come, for my confusion and suffering to go away, when you leave after visiting me, once you reach your small town filled with boulders, blow it a little bit, your long horn that you use in the bamboo jungle to signal your position to your straying hunters and dogs. 38
  39. 39. 3.Purananuru is one of the eight books in the secular anthology of Sangam literature .Purananuru contains 400 poems of varying lengths in the Akaval meter. More than 150 poets wrote the poems. It is not known when or who collected these poems into these anthologies. Purananuru is a source of information on the political and social history of pre-historic Tamil Nadu. There is information on the various rulers who ruled the Tamil country before and during the Sangam era (1000 BCE – 300 CE). 39
  40. 40. • Meanings: யாதும் ஊனை – every town is our town, யாவரும் னகளிர் – everyone is a relative, தீதும் நன்றும் பிறர் தை வாைா – evil and goodness do not come to us because of what others did, னநாதலும் தணிதலும் அவற்னறாைன்ன – nor do suffering and end of suffering, சாதலும் புதுவது அன்னற – death is not anything new, வாழ்தல் இனிது என மகிழ்ந்தன்றும் இலனம – we do not rejoice that living is sweet, முனிவின் இன்னாது என்றலும் இலனம – we do not say that living is miserable, மின்னனாடு – with lightning, வானம் தண் துளி தனலஇ – skies pour cold rain, ஆனாது – without end, கல் னபாருது – hitting against and rock, இைங்கும் – roaring, மல்லல் னபர் யாற்று – powerful huge river, நீர் வழிப் படூஉம் புனண னபால – like a raft caught in the water, ஆருயிர் – precious life, முனற வழிப் படூஉம் – makes its way, என்பது திறனவார் காட்சியின் னதளிந்தனம் – through the vision of those who have understood, ஆகலின், மாட்சியின் னபரினயானை வியத்தலும் இலனம – so, we are not awed by those who are great, சிறினயானை இகழ்தல் அதனினும் இலனம – and even less, we do not despise those who are weak 40
  41. 41. யோதும் ஊதை, யோவரும் தகளிர், தீதும் நன்றும் பிறர்தை வோைோ, தநோதலும் தைிதலும் அவற்தறோ ைன்ன சோதலும் புதுவது அன்தற, வோழ்தல் இனிதுஎன மகிழ்ந்தன்றும் இலதம, முனிவின் இன்னோது என்றலும் இலதம, பின்சனோடு வோனம் தண் துளி தணலஇ ஆனோது கல் சபோருது இைங்கும் மல்லல் தபர்யோற்று நீர்வழிப் படுஉம் புணைதபோல் ஆருயிர் முணறவழிப் படுஉம் என்பது திறதவோர் கோட்சியின் சதளிந்தனம் ஆதலின் மோட்சியின் சபரிதயோணை வியத்தலும் இலதம, சிறிதயோணை இகழ்தல் அதனினும் இலதம. (கைியன் பூங்குன்றன், புற நோனூறு, 192). Puranānūru 192, Poet Kaniyan Poonkundranār, Thinai: Pothuviyal, Thurai: Porunmoli Kānji All towns are ours. Everyone is our kin. Evil and goodness do not come to us because they are given by others. Nor do suffering and the ending of suffering. Death is nothing new. We do not rejoice when living is sweet. When we suffer we do not say that living is miserable. Through the vision of those who have understood, we know that precious life makes its way like a raft riding a powerful huge river that roars endlessly, fed by cold rains with with bolts of lightning as it crashes against rocks. So, we are not awed by those who are great. Much less, we do not despise those who are weak! Notes: This is the only Puranānūru poem written by this poet, who came from a town called Poonkundram near Ramanathapuram. The town goes by the name Makipālanpatti now. 41
  42. 42. 42
  43. 43. புறநோனூறு 187, போடியவர்: ஔணவயோர், திணை: சபோதுவியல், துணற: சபோருண்சமோழிக் கோஞ்சி நாடாக ஒன்னறா காடாக ஒன்னறா அவலாக ஒன்னறா மினசயாக ஒன்னறா எவ்வழி நல்லவர் ஆடவர் அவ்வழி நல்னல வாழிய நிலனன. 43 Puranānūru 187, Poet Avvaiyār, Thinai: Pothuviyal, Thurai: Porunmoli Kānji May you live long, land! Whether you are cleared land, forests valleys or mountains, if men who live there are good, there will be goodness there! Meanings: நோடோக ஒன்தறோ – whether you are just land, கோடோக ஒன்தறோ – whether you are forests, அவலோக ஒன்தறோ – whether you are valleys, மிணசயோ ஒன்தறோ – or land above/mountains, எவ்வழி நல்லவர் ஆடவர் – where men are good, அவ்வழி நல்ணல – there you will be goodness there, வோழிய நிலதன – may you live long, land/country Valleys- An elongated lowland between ranges of mountains, hills,
  44. 44. சதண் கடல் வளோகம் – place/round place surrounded by clear water, சபோதுணம இன்றி – not considering that it is common/ruling with strength, சவண் குணட நிழற்றிய ஒருணமதயோர்க்கும் – those who rule with their white umbrellas, நடுநோள் யோமத்தும் பகலும் துஞ்சோன் – he does not sleep in the middle of the night or during the day, கடு மோப் போர்க்கும் – stalking fast animals, கல்லோ ஒருவற்கும் – one who is uneducated, உண்பது நோழி – what we eat is a measure of food to eat, உடுப்பணவ இைண்தட – there are only two clothes to wear, பிறவும் எல்லோம் ஓசைோக்குதம – others are all comparable, அதனோல் சசல்வத்துப் பயதன ஈதல் – so, the benefit of wealth is charity, (charity- Provision of help or relief to the poor;) துய்ப்தபம் எனிதன – if you think of enjoying it, தப்புந பலதவ – many matters will fail . Puranānūru 189, Poet Mathurai Kanakkāyanār Makanār Nakkeeranār, Thinai: Pothuviyal, Thurai: Porunmoli Kānji 44
  45. 45. 45 uranānūru 189, Poet Mathurai Kanakkāyanār Makanār Nakkeeranār, Thinai: Pothuviyal, Thurai: Porunmoli Kānji Between those who rule with white umbrellas, not sharing with others this earth surrounded by clear waters, and an uneducated man who stalks fast animals in the middle of the night and during the day without sleeping, there is everything in common: the need for a measure of food to eat and two sets of clothes. So, the purpose of wealth is charity. If one thinks of enjoying wealth themselves, many matters will fail! புறநோனூறு 189, போடியவர்: மதுணைக் கைக்கோயனோர் மகனோர் நக்கீைனோர், திணை: சபோதுவியல், துணற: சபோருண்சமோழிக் கோஞ்சி னதண் கடல் வளாகம் னபாதுனம இன்றி னவண் குனட நிழற்றிய ஒருனமனயார்க்கும் நடுநாள் யாமத்தும் பகலும் துஞ்சான் கடு மாப் பார்க்கும் கல்லா ஒருவற்கும் உண்பது நாழி உடுப்பனவ இைண்னட பிறவும் எல்லாம் ஓனைாக்குனம அதனால் னசல்வத்துப் பயனன ஈதல் துய்ப்னபம் எனினன தப்புந பலனவ.
  46. 46. ஈ என இைத்தல் இழிந்தன்று – it is a dishonor to beg, அதன் எதிர் ஈதயன் என்றல் அதனினும் இழிந்தன்று – on the other hand, it is even more dishonor to say “I won’t give”, சகோள் எனக் சகோடுத்தல் உயர்ந்தன்று – it is superior to say, “Take this” and give, அதன் எதிர் சகோள்தளன் என்றல் அதனினும் உயர்ந்தன்று – it is even higher than that to say “I will not accept it”, Puranānūru 204, Poet Kalaithin Yānaiyār sang to Valvil Ōri, Thinai: Pādān, Thurai: Parisil 46
  47. 47. 4.Kalithogai is an anthology of 150 poems in kali metre of varied length dealing with all phases and types of love experience. The poems are categorised into the five thinais according to the mood and subject matter conforming to the Sangam landscape. The first part (2-36) deals with paalai setting, the second (37-65) with kurinchi, the third (66-100) with marutam, the fourth (101-117) with mullai and the fifth (118-150) with neital. These five section were each written by a separate author. 47
  48. 48. One of the best examples from this compilation is the one attributed to Nallanthuvanar. 1. ஆற்றுதல்' என்பது, ஒன்று அலந்தவர்க்கு உதவுதல்; ‘2. னபாற்றுதல்' என்பது, புணர்ந்தானை பிரியானம; ‘3. பண்பு' எனப்படுவது, பாடு அறிந்து ஒழுகுதல்; ‘4. அன்பு' எனப்படுவது, தன் கினள னசறாஅனம; ‘5. அறிவு' எனப்படுவது, னபனதயார் னசால் னநான்றல்; ‘6. னசறிவு' எனப்படுவது, கூறியது மறாஅனம; ‘7. நினற' எனப்படுவது, மனற பிறர் அறியானம; ‘8.முனற' எனப்படுவது, கண்னணாடாது உயிர் னவௌவல்; ‘9. னபானற' எனப்படுவது, னபாற்றானை னபாறுத்தல். 1.Goodness is helping one in distress (pain); 2.Support is not deserting(leave) one who is dependent; 3.Culture is to act in unison(Identity of pitch) with the ways of the world; 4.Love is not surrendering ties with one’s kin; 5.Wisdom is to ignore the advice of the ignorant; 6.Honesty is not to go back on one’s words; 7.Integrity is to ignore others’ faults; 8.Justice is awarding punishment without partiality; 9.Patience is to suffer the ill-disposed. (Kalithogai 133) (Translated by C.K. Swaminathan) 48
  49. 49. • 5. Kuruntokai (Tamil: குறுந்னதானக), a classical Tamil poetic work, is the second book of Ettuthokai, a Sangam literature anthology. Kuruntokai contains poems dealing with matters of love and separation (அகம்) content matter and were written by numerous authors. Nachinarkiniyar, a Tamil scholar living during the sixth or the seventh century C.E. has annotated this work. 49
  50. 50. Poems of Love from Kurunthogai Kurunthokai 3, Thēvakulathār, Kurinji Thinai – What the heroine said about her love for the hero, as he listened nearby நிலத்தினும் னபரினத வானினும் உயர்ந்தன்று நீரினும் ஆைளவின்னற சாைல் கருங்னகால் குறிஞ்சிப் பூக் னகாண்டு னபருந்னதன் இனழக்கும் நாடனனாடு நட்னப. Nilathinum Peridhe Vaninum Uyarndhanru Neerinum aarala vindrae saaral karunkot kurinji pookkondu Perun thaen ilaikkum naadanodu natpe Meanings: நிலத்தினும் னபரினத – larger than the earth, வானினும் உயர்ந்தன்று – taller than the sky, நீரினும் ஆைளவின்னற – deeper to measure than the waters/ocean, சாைல் – mountain slopes, கருங்னகால் குறிஞ்சி – black-stalked kurinji, (Strobilanthes Kunthiana), பூக் னகாண்டு – with the flowers, னபருந்னதன் – rich honey/rich honey combs, இனழக்கும் நாடனனாடு – man from (honey) yielding country, நட்னப – friendship, love 50
  51. 51. Poems of Love from Kurunthogai Bigger than earth, certainly, higher than sky, more unfathomable (impossible to measure:) than the waters is this love for this man of the mountain slopes where bees make rich honey from the flowers of Kurinji that has such black stalks - Devekulathar - Kurunthogai 3 51
  52. 52. Meanings: யாயும் – (my) mother, ஞாயும் – your mother, யார் ஆகியனைா – who are they to each other, எந்னதயும் – my father, நுந்னதயும் – your father, எம்முனற – in what way, னகளிர் – relatives, யானும் நீயும் – myself and you, எவ்வழி – in what way, அறிதும் – knew, னசம்புலப் னபயல் நீர் னபால – like rain falling on the red earth, அன்புனட னநஞ்சம் – loving hearts, தாம் கலந்தனனவ – have merged 52 Kurunthokai 40, Sempulapēyaneerār, Kurinji Thinai – What the hero said to the heroine, about their love
  53. 53. யாயும் ஞாயும் யார் ஆகியனைா? எந்னதயும் நுந்னதயும் எம் முனறக் னகளிர்? யானும் நீயும் எவ் வழி அறிதும்? னசம் புலப் னபயல் நீர் னபால அன்புனட னநஞ்சம் தாம் கலந்தனனவ What could be my mother be to yours? what kin is my father to yours anyway? And how did you and I meet ever? But in love our hearts are as red earth and pouring rain: mingled beyond parting. Kuruntokai - 40) 53
  54. 54. • குறுந்சதோணக 18, கபிலர், குறிஞ்சித் திணை – ததோழி தணலவனிடம் சசோன்னது னவைல் னவலி னவர்க் னகாட்டு பலவின் சாைல் நாட னசவ்வினய ஆகுமதி யார் அஃது அறிந்திசினனானை சாைல் சிறு னகாட்டுப் னபரும் பழம் தூங்கியாங்கு இவள் உயிர் தவச் சிறிது காமனமா னபரினத. • Kurunthokai 18, Kapilar, Kurinji Thinai – What the heroine’s friend said to the hero O man of the mountain slopes, where jackfruits grow near roots in bamboo-fenced land! Do the right thing! Think of marriage! Who knows her state of mind? Like the large jackfruits that hang on short boughs of trees, her love is large, and her breath(soul) is short! இவள் உயிர் தவச் சிறிது – her life is short, காமமமா நபரிமத – (but her) love is large 54
  55. 55. • 6. Natrinai (Tamil: ெற்றிணை), a classical Tamil poetic work, is a book of Ettuthokai, a Sangam literature anthology. Natrinai contains 400 poems dealing with the five landscapes of Sangam poetry – kurinchi, mullai, marutham, neithal and paalai. This belongs to some of the oldest extant Tamil literature and is dated to belong to the Sangam age (100 BCE - 200 CE). The stanzas are of varying lengths of between nine and twelve lines each. The Pandya king Maaran Vazhuthi patronised this collection. It is not known who made this collection. 55
  56. 56. • நற்றிணை 172, போடியர் சபயர் கிணடக்கவில்ணல, சநய்தல் திணை – தணலவி தணலவனிடம் சசோன்னது • வினளயாடு ஆயனமாடு னவண் மணல் அழுத்தி மறந்தனம் துறந்த காழ் முனள அனகய னநய் னபய் தீம் பால் னபய்து இனிது வளர்ப்ப நும்மினும் சிறந்தது நுவ்னவ ஆகும் என்று அன்னன கூறினள் புன்னனயது நலனன அம்ம நாணுதும் நும்னமாடு நனகனய விருந்தின் பாணர் விளர் இனச கடுப்ப வலம்புரி வான் னகாடு நைலும் இலங்கு நீர்த் துனற னகழு னகாண்க நீ நல்கின் இனற படு நீழல் பிறவுமார் உளனவ. 56
  57. 57. Meanings: வினளயாடு ஆயனமாடு – with playmates, னவண் மணல் அழுத்தி – pressed into white sand, மறந்தனம் – we forgot, துறந்த காழ் – abandoned seed, முனள அனகய – sprouted seedling flourished, னநய் னபய் தீம் பால் னபய்து இனிது வளர்ப்ப – poured ghee and sweet milk for it to grow, நும்மினும் சிறந்தது நுவ்னவ ஆகும் என்று – she is your sister who is better than you, அன்னன கூறினள் – mother said, புன்னனயது நலனன– beauty of punnai, Indian laurel, mast wood tree, அம்ம நாணுதும் நும்னமாடு நனகனய – I’m shy to laugh with you, விருந்தின் – in a festival, பாணர் விளர் இனச கடுப்ப – like the bards’ new tunes, வலம்புரி வான் – white right-whorled, னகாடு நைலும் – conch shell sounds, இலங்கு நீர்த் துனற னகழு னகாண்க – lord of the splendid shores, நீ நல்கின் – if you desire, இனற படு நீழல் -shade of tall trees, பிறவுமார் உளனவ – there are others 57
  58. 58. • Natrinai 172, Unknown Poet, Neythal Thinai – What the heroine said to the hero When I was playing with my friends on the seashore, we pressed a mature punnai seed on the white sand and forgot all about it. The seedling thrived. Mother fed it with ghee and milk and raised it with love. “It is your sister, and she’s better than you,” she said. • Lord of the thriving seaport with vibrant waves where white, right-spiraled conch shells sound like the new tunes of bards! I’m shy to laugh and play with you under this tree. If you desire, we can seek another shade tree! • Notes: This is a rare poem where a tree is thought of as a sibling. 58
  59. 59. • 7.Paripaatal contains seventy poems on various deities of the Hindu pantheon. This is a rare example of religious poetry we find in Sangam literature and is possibly the oldest religious composition in Tamil. • The poems have associated music (பண்) so that these can be classified as songs (இணைப்பா). There are eight songs on Thirumaal (Vishnu), 31 songs on Kumaran (Muruga), one song on the Sea God, 26 on the mother Vaigai and four songs on Madurai. These songs are written in the 'Paripaatal' meter. 59
  60. 60. To திருமால் (Vishnu): தீயினுள் னதறல் நீ; பூவினுள் நாற்றம் நீ; கல்லினுள் மணியும் நீ; னசால்லினுள் வாய்னம நீ; அறத்தினுள் அன்பு நீ; மறத்தினுள் னமந்து நீ; னவதத்து மனற நீ; பூதத்து முதலும் நீ; னவஞ் சுடர் ஒளியும் நீ; திங்களுள் அளியும் நீ; அனனத்தும் நீ; அனனத்தின் உட்னபாருளும் நீ; You are the heat within the fire; Fragrance within the flower; Gem within the stone; Truth within the word; Mercy within justice; Might behind valour; Secret within the scripture(vetham); Foremost among elements; Splendour in the sun; Coolness in the moon; You are everything; and also the inner substance of these. (Paripadal, iii: 63-68) 60
  61. 61. • 8. Patiṟṟuppattu (Tamil: பதிற்றுப் பத்து) is a classical Tamil poetic work. The name Pathiṟṟuppattu means 'ten tens'or 'Ten Decads' or 'Tenfold Ten', referring to the ten sets of ten poems the book contains. The first and the last ten poems have been lost beyond recovery. The poems extol the richness of the Cheral realm. 61
  62. 62. PathuPattu (Tamil: பத்துப்பாட்டு)
  63. 63. The following are known as Pathuppattu. The following are known as Ettuthokai. 1 Thirumurukarruppadai 1 Narrinai 2 Porunararruppadai 2 Kurunthokai 3 Perumpanarruppadai 3 Aynkurunuru 4 Sirupanarruppadai 4 Pathirruppathu 5 Mullaippattu 5 Paripadal 6 Maduraikanchi 6 Kalithokai 7 Nedunalvadai 7 Agananuru 8 Kurinchippattu 8 Purananuru 9 Pattinappalai 10 Malaipadukadam 63
  64. 64. • PathuPattu (Tamil: பத்துப்பாட்டு) – The ten Idylls, is an anthology of ten mid length books and is one of the oldest surviving Tamil Poetry. This collection is considered part of the Sangam Literature and dated approximately between 300 BCE and 200 CE. • This collection had been lost for some centuries until U.V.Swaminatha Iyer travelled around Tamil Nadu in the late nineteenth century to collect ancient palm-leaf manuscripts.
  65. 65. • The PathuPattu collection contains lengthy and picturesque descriptions of the Tamil country and its seasons. Most of them are in the form of Aarruppatai, a literary device by which a poet or a minstrel (A medieval entertainer who travelled from place to place, especially to sing and recite poetry. ) who has received bountiful(numerous) gifts from some wealthy patron is supposed to direct another to the same Maecenas((miːˈsiːnæs- a wealthy patron of the arts). • This gives the occasion to the poet, among other topics, to describe in great detail the natural beauty, fertility, and resources of the territory that has to be traversed to reach the palace of the patron. The Aarruppatai is of a piece with Tamil realism and describes the journey as experienced by a human traveller, and that on dry land.
  66. 66. • 1.Tirumurugarruppatai(Tamil: திருமுருகாற்றுப்பணை) by Nakkirar,a Tamil poetic work, is one of the most important works of Sangam Literature. It is the first poem of the Pattupattu anthology. • Tirumurugarruppatai follows the Arruppadtai style. The poems in this book were composed towards the end of the Sangam period - between the fifth and the sixth centuries C.E. Tirumurugarruppatai is also called Pulavararuppatai.
  67. 67. • 2.Porunaraatruppadai,(Tamil: நபாருெராற்றுப்பணை) is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. • Porunaraatruppadai contains 250 lines of poems in the Achiriyappa meter. The poems were written by the poet Mutathaamakkanniyaar in praise of the Chola king Karikala Chola.
  68. 68. • 3.Perumpanarruppatai,(Tamil:நபரும்பாைாற்றுப்பணை) is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. Perumpanarruppatai contains 500 lines of poetry in the Achiriyappa meter. • The poems were written by the poet Kadiyalur Uruttirangannanar in praise of king Tondaiman Ilandiraiyan.
  69. 69. • 4.Cirupanarruppatai,(Tamil:சிறுபாணாற்றுப்பனட) is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. • Cirupanarruppatai contains 269 lines of poetry in the Achiriyappa meter. The poems were written by the poet Nathattanaar in praise of a minor Velir tribal chief named Nalliyakkotan, a Nāka king of Nāka Nadu (ancient Malabar North Ceylon).
  70. 70. • 5.Mullaippattu,(Tamil: முல்ணைப்பாட்டு) is a Tamil poetic work in the Ettuthokai anthology of Sangam literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. "Mullaippattu" contains 103 lines of poetry in the Akaval meter. The poems were written by the poet Nappoothanaar.
  71. 71. • The subject matter of "Mullaippattu" is classified as akam, the Sangam literature's classification of the subjective matters such as love and human relationship. "Mullaippattu" is a pure love poem, and talks about the heroine longing for the hero who had left her to fight a war. • In the olden days the soldiers used come back to their home country during the rainy season to look after their primary profession of agriculture. • The heroine laments(literature, music a song, poem, piece of music etc in which sadness is expressed about a death or loss) that although the rainy season had already started, the her lover hadn't returned from battle. The description of the country in the rainy season is particularly enjoyable in this book.
  72. 72. • 6.Mathuraikkanci,(Tamil: மதுனைக் காஞ்சி) is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. • Mathuraikkanci contains 583 lines of poetry in the Achiriyappa meter. The poems were written by the poet Mankuti Maruthanaar in praise of the Pandya king Nedunchezhiyan on the occasion of his victory at the battle of Talayanankanam.
  73. 73. • 7.Netunalvatai,(Tamil: நெடுெல்வாணை, neṭunalvāṭai, Long Pleasant Breeze of Winter) is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. • Netunalvatai contains 188 lines of poetry in the akaval meter. The poet Nakkirar wrote Netunalvatai. Netunalvatai poems belong to the Akam, or subjective themes of love and human relationships and utilises the location of the story to spins a bright picture of the ancient Tamil country.
  74. 74. • Netunalvatai contains descriptions of the palace of the Pandya king Nedeunchezhiyan. • Meaning of Netunalvadai:Netunalvatai in keeping with its name, has the theme of the vatai, or cold breeze. The two adjectives netu and nal to the vatai breeze mean long and good.
  75. 75. • Nature of Netunalvatai:The story of Netunalvatai is about the heroine who prays to the goddess for the return of her lover from the battlefield. Seeing the suffering of the heroine, her maids (A virgin) in the palace also pray to the goddess for the hero to quickly win the battle and return home to their mistress(A woman who has a continuing sexual relationship with a usually married man who is not her husband and from whom she generally receives material support.). • Around this centre core, the poet paints a beautiful picture with descriptions of the heroine's palace, the hero in the battlefield and the description of the cool breeze that flows through the palace and the battlefield to cool the hearts of the pining lovers.
  76. 76. • The cool breeze with the hint of rain, moisture carrying, spreads everywhere. This breeze promises rain and brings coolness to the weather making the shepherds and their flock shiver. The monkeys in the forest are hurt by the cold weather, birds struck by the coolness fall from the sky; suckling calves are turned away by the cows. The cold weather flowing through the streets of the towns spread the people and drive them indoors.
  77. 77. • Only drunks are to be found in the streets. They are so inebriated they cannot feel the cold. The cold weather darkens the sky so that the people have no means of telling the time to light the lamps. The cruel cold breeze flows through the battlefield keeping the hero awake. He goes around at midnight to converse with his wounded soldiers and look at his horses.
  78. 78. • 8.Kurincippattu (Tamil: குறிஞ்சிப்பாட்டு) "Kurincippattu" contains 261 lines of poems in the Achiriyappa meter. • Kurincippattu tells the story about the love affair between the hero and the heroine. The poems were written by the poet Kapilar. An ancient note at the end of this poem notes that Kapilar wrote this to explain the beauty of Tamil poetry to a north Indian king names Brhadatta. • "Kurincippattu" describes the kurinchi landscape of the mountainous landscape and mentions almost 100 different plant names. Some of these are Atumpu (Ipomoea pes- caprae), Aati (Lablab bean), pinti (Saraca indica), tumpai (Leucas aspera) and nanti (Ervatamia divaricata)
  79. 79. • The hero and the heroine fall in love. They do not want their parents to know of this relationship. Perhaps they fear their disapproval. Perhaps they are attracted by the forbidden(illegal)! The hero and the heroine try to arrange frequent secret meeting, but sometimes it is impossible. Whenever she cannot meet with her dear lover, she pines (painz) for him and harsh environment away.
  80. 80. • Her parents are at a loss to the reasons for her apparent sickness. They try various remedies but the heroine shows no sign of recovery. Such state of affair lasts for a while and one day a friend of the heroine come to her parents and divulges (something private or secret) the reason for heroine's 'sickness‘(pacalai). She makes known the secret affair of the hero and the heroine, but in a manner that makes the parents feel favourable towards the love affair.
  81. 81. • 9.Paṭṭiṉappālai,(Tamil: பட்டினப் பாணை) • Pattinappaalai contains 301 lines of poetry in the akaval meter. Pattinappaalai was written by the poet Uruttirangannanar in praise of the Chola king Karikala. Pattinappaalai poems belong to the Akam, or subjective themes of love and human relationships and utilises the location of the story to sing praises of the ruler.
  82. 82. • Pattinappaalai contains vivid descriptions of the ancient Chola capital of Kaveripattinam (Puhar), which was located at the mouth of the river Kaveri. Food from Eelam is imported to the Chola country at the port. The flourishing sea-trade and the antics of Yavanas, the merchants from ancient Greece and Rome, their living quarters, etc. are colourfully described by the poet.
  83. 83. • The story in Pattinappaalai is about the hero who has to travel away from Puhar in order to earn his livelihood. But he is uncertain, as he knows that his lover will be forlorn(lonely) in his absence. Pattinappaalai is the soliloquy (a character talks to himself ) of the hero in which he addresses himself: "O heart! I will not leave the prosperous Puhar to go abroad looking for wealth. The way in which one needs to travel is a paalai land (wasteland). It is as trust (treacherous) as Karikala's sword. My lover is tender hearted as Karikala's reign(rule). I will never leave my dear lover". • This, the entire story of Pattinappaalai forms a mere six lines of poetry. The rest of the poem is devoted to the description of Puhar and of Karikala's might and valour.
  84. 84. • 10.Malaipatukatam,(Tamil: மணைபடுகைாம்) is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. Malaipatukatam contains 583 lines of poetry in the Achiriyappa meter. • The poems were written by the poet Perunkosikanaar from Perunkunrur. In praise of a minor chieftain named Nannan Venmaan. Malaipatukatam belongs to the Pattupattu collection and follows the Arruppadtai style, a device used by most of the books in the Pattupattu collection.
  85. 85. • Malaipatukatam describes the various sounds generated and echoed in a mountainous terrain and uses the analogy of an elephant for the mountain to explain these sounds. It also describes the lifestyle of the folk dancers of the ancient Tamil country