PUBLIC HEALTH LAWS
Moderator : Prof Dr.O.P Panigrahi
Dr.Surendra Babu (Pg 2nd yr)
• Definition :Public health laws is the study of the legal powers and
duties of the state to assure the conditions for people to be healthy (to
identify ,prevent & ameliorate risks to health in the population )and
the limitations on the power of the state to constraint the autonomy,
privacy, liberty ,proprietary or other legally protected interests on the
individual for protection or promotion of community health.
Characteristics of public health law :
• Govt : Public health is primary responsibility of the government
• Population: Create the conditions in which communities can be
• Relationship: Between state and population
• Services : Deals with the provision so population based services
grounded on the basis on the scientific methodologies.
• Coercion: Authorities possess a power to force individuals and
businesses for the protection of the community
To Improve and Maintain high standards in
Medical Education and services:
Indian medical council act, 1956 and regulations 2002
Indian Nursing council act, 1947
Homeopathy central council act, 1973
Public Registration to Assess Mortality and Enumeration of
Registration of Births and Deaths Act, 1969
Census Act, 1948
To Prevent Public Health Problems:
Epidemic Diseases Act, 1897
Food safety and standards act, 2006
To Achieve Maternal Health and to Empower the
Maternity Benefit Act, 1961
Dowry Prohibition Act, 1961
Immoral Traffic Act, 1956
PCPNDT act, 1994
To safeguard Children and young:
Juvenile Justice Act, 2000
Child Labour Act, 1986
To Rehabilitate and Provide equal opportunities to disabled
and disadvantageous groups:
Persons with disabilities Act,1995
Mental Health Act, 1987
To Prevent Drug Addiction and Substance Abuse and Safe Manufacturing of
Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act,1985
Drugs and cosmetics Act, 1940
COTPA act 2003
To Protect Workers and Provide Social Security:
Mines act, 1952
ESI Act , 1948
Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923
CHAPTERS DESCRIBED IN INDIAN MEDICAL COUNCIL
• Code of medical ethics
• Duties of a physician
* to their patients
* in consultation
* to the public and to paramedical profession
• Responsibilities to each other
• Unethical acts & Misconducts
CODE OF MEDICAL ETHICS
1. Qualified in modern system of medicine only.
2. Update knowledge and skills, CME
3. Maintain medical records, medical certificate register
4. Display details
5. Observance of sanitary laws and regulations
DUTIES OF A PHYSICIAN
* TO THEIR PATIENTS
• In case of emergency treat or refer to appropriate physician
• Information revealed in confidence to be kept secret
• Never exaggerate or minimize the gravity of a situation
DUTIES OF A PHYSICIAN IN
• Consultation only when justifiable & in the interest of patient
• Laboratory tests to be carried out judiciously
• Never criticize referring physician
• Communicate opinion in writing to referring physician
DUTIES OF A PHYSICIAN
* TO THE PUBLIC AND TO PARAMEDICAL PROFESSION
• Enlighten public regarding quarantine regulations and measures for
prevention of epidemic
• Notify concerned authorities in accordance with laws, regulation and
• Recognize and promote practice of different paramedical services
UNETHICAL ACTS & MISCONDUCTS
• Human rights violation
• False certification
• Breach of confidence
• Not taking appropriate consent of patient
• Falsification of degrees
• Violation of guidelines while conducting research
• Found absent from position at place of work
Indian Medical council Act, 1956,
Amendments in 2010
• No person shall establish a medical college or start any medical course
• The medical qualification granted by approved university shall be recognised
• The council appoints registrar to maintain Indian medical register
• Enrolled medical doctor can held office as physician or surgeon ,practice
medicine in any state.
Indian nursing council act ,1947
• The act is aimed to regulate uniform standard of training for nurses,
midwifes ,and health visitors
• Any person may enrol in register who has recognised qualification
• Any institution engaged in training ,and distribution of nursing diploma or
degree have to submit information time to time
• Inspecting body shall submit report regarding standards and adequacy of
resources to council
The Registration of Births
and Deaths Act, 1969
• Uniform law across the country on the registration of
births and deaths
• Reporting and registration of all births and deaths
• Registrar General, India to ‘coordinate and unify’ the
implementation of the Act
The channel of collection and sending
Village level-local registrar
(drawn from panchayat ,police station ,health or revenue department )
Taluka /urban level –local registrar
( municipal /corporation health officer )
District level- District registrar
(for each district )
State level –Director of health services
(chief registrar for the state )
National level –Registrar General of india
Minestry of home ,newdelhi
Responsibility to report births/deaths
Place of occurrence of birth/death Responsibility to report
House Head of the household
Hospital nursing home, etc Head of the institution
Public places Police
The information regarding occurrence is to be supplied within 21 days in both
events of birth and death.
In case of delays more than 30 days but within a year an affidavit is required
from notary public with late fee i.e. One rupee per day.
For registration of events beyond one year, order from class 1 officer/magistrate
THE EPIDEMIC DISEASES ACT,
• The Act provides power to exercise for the control and to prevent any epidemic
or spread of epidemic in the States or Country.
• The states may authorise any of its officers or agency to take such measures if
the state feel that the public at large is threaten with an outbreak of any
• Person who is inspecting, is empowered to determine about the process and
authority to take responsibility of all expenses incurred in compensation,
travelling, temporary accommodation, segregation of infected person, etc.
• The state govt. can authorise the District Magistrate who can take any number of
vehicles needed to carry man and equipment to and fro or transporting infected
persons during an epidemic.
• State or central govt may take measures & prescribe regulations for inspection of
any ship or vessel leaving or arriving at any port in the territories
• Violation of any provision of this act is punishable under Sec 188 of IPC.
Food Safety & Standards Act, 2006
• Food safety and standard act is to consolidate the laws relating to food and to
establish the food safety and standards in India
• Establishment of food safety authority
The members include GOI officials
Representatives from the
Food Industry (2),
Consumer Organizations (2),
Eminent Food Technologists / Scientists (3),
State Governments (5),
Farmers’ Organization (2) and
Retailers’ Organization (1).
Prevention of food adulteration -Act Sections
• Sec 2(1) a-m defines What Food Adulteration is?
• Sec 2 Misbranded food
• Sec 7 Prohibition of manufacture, sale etc of certain articles of food
• Sec 14 Manufacturers, distributors and dealers to give warranty.
• Sec 14A Vendor to disclose the name of the person from whom the article was
• Sec 15 Notification of Food poisoning
• Sec 16 Penalties –Subject to provisions of sub-sections 1-A
• Sec 19 Defenses which may or may not be allowed in prosecutions under the Act.
District-in-charge for Food Safety
To issue/cancel license of Food Business Operator
To receive report and samples food from Food Safety Officer.
To make recommendation to Food Safety Commissioner for
sanction to launch prosecutions.
Food Safety Officer:
For local areas
To seize the samples
Inspection of food processing premises
Power of search, seizes, investigation, prosecutions.
• Substandard food: Upto Rs. 2.00 lakhs
• Misbranded: Upto Rs. 3.00 lakhs
• Misleading advertisement : Upto Rs. 10.00 lakhs
• Food with extraneous matter: Upto Rs. 1.00 lakhs
• Fail to meet the requirements as directed by FSO: Upto Rs. 2.00 lakhs
• Unhygienic / unsanitary preparations: Upto Rs. 1.00 lakhs
• Adulterant not injurious to health: Upto Rs. 2.00 lakhs
• Adulterant injurious to health: Upto Rs. 10.00 lakhs
• Unsafe food – but does not cause immediate injury : 6 months imprisonment with
fine of Rs.1.0 lakh
• Unsafe food causing non-grievous injury :1 year imprisonment with fine of Rs.
• Compensation in case for injury : up to Rs.1.00 lakh
• Causing grievous injury : 6 years imprisonment with fine of Rs. 5.00 lakh
• Compensation in case for grievous injury : up to Rs.3.00 lakh
• Causing death : 7 years or life imprisonment and fine of Rs. 10.00 lakh
• Compensation in case of death : up to Rs. 5.00 lakh minimum
MTP ACT 1971
• This law provides liberalized conditions for women to seek abortion and for
doctors to do it
• Therapeutic :Continuation of pregnancy endanger the life of women or grave
injury to her physical or mental health
• Social :Contraceptive failure in married couple
• Humanitarian reasons: pregnancy caused by rape
• Eugenic reasons :
• When pregnant women is mentally not sound
MTP rules: Who can perform?
• MTP can be done by registered medical practitioner
• have undergone 6months houseman ship or 3years postgraduate
training in obstetrics & gynaecology
• Who have conducted 25 cases of MTP in approved institution
• MTP can be conducted in hospital/nursing home/centres approved by govt
• Termination of pregnancy by unregistered person or unregistered place shall be an
• Termination of pregnancy by RMP under certain conditions where it is done in
good faith & to save life of pregnant women is not considered as an offence.
PRE-CONCEPTION AND PRE-NATAL
DIAGNOSTIC TECHNIQUES (PCPNDT) ACT
Made in 1994
Regulates and prevents misuse of the diagnostic techniques.
Amended again in 2003.
Prohibition of sex selection,
Regulation of pre-natal diagnostic techniques for the purposes of detecting-
Genetic abnormalities or
Metabolic disorders or
Chromosomal abnormalities or
Certain congenital malformations or
When its becomes an offence ?
Service provider violating the Act.
Service seeker (woman compelled to undergo the test is not punishable).
Advertiser of these techniques.
Written complaint to Appropriate Authority.
Authority to act within 15 days.
Delayed action to be addressed through judiciary.
An offence under the PCPNDT Act is cognizable, non- bailable and non-compoundable.
First offence Subsequent offence
Imprisonment (3yrs.) penalty
(Rs.10000); registration cancelled
Imprisonment (5yrs.) penalty
Imprisonment (3 yrs.) penalty (Rs.
Imprisonment (5 yrs.) penalty
Advertiser Imprisonment (3 yrs.) penalty (Rs.
THE MATERNITY BENEFIT ACT
• To protect and empower women as workers
• To prevent unfair unemployment practices and exploitation of
women in labor market and to safeguard the health and wellbeing of
the mother and child
• every factory or establishment in which 10 or more persons
employed on any day of the preceding twelve months.
• Eligibility for Maternity Benefit: Has to work for 80 days in the
preceding 12 months immediately preceding the date of her expected
• Maternity benefit is paid at the rate of the average daily wage for the
period of her actual absence.
• Eligible for 12 weeks maternity benefit of which not more than six weeks
shall precede the date of her expected delivery.
• Nursing breaks –Two times in the course of daily work
• 2 weeks leave with wages for tubectomy and two weeks immediately
following the day of an tubectomy.
• One months leave with wages at the rate of maternity benefit for one month
for miscarriage, MTP or tubectomy operation.
IMMORAL TRAFFIC(PREVENTION) ACT
• This act is to prevent and prohibit prostitution
• Definition : sexual exploitation or abuse of a person for commercial
• Any person who keeps or manages or acts or assisting in the keeping
or management of brothel shall be punishable
First offence Subsequent offence
Imprisonment 1 to 3 years >2 to 5 years
Fine Up to Rs 2000 > Rs 2000
CHILD LABOUR ACT (1986)
• To prohibit the engagement of children in certain employments and to
regulate conditions of work of children in other employments
• Objectives: No child shall be employed or permitted to work in any of
the following occupations: Set forth in part of ‘A’ of the schedule or in
any workshop where in any of the process set forth in part ‘B’ of the
schedule to this Act -
Child Labor Act 1986(Prohibition & Protection)
1. Transport of passengers, goods; or mails by railway
2. Cinder picking, clearing of an ash pit or building operation in the railway
3. Work in a catering establishment at a railway station, involving the
movement of vendor or any other employee of the establishment from
one platform to another or into or out of a moving train.
4. Work relating to the construction of railway station or with any other
work where such work is done in close proximity to or between the
In any workshop wherein any of the following processes is
• (1) Bidi-making.
• (2) Carpet-weaving.
• (3) Cement manufacture, including bagging of cement.
• (4) Cloth printing, dyeing and weaving.
• (5) manufacture of matches, explosives and fire works.
• (6) Mica-cutting and splitting.
• (7) Shellac manufacture.
• (8) Soap manufacture.
• (9) Wool-cleaning.
• (10) Building and construction industry.
HOURS AND PERIOD OF WORK FOR CHILDREN:
• The period of work on each day shall be so fixed that no child shall work for
more than three hours before he has had an interval for rest for at least one
• No child shall be permitted or required to work between 7 P.m. and 8 a.m.
• No child shall be required or permitted to do work overtime.
Every child employed in an establishment shall be allowed in each week,
a holiday of one whole day, which day shall be specified by the occupier in a notice
Violations under section 3 of this act shall be punishable with imprisonment & fine.
First offence Subsequent offence
Imprisonment 3 months to 1 year 6 months to 2 years
fine Rs 10000 to 20000 > Rs 200000
Juvenile Justice Act 2000
• juvenile is defined as a person who has not completed his/her 18th year of age
• The Act places children/juveniles in two categories
1. Juvenile in ‘conflict with the law’ handled by State Governments/ ‘Juvenile
2. Child in need of ‘care and protection’ to be looked after by State Governments/
Act to be implemented by the respective State Government
Juvenile in conflict of law
• Provision establishment of Juvenile Justice Boards
• Juvenile cases can only be heard in the JJB and not by another court.
• reception and rehabilitation of juvenile conflicts , the state must set up
Observation Homes and Special Homes in every district or group of districts
• When a police officer comes in contact with a juvenile he must place the
child with the Special Juvenile Police Unit
• Juveniles who run away from the Observation or Special homes can be
brought back without a warrant and without punishment
• Cruelty (such as assault or neglect) towards juveniles in the home or by any person
in charge of him/her is a punishable offence
• People who exploit children for a crime will be penalised
Child in need of ‘care and protection’
• CNCP cases are heard by the “Child Welfare Committee”
• The purpose of the CWC is to provide for the care, treatment, protection,
rehabilitation and development of the child
• CNCP are provided with Children's Homes and Shelter Homes
• Shelter homes are for children whose family can not be located or whose case has
• CWC may declare a child fit for adoption and refer him/her to an
adoption agency (set up by the government) for placement.
• The JJB and CWC have the authority to release a child to his/her
parents or give the child leave
• State shall create a Child Protection Unit, whose officers are
responsible to ensure the proper implementation of act.
NARCOTIC DRUG AND
PSYCHOTOPIC SUBSTANCES Act 1985
• Deals with narcotic drugs ,psychotropic substances and property derived from ,or
used in ,illicit traffic in narcotic drugs & psychotropic substances ,and to
implement the provisions of the international conventions on narcotic drugs and
• consolidate & amend the law relating to narcotic drugs
NDPS Act 1985- definitions
• Addict : A person addicted to any narcotic drug or psychotropic agent.
• Narcotic Drug : Coca leaf, cannabis, opium, poppy straw, & includes all
• Manufactured Drugs: All coca derivatives, medicinal cannabis, opium derivatives,
poppy straw concentrate, & any other notified narcotic substance or preparation.
• Psychotropic Substance : Any substance, natural or synthetic, or any material, or
any salt or preparation of such substance/ material included in the list of
psychotropic substances specified in the schedule.
Authorities & Officers
• Provision for appointment of a Narcotics Commissioner, & a NDPS
Consultative Committee by the Central Govt.
• Chapter II A Provision for constitution of a National Fund for Control of
• The Central Govt. has constituted an authority k/a the Narcotics Control
Bureau with headquarters at New Delhi & 5 zonal offices to exercise the
powers & functions of the Central Govt. under this act.
Prohibition, Control & Regulation
• According to Section 8 No Person Shall :
1) Cultivate any coca, opium poppy or cannabis plant, or
2) Produce, possess, or consume any narcotic drug or psychotropic substance,
except for medicinal or scientific purposes & in the manner & to the extent
provided by the Act.
• There are clauses regarding the power of Central & State Govt. to permit,
control & regulate the narcotic drugs & psychotropic substances, including
matter of licenses.
Offences & Penalties
1) Punishment for contravention in relation to poppy straw, coca plant & leaves
prepared opium, poppy, & cannabis plant (except ganja), manufactured drugs,
psychotropic substances :
a) For 1st offence : Imprisonment for not less than 10yrs, & Fine not less than 1
b) For 2nd & Subsequent Conviction : Imprisonment for not less than 15yrs, &
Fine not less than 1.5 Lakh rupees.
2)Punishment for contravention in relation to ‘ganja’ or cultivation of cannabis plant:
a) For 1st offence : Imprisonment which may extend to 5yrs, & Fine which may
extend to 50,000 rupees
b) For 2nd & Subsequent Conviction : Imprisonment which may extend to
10yrs, & Fine which may extend to 1 Lakh rupees
3) Punishment for illegal possession in small quantity for personal consumption of
any ND/ PS (Sec 27):
a) For cocaine, morphine, heroin imprisonment extending upto 1yr, or Fine, or Both
b) Other imprisonment extending upto 6 months, or Fine, or Both
Cocaine– 125mg Heroin -
4) Death Penalty
Opium – 5g Charas - 5g Ganja – 500g
ND/ PS QUANTITY
Cocaine 500 mg
Morphine/ Heroin/ Codeine 1 kg
Opium 10 kg
Hashish 20 kg
• J.Kishore’s national health programmes of india 10th edition