Acharya N. G. Ranga Agricultural University
class seminar on
StepS in implementation of waterShed – Size and
Selection of waterShed- baSic reSource
SurveyS problemS appraiSal and plan
Department of Agronomy
Medida Sunil Kumar
Agricultural College, Bapatla
A unit of area covers all the land which contributes
runoff to a common point or outlet and surrounded
by a ridge line.
I. Recognition Phase
Recognition of the problem
Analysis of the cause of the problem and its effect.
Development of alternative solutions of problem.
II. Restoration phase
Selection of best solution to problems identified
Application of the solution to the problems of the land
III. Protection Phase
General health of the watershed
Protection is against all factors which may cause
detrimental effects to watershed condition
IV. Improvement phase
Agriculture, forest management & production, forage
production and pasture management.
Socio economic conditions
Health, family planning, improving cattle, poultry, etc. are
taken depending upon intensity.
Size of watershed determines the quantity of rainfall
received retained and runoff.
Larger the watershed, larger be the channel and storage of
water in basin.
Large watershed characteristics are topography, geology,
soil, climate and vegetation.
Types of watersheds based on
sizS.e No Type of Watershed Area Covered
1 Micro Watershed 0 to 10 ha
2 Small Watershed 10 to 40 ha
3 Mini Watershed 40 to 200 ha
4 Sub Watershed 200 to 400 ha
5 Macro Watershed 400 to 1000 ha
6 River basin above 1000 ha
Selection of watershed area
Low soil fertility
Depleted water table
No land treatment structures
Inappropriate agricultural Practices
Problems with flooding
Poor vegetation cover
High percentage of wastelands
Small marginal farmers
Credit Management skills
Presence of peoples institutions
State of poverty
No other source of income
Presence of bonded labour
Inability to meet consumption needs
Presence of villages/people
It is the art of determining the relative positions of different
object on the surface of the earth by measuring the
horizontal distance between them and by preparing a map to
any suitable scale.
Types of Surveying [Classification]
Primary Classification or Primary Division :
Plane Surveying :
The shape of the earth is spherical. Thus the surface is
obviously curved. But in plane surveying the curvature of
earth is not taken into account. This is because plane
surveying is carried out over a small area, so the surface of the
earth is considered as a plane. The degree of accuracy required
in this type of surveying is completely low. Plane surveying is
done on an area of less than 250km2.
Geodetic surveying :
In geodetic surveying the curvature of the earth is taken into
consideration. It is extended over a large area greater than
250km2. The line joining any two points considered as a
Base line data collection
Household census survey
Village level data collection
Educational presentations by technical specialists
Discussion sessions with stakeholders and
Problem appraisal helps bring about a more effective
planning process with improved decision-making and an
increased likelihood of plan implementation by
Identify short-term projects to maintain momentum and
build trust and confidence in the planning process.
Encouraging holistic thinking by increasing
understanding of watershed functions, land uses and
Providing an opportunity to gather relevant social,
cultural and political information about watershed
Initiating public outreach with non-committee members
and potential partners.
Signs of a successful RRA
Committee members with different views had fruitful
Committee members learned about previously unknown
aspects of their watershed.
Committee member are more aware of possible impacts
Committee members gained an increased sense of the
importance of their task and the complexity of problems
Problem Appraisal Tips
Conduct the problem appraisal after the committee has met a
couple of times.
Select a group of two or three people to do the organizing with
assistance from natural resource conservation society.
Brainstorm ideas from the entire committee about what they want
to see and learn during the problem appraisal
Limit participants in the tour portion of the problem appraisal to
those that can be accommodated on a single bus.
At the committee meeting after the RRA, discuss newly identified
concerns, insights gained, opportunities identified, etc. Build on
this information throughout the planning.
Determining management goals
• Realistic goals for the proposed plan
• Goals should be progressive and allow for future
Determining priorities and sequences
• Not all watershed work can be started at the same time
• Priority for sub-watersheds and works
• Clear determination of priorities and sequences of work
Preliminary or interim reporting
• Mid-point of project = concise preliminary or interim
• Omit many technical details but should emphasize
• Explain long-term and short-term targets
• Economic assessment
• General approval of the planning methodology
Detailed financing plans
• After the government and funding agencies have agreed
on the new project in principle financial plan is required
• Direct investment (i.e., administration, training,
fellowships, purchasing, materials, labour, transportation,
• Money used for production
Determining the contents of final report
Summary and recommendations.
Descriptions of watershed conditions (biophysical).
Analysis of major watershed problems (biophysical, socio-economic,
Watershed management needs (including goals, alternatives,
strategies, and effects, etc.).
Economic and other assessments (including benefit, cost analysis
Work programmes (including targets, work schedules, budgeting,
financial arrangements and monitoring and evaluation needs).
Appendices (including methodology, techniques, maps, photos,
detailed figures, etc.).
Preparing the final report
• The preparation of a final report is the last step of the whole task.
To avoid delay in its production, once the contents are determined
it is necessary to make concrete and detailed decisions concerning:
• The approximate length of each chapter or section.
• The person or organization responsible for preparing each chapter
• A deadline for draft submission and discussion.
• Nomination of a chief editor and specification of his or her duties.
- A final deadline for report submission.