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Branding, packaging & labelling 6


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Branding, packaging & labelling 6

  1. 1. Dr S.L Gupta12-1 Branding, Packaging & Labelling 12-1 Branding, Packaging & Labelling 12Chapter
  2. 2. Dr S.L Gupta12-2 Branding, Packaging & Labelling American Marketing Association defined brand as “a name, term, sign, symbol, or design, or a combination of them, intended to identify the goods and services of one seller or group of sellers and to differentiate them from those of competition.”
  3. 3. Dr S.L Gupta12-3 Branding, Packaging & Labelling A brand mark refers to that part of brand which is not made up of words, but can be a symbol or design such as swoosh mark of Nike, or Golden Arches of McDonald’s. A trademark is a legal registration indicating the owner’s exclusive right to use a brand or some part of brand. A trade name is the full and legal name of a firm, such as Maruti Udyog Ltd., and not the specific name of a product.
  4. 4. Dr S.L Gupta12-4 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Brand Identity “A unique set of brand associations that the brand strategist aspires to create or maintain. These associations represent what the brand stands for and imply a promise to customers from the organisation members.” Brand identity and brand image are sometimes used interchangeably in different texts. Brand identity refers to an insider’s concept reflecting brand manager’s decisions of what the brand is all about. Brand image reflects the perceptions of outsiders, that is customers, about the brand.
  5. 5. Dr S.L Gupta12-5 Branding, Packaging & Labelling According to Jean-Noel Kepferer, a brand is complex symbol and capable of conveying up to six dimensions or meanings:  Physique  Personality  Culture  Relationship  Reflection  Self-Image
  6. 6. Dr S.L Gupta12-6 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Brand Equity Kevin Lane Keller defines brand equity: “Brand equity is defined in terms of marketing effects uniquely attributed to the brands – for example, when certain outcomes result from the marketing of a product or service because of its brand name that would not occur if the same product or service did not have the name.”
  7. 7. Dr S.L Gupta12-7 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Components of Brand Equity Brand name awareness Brand loyalty Perceived quality Brand associations Brand Equity
  8. 8. Dr S.L Gupta12-8 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Walfried Lasser. Banwari Mittal, and Arun Sharma identified five dimensions of customer-based brand equity:  Performance  Social image  Value  Trustworthiness  Identification
  9. 9. Dr S.L Gupta12-9 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Brand Image Brand image is the key concept intervening between the brand and its equity. It is the driver of brand equity. Types of brand associations can be hard and soft and brand sub-images consist of three elements:  image of provider,  image of product, and  image of user.
  10. 10. Dr S.L Gupta12-10 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Brand image management requires determining brand concept. This concept embodies the central meaning of the brand that the company chooses and is derived from basic consumer needs. The more strongly the brand satisfies these needs, the more differentiated and strong the brand image customers carry. These needs can be put under three broad groups.  Functional needs  Symbolic needs  Experiential needs
  11. 11. Dr S.L Gupta12-11 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Types of Brand There are several brand options that include manufacturer brand (also called national brand), private brand (also called distributor, reseller, store, or house brand), or a licensed brand. Manufacturer brands are initiated by manufacturers and identify the producer. Private brands is that they are resellers initiated brands. Licensed brand is a relatively new trend and involves licensing of trademarks.
  12. 12. Dr S.L Gupta12-12 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Brand Name Selection Companies have four strategic options in choosing a brand name:  Company Name  Individual Names  Separate Brand Family Names  Combination of Company Name and Product Name  Desirable Qualities of Brand Names
  13. 13. Dr S.L Gupta12-13 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Branding Strategies Different companies adopt different strategies, and since there is no best strategy for all types of products, a company may adopt different branding strategies across its product mix.
  14. 14. Dr S.L Gupta12-14 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Product Branding Strategy This strategy focuses on promoting the brand exclusively so that it reflects its own personality, identity, associations, and image. The brand does not take on company associations and any benefits from its name.
  15. 15. Dr S.L Gupta12-15 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Line Branding Strategy The term ‘line branding’ is altogether different than what product line refers to in the context of product mix. In line branding, products share a common concept. Line brands start with a single product conveying a concept and later the brand name extends to other complementary products.
  16. 16. Dr S.L Gupta12-16 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Range Branding Strategy This strategy seems to resemble line branding but is significantly different. It is also called brand extension. Product categories are different but brand name is the same, such as carrying the brand name Maggi is a range of different products: noodles, sauce, soup, Dosa mixes, etc. In case of range branding, it is not the product concept but “the area of expertise.” This strategy permits expanding into products that do not complement each other.
  17. 17. Dr S.L Gupta12-17 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Umbrella Branding Strategy The approach is driven by economic considerations. The company name itself is the brand name for all products across diverse categories. Investment in building one brand proves far more economical than investing in building several brands.
  18. 18. Dr S.L Gupta12-18 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Double Branding Strategy This approach combines umbrella branding and product branding. Along with the product brand name, the company name is associated to create double branding, such as Tata Indica and, Bajaj Pulsar.
  19. 19. Dr S.L Gupta12-19 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Endorsement Branding Strategy This is a minor variation of double branding strategy. The product brand name gains a dominant position, while the company name merits a lower profile.
  20. 20. Dr S.L Gupta12-20 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Factors Influencing Branding Strategies  Market Size  Competitive Situation  Company Resources  Product Newness  Innovativeness and Technology
  21. 21. Dr S.L Gupta12-21 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Packaging & Labelling Packaging includes all activities that focus on the development of a container and a graphic design for a product. A package may have three levels; the primary package is the container of the product such as a bottle, jar, or tube, the secondary package is the box of cardboard or some other material containing the primary package; and the last is shipping package that contains more units of secondary package.
  22. 22. Dr S.L Gupta12-22 Branding, Packaging & Labelling Labelling A label may be a part of package or it may be a tag attached to the product. The labels perform a descriptive function relating to a product’s source, its contents, important features and benefits, use instructions, cautions or warnings, storage instructions, batch number, date of manufacture, and date of expiry.