Understanding fashion includes knowing many specific fashion and
What is Style??
A particular design, shape or type of apparel item. The style of the garment
is determined by the distinct features that create its overall appearance.
What is fashion??
The display of the currently popular style of clothing. A fashion is the
prevailing type of clothing that is favored by a large segment of the public
at any given time and influenced by Social, Political, Economical and
What is difference between style and fashion??
Styles come and go. Fashion is always here in some form. Fashion reflects
a continuing process of change in the styles of apparel that are accepted
What is Apparel?
Any and all men’s, women’s, and children’s wear
clothing is called as an ‘Apparel’
What is Garment?
Any article of apparel, such as a dress, suit, coat,
evening gown or sweater.
What is Garment components?
Any part of garment like sleeves, cuff, collar,
waistband, etc are called as Garment components
Silhouette: The shape of the clothing style.
It is formed by the width and length of the
neckline, sleeves, waistline and pants or skirts.
If you were to squint your eyes and look at a
suit, dress or coat, the outline (shape) of the
garment would show its silhouette.
Silhouettes are always changing in fashion.
The general direction that a silhouette takes
(wider-narrower-longer-shorter) shows a
Silhouette of fashion cycle
Three specific silhouettes have separately rise, and fall in popularity;
STRAIGHT-TUBULER BUSTLE-BACK FULLNESSBELL
Hi fashion:: High fashion are the
latest or newest fashions. They
are usually of top quality, with
fine workmanship and beautiful
fabrics. Because of the quality,
they are expensive. High fashion
styles originate from top name
designers in leading fashion
Details of high fashion filter
down into generally accepted
The term designer label refers to clothing, luxury automobile manufacturers and other personal
accessory items sold under an often prestigious marque which is commonly named after a
Labels such as Gucci, Chanel, and Alexander McQueen are derived from the company's
founding designer, while others do not directly refer to the company's founder: for example, Red
or Dead, Miu Miu, and Chloe may be referred to as designer labels.
Designer labels are not only restricted to the fashion industry. Many people consider designer
labels to be a status symbol.
The relationship between consumer products, and social status is highly debated
A more variable range of garments still inspired by creativity and innovation. Not made for
individual customers but great care is taken in the choice and cut of the fabric. These clothes are
made with high quality materials and proposed only in small quantities to guarantee exclusity.
They are expensive.
Avant garde: The most daring and wild designs. They are unconventional and
Clothes to cater to a wider range of customers, producing ready-to-wear clothes in
large quantities and standard sizes.
Less costly materials and construction techniques, creatively used, produce affordable
high street fashion. Standardized sizing is used, trims and notions are scaled down but
still try to keep the look of designer clothing.
Other names for mass-market:-
ready-to-wear, off the rack.
e.g.:-old navy, target
They copy trends and movies.
They don’t work on inspiration or any specific story.
Indian markets- Global desi, Westside….
Fad: A temporary, passing fashion. It is an item or look that has great appeal to many
people for a short period of time.
Ti is usually pout of the ordinary. A fad becomes popular fast, and the dies out quickly.
Craze: Craze is like a fashion because it is a passing love for a new fashion. However,
this has a display of emotion or crowd excitement with it. Store have a hard time
keeping such items in stock because people are so eager to buy them.
Classic: An item of clothing that continues
to be popular even though fashion changes.
It is always acceptable.
Classics were originally fashion items, but
their general appeal and simple stylelines
have kept them popular.
They can worn year after year.
Examples of classics: White dress shirts,
dark business suits, pleated skirts, loafer
shoes, blues jeans, and salwar kameez.
Wardrobe: all the apparel a person owns,
a wardrobe includes all of your garments
Accessories: are the articles needed to
complete or enhance your needs, like
belt, ties. Hats, jewelry, shoes, gloves etc
•Made by first cutting garment pieces
then sewing them together to fit the
shape of a body.
•The first tailored garments were
made when the eyed needle was
invented, because seams could be
•Eg. Raymond’s Make to Measure
Made with a combination of
tailored and draped methods.
Garment parts are cut and sewn.
Some parts may fit close to body,
other parts may drape.
(Japanese kimono, tunics, bathrobe
Knock offs or high street : lower priced copies
They are produced in high quantity with lower
priced materials. Copies of Haute Couture
garments are made in quantity by high prices
manufacturer- they look like the original, but the
price had been reduced.
Some of the top high fashion brands are,
It is claimed that Zara needs just two weeks to develop a
new product and get it to stores, compared to the six-month
industry average, and launches around 10,000 new designs
each year. Zara has resisted the industry-wide trend towards
transferring fast fashion production to low-cost countries.
Perhaps its most unusual strategy was its policy of zero
advertising; the company preferred to invest a percentage of
revenues in opening new stores instead. This has increased
the idea of Zara as a "fashion imitator" company and low
cost products. Lack of advertisement is also in contrast to
direct competitors such as Uniqlo and United Colors of
International fashion week happen during August till September.
Designers showcase their collection six months before the season.
Buyers go to fashion shows & note down the details of dresses according to their
There are two main seasons:- spring-summer, autumn-winter….
Company’s profit or loss depends on buyer because they are the one responsible for
taking the dresses.
Merchandiser’s are the people who tells what sells more. They are the one’s when
stock it. He plans the layout the store.
Both require different fashion look & a new range of colors & fabric design for the
time of year.
•Light weight fabrics in summer..
•Heavy weight fabrics in winter..
•In the spring the studio works for the spring summer of the fall year.
Each collection is researched so that all the items in it compliment each other, will be
in style, & have the particular look for which the company is known for
•A designers most difficult task is forecasting what will be in style for the coming
years. To do this, they know the past trends & look at repeats. They also purchase
High priced trend magazines. Additional they observe what succeeded with customers
in the past.
Designers work a year in advance.
Need to have inspiration.
Can combine a collection.
Designer make samples.
After the groundwork is completed for the nature of the collection the designer
must decide how many and what type of garments should be included in the
Usually they have a three month period to design, produce and publicize. The
collection in time for their fashion show.
Press and buyers get their first look at the collection at the show.
A designer selects a theme that represents their collection. It can be a period in
history, a foreign place, a range of colors, a type of fabric.
Haute couture: ”Finest Dress Making” in French. It
means the high fashion industry. It refers to a group
of firms or “Fashion house”, each with a designer
who creates original, individually designed fashions.
The designer who owns the firm in the couturier or
@ Haute couture fashions originate in Paris, New
York, or other fashion centers. They are very
expensive. They are constructed with expensive
fabric, and include a great deal of hand work. They
are some times;
a. Custom designed made for a specific person
b. Made to order, or custom made are not designed
for a particular person, although they are made
for a specific person. He or she places an order
Haute couture is made to order for a specific customer, and it is usually made from high-quality, expensive
fabric and sewn with extreme attention to detail and finished by the most experienced and capable
seamstresses, often using time-consuming, hand-executed techniques.
"Couture" means dressmaking, sewing, or needlework and is also used as a common abbreviation of haute
couture and refers to the same thing in spirit. "Haute" means elegant or high.
An haute couture garment is made specifically for the wearer’s measurements and body stance. It originally
referred to Englishman Charles Frederick Worth’s work, produced in Paris in the mid-nineteenth century.
In modern France, haute couture is a "protected name" that can be used only by firms that meet certain well-
However, the term is also used loosely to describe all high-fashion custom-fitted clothing, whether it is
produced in Paris or in other fashion capital such as London, Milan, New York or Tokyo.
To earn the right to call itself a couture house and to use the term haute couture in its advertising and any
other way, members of the Chambre syndicale de la haute couture must follow these rules:
Design made-to-order for private clients, with one or more fittings.
Have a workshop (atelier) in Paris that employs at least fifteen people full-time.
Must have twenty full-time technical people in at least one atelier (workshop).
Each season (i.e., twice a year), present a collection to the Paris press, comprising at least thirty-five
runs/exits with outfits for both daytime wear and evening wear.
What is be spoke?
The term “Bespoke” actually dates
back to the 17th century. Tailors then
held full lengths of cloth within their
premises and a customer would come
in and chose a length of fabric
material for garments, it was then said
to have “been spoken for”.
So, a tailor who makes custom clothes
individually, to your specific personal
measurements, design requirements
and creates a custom one-of pattern
for that garment is called “bespoke”.
How Be spoke is this different
from “Made to Measure”?
The term “made-to-measure”,
refers simply to the use of basic,
pre-existing template patterns,
and then taking the template
pattern adjusting to the
measurements that have been
taken from you.
Ready to wear: Those garments that are mass-
produced in factories. They are manufactured in
quantity according to standard sizes. Each
garment design has thousand made. They are all
alike and are for sale in many sizes.
Consumers: Those who buy and wear the
garments. Consumers purchase and use apparel
as well as other economics goods. Consumers are
very important in determining what fashion will
or will not become popular.
Retail Store: Sell to consumers. They advertise
and sell their items directly to the general public.
Retail stores include department stores, chain and
discount or factory outlet.
@ Seams are the lines of stitches that join two garment to
Fit: The fit of a garment refers to how tight or loose it fits on
the person who is wearing it. A good fit means that the
garment is the right size and does not pull tightly or sag
loosely when worn. Garment can be designed to be loose,
semi fitted or fitted to achieve different fashion looks.
@ Darts are short, tapered, stitched areas that takes out excess
fabric in to it and enable the garment to fit the figure.
@ Bodice: the bodice of a garment is the area above the
waist, such as the upper part of a dress or jumpsuit. The
bodice is usually closely fitted and is distinguished by a seam
at the waistline.
In fashion cycle, high fashion is first introduced by the
-Fashion leaders are men and women who have the
credibility to start new styles
• Jennifer Lopez
Every community in the world has fashion leaders. They are the
ones who are first to adopt and display new styles within their
As fashion comes and go, they seem to be extreme and daring
when they are first introduced, smart and stylish when they are
popular, and dowdy and out of date after their peak
Distributor: Store goods of many brands in large quantities and sell to retails (MBO)
they usually distribute their goods from large warehouses. Each item costs less from a
wholesaler, but usually dozens of each must be purchased.
MBO: Multi Brands outlet, mainly cater into trading of apparels of different brands,
using pull system, skims and different promotions.
EBO: Exclusive Brand Outlet, have their own store or franchise store where it can
display and sell merchandise of its own brand category.
LFS: Large Format Stores, have huge area to display different brands on one floor to
improve customer/consumer walk in.
Shopping Malls: LFS are part of shopping malls as well exclusive brand outlets (EBO)
of different brands will available in one shelter.