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Tamil pathupattu

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cittaantarettinam Dr.S.Sundarabalu
Assistant Professor
Department of Linguistics
Bharathiar University
Coimbatore-46
India
Sunder_balu@yahoo.co.in
9715769995

Published in: Education, Travel
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Tamil pathupattu

  1. 1. PathuPattu (Tamil: பத்துப்பாட்டு) cittaantarettinam Dr.S.Sundarabalu Assistant Professor Department of Linguistics Bharathiar University Coimbatore-46 India Sunder_balu@yahoo.co.in 9715769995
  2. 2. The following are known as Pathuppattu. The following are known as Ettuthokai. 1 Thirumurukarruppadai 1 Narrinai 2 Porunararruppadai 2 Kurunthokai 3 Perumpanarruppadai 3 Aynkurunuru 4 Sirupanarruppadai 4 Pathirruppathu 5 Mullaippattu 5 Paripadal 6 Maduraikanchi 6 Kalithokai 7 Nedunalvadai 7 Agananuru 8 Kurinchippattu 8 Purananuru 9 Pattinappalai 10 Malaipadukadam 2
  3. 3. • PathuPattu (Tamil: பத்துப்பாட்டு) – The ten Idylls, is an anthology of ten mid length books and is one of the oldest surviving Tamil Poetry. This collection is considered part of the Sangam Literature and dated approximately between 300 BCE and 200 CE. • This collection had been lost for some centuries until U.V.Swaminatha Iyer travelled around Tamil Nadu in the late nineteenth century to collect ancient palm-leaf manuscripts.
  4. 4. • The PathuPattu collection contains lengthy and picturesque descriptions of the Tamil country and its seasons. Most of them are in the form of Aarruppatai, a literary device by which a poet or a minstrel (A medieval entertainer who travelled from place to place, especially to sing and recite poetry. ) who has received bountiful(numerous) gifts from some wealthy patron is supposed to direct another to the same Maecenas((miːˈsiːnæs- a wealthy patron of the arts). • This gives the occasion to the poet, among other topics, to describe in great detail the natural beauty, fertility, and resources of the territory that has to be traversed to reach the palace of the patron. The Aarruppatai is of a piece with Tamil realism and describes the journey as experienced by a human traveller, and that on dry land.
  5. 5. • 1.Tirumurugarruppatai(Tamil: திருமுருகாற்றுப்படை) by Nakkirar,a Tamil poetic work, is one of the most important works of Sangam Literature. It is the first poem of the Pattupattu anthology. • Tirumurugarruppatai follows the Arruppadtai style. The poems in this book were composed towards the end of the Sangam period - between the fifth and the sixth centuries C.E. Tirumurugarruppatai is also called Pulavararuppatai.
  6. 6. • 2.Porunaraatruppadai,(Tamil: பபாருநராற்றுப்படை) is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. • Porunaraatruppadai contains 250 lines of poems in the Achiriyappa meter. The poems were written by the poet Mutathaamakkanniyaar in praise of the Chola king Karikala Chola.
  7. 7. • 3.Perumpanarruppatai,(Tamil:பபரும்பாணாற்றுப்படை) is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. Perumpanarruppatai contains 500 lines of poetry in the Achiriyappa meter. • The poems were written by the poet Kadiyalur Uruttirangannanar in praise of king Tondaiman Ilandiraiyan.
  8. 8. • 4.Cirupanarruppatai,(Tamil:சிறுபாணாற்றுப்படை) is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. • Cirupanarruppatai contains 269 lines of poetry in the Achiriyappa meter. The poems were written by the poet Nathattanaar in praise of a minor Velir tribal chief named Nalliyakkotan, a Nāka king of Nāka Nadu (ancient Malabar North Ceylon).
  9. 9. • 5.Mullaippattu,(Tamil: முல்டைப்பாட்டு) is a Tamil poetic work in the Ettuthokai anthology of Sangam literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. "Mullaippattu" contains 103 lines of poetry in the Akaval meter. The poems were written by the poet Nappoothanaar.
  10. 10. • The subject matter of "Mullaippattu" is classified as akam, the Sangam literature's classification of the subjective matters such as love and human relationship. "Mullaippattu" is a pure love poem, and talks about the heroine longing for the hero who had left her to fight a war. • In the olden days the soldiers used come back to their home country during the rainy season to look after their primary profession of agriculture. • The heroine laments(literature, music a song, poem, piece of music etc in which sadness is expressed about a death or loss) that although the rainy season had already started, the her lover hadn't returned from battle. The description of the country in the rainy season is particularly enjoyable in this book.
  11. 11. • 6.Mathuraikkanci,(Tamil: மதுடைக் காஞ்சி) is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. • Mathuraikkanci contains 583 lines of poetry in the Achiriyappa meter. The poems were written by the poet Mankuti Maruthanaar in praise of the Pandya king Nedunchezhiyan on the occasion of his victory at the battle of Talayanankanam.
  12. 12. • 7.Netunalvatai,(Tamil: பநடுநல்வாடை, neṭunalvāṭai, Long Pleasant Breeze of Winter) is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. • Netunalvatai contains 188 lines of poetry in the akaval meter. The poet Nakkirar wrote Netunalvatai. Netunalvatai poems belong to the Akam, or subjective themes of love and human relationships and utilises the location of the story to spins a bright picture of the ancient Tamil country.
  13. 13. • Netunalvatai contains descriptions of the palace of the Pandya king Nedeunchezhiyan. • Meaning of Netunalvadai:Netunalvatai in keeping with its name, has the theme of the vatai, or cold breeze. The two adjectives netu and nal to the vatai breeze mean long and good.
  14. 14. • Nature of Netunalvatai:The story of Netunalvatai is about the heroine who prays to the goddess for the return of her lover from the battlefield. Seeing the suffering of the heroine, her maids (A virgin) in the palace also pray to the goddess for the hero to quickly win the battle and return home to their mistress(A woman who has a continuing sexual relationship with a usually married man who is not her husband and from whom she generally receives material support.). • Around this centre core, the poet paints a beautiful picture with descriptions of the heroine's palace, the hero in the battlefield and the description of the cool breeze that flows through the palace and the battlefield to cool the hearts of the pining lovers.
  15. 15. • The cool breeze with the hint of rain, moisture carrying, spreads everywhere. This breeze promises rain and brings coolness to the weather making the shepherds and their flock shiver. The monkeys in the forest are hurt by the cold weather, birds struck by the coolness fall from the sky; suckling calves are turned away by the cows. The cold weather flowing through the streets of the towns spread the people and drive them indoors.
  16. 16. • Only drunks are to be found in the streets. They are so inebriated they cannot feel the cold. The cold weather darkens the sky so that the people have no means of telling the time to light the lamps. The cruel cold breeze flows through the battlefield keeping the hero awake. He goes around at midnight to converse with his wounded soldiers and look at his horses.
  17. 17. • 8.Kurincippattu (Tamil: குறிஞ்சிப்பாட்டு) "Kurincippattu" contains 261 lines of poems in the Achiriyappa meter. • Kurincippattu tells the story about the love affair between the hero and the heroine. The poems were written by the poet Kapilar. An ancient note at the end of this poem notes that Kapilar wrote this to explain the beauty of Tamil poetry to a north Indian king names Brhadatta. • "Kurincippattu" describes the kurinchi landscape of the mountainous landscape and mentions almost 100 different plant names. Some of these are Atumpu (Ipomoea pes- caprae), Aati (Lablab bean), pinti (Saraca indica), tumpai (Leucas aspera) and nanti (Ervatamia divaricata)
  18. 18. • The hero and the heroine fall in love. They do not want their parents to know of this relationship. Perhaps they fear their disapproval. Perhaps they are attracted by the forbidden(illegal)! The hero and the heroine try to arrange frequent secret meeting, but sometimes it is impossible. Whenever she cannot meet with her dear lover, she pines (painz) for him and harsh environment away.
  19. 19. • Her parents are at a loss to the reasons for her apparent sickness. They try various remedies but the heroine shows no sign of recovery. Such state of affair lasts for a while and one day a friend of the heroine come to her parents and divulges (something private or secret) the reason for heroine's 'sickness‘(pacalai). She makes known the secret affair of the hero and the heroine, but in a manner that makes the parents feel favourable towards the love affair.
  20. 20. • 9.Paṭṭiṉappālai,(Tamil: பட்டினப் பாடை) • Pattinappaalai contains 301 lines of poetry in the akaval meter. Pattinappaalai was written by the poet Uruttirangannanar in praise of the Chola king Karikala. Pattinappaalai poems belong to the Akam, or subjective themes of love and human relationships and utilises the location of the story to sing praises of the ruler.
  21. 21. • Pattinappaalai contains vivid descriptions of the ancient Chola capital of Kaveripattinam (Puhar), which was located at the mouth of the river Kaveri. Food from Eelam is imported to the Chola country at the port. The flourishing sea-trade and the antics of Yavanas, the merchants from ancient Greece and Rome, their living quarters, etc. are colourfully described by the poet.
  22. 22. • The story in Pattinappaalai is about the hero who has to travel away from Puhar in order to earn his livelihood. But he is uncertain, as he knows that his lover will be forlorn(lonely) in his absence. Pattinappaalai is the soliloquy (a character talks to himself ) of the hero in which he addresses himself: "O heart! I will not leave the prosperous Puhar to go abroad looking for wealth. The way in which one needs to travel is a paalai land (wasteland). It is as trust (treacherous) as Karikala's sword. My lover is tender hearted as Karikala's reign(rule). I will never leave my dear lover". • This, the entire story of Pattinappaalai forms a mere six lines of poetry. The rest of the poem is devoted to the description of Puhar and of Karikala's might and valour.
  23. 23. • 10.Malaipatukatam,(Tamil: மடைபடுகைாம்) is a Tamil poetic work in the Pathinenmaelkanakku anthology of Tamil literature, belonging to the Sangam period corresponding to between 100 BCE – 100 CE. Malaipatukatam contains 583 lines of poetry in the Achiriyappa meter. • The poems were written by the poet Perunkosikanaar from Perunkunrur. In praise of a minor chieftain named Nannan Venmaan. Malaipatukatam belongs to the Pattupattu collection and follows the Arruppadtai style, a device used by most of the books in the Pattupattu collection.
  24. 24. • Malaipatukatam describes the various sounds generated and echoed in a mountainous terrain and uses the analogy of an elephant for the mountain to explain these sounds. It also describes the lifestyle of the folk dancers of the ancient Tamil country

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