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Brand Positioning


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Brand Positioning

  1. 1. What is Positioning?<br />Positioning is the act of designing the company’s offering and image to occupy a distinctive place in the mind of the target market. <br />It is at the heart of marketing strategy.<br />
  2. 2. Brand Positioning-CBBE MODEL<br />Issues in deciding on a positioning-<br />Define competitive frame of reference<br />Target market<br />Nature of competition<br />Define desired brand knowledge structures<br />Points-of-parity<br />Necessary-to be a legitimate and credible product offering within a certain category. <br />Competitive- to negate competitor’s points of differences.<br />Points-of-difference<br />strong, favorable, and unique brand associations<br />
  3. 3. Value Propositions<br />Scorpio, Mahindra and Mahindra<br /> A vehicle that provides the luxury and comfort of a car, and the adventure and thrills of an SUV <br />Domino’s<br /> A good hot pizza, delivered to your door within 30 minutes of ordering, at a moderate price<br />
  4. 4. Defining Associations<br />Points-of-parity<br />(POPs)<br /><ul><li>Associations that are not necessarily unique to the brand but may be shared with other brands</li></ul>Points-of-difference <br />(PODs)<br />Attributes or benefits consumers strongly associate with a brand, positively evaluate, and believe they could not find to the same extent with a competitive brand<br />
  5. 5. POSITIONING GUIDELINES<br /><ul><li>2 key issues in arriving at the optimal competitive brand positioning-
  6. 6. Defining and communicating the competitive frame of reference-
  7. 7. Establish and convey category membership
  8. 8. Choosing and establishing points of parity and points of difference</li></li></ul><li> 11-6<br />Establishing Category Membership<br />This “four-in-one entertainment solution” from Konica failed to establish category membership. <br />Straddle positioning worked however for BMW when it entered the US mkt in the 1980s-luxury+performance<br />
  9. 9. Conveying Category Membership<br />Announcing category benefits<br />Comparing to exemplars<br />Relying on the product descriptor-Vaseline Intensive care lotion<br />
  10. 10. Identifying & Choosing POP’s & POD’s<br />Desirability criteria (consumer perspective)<br />Personally relevant<br />Distinctive & superior<br />Believable & credible<br />Deliverability criteria (firm perspective)<br />Feasible <br />Profitable<br />Pre-emptive, defensible & difficult to attack<br />
  11. 11. Copyright © 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. 11-9<br />Consumer Desirability Criteria for PODs<br />Relevance<br />Distinctiveness<br />Believability<br />
  12. 12. Copyright © 2009 Dorling Kindersley (India) Pvt. Ltd. 11-10<br />Deliverability Criteria for PODs<br />Feasibility<br />Communicability<br />Sustainability<br />
  13. 13. Examples of Negatively Correlated Attributes and Benefits<br />Low-price vs. High quality<br />Taste vs. Low calories<br />Nutritious vs. Good tasting<br />Efficacious vs. Mild<br />Powerful vs. Safe<br />Strong vs. Refined<br />Ubiquitous vs. Exclusive<br />Varied vs. Simple<br />
  14. 14. Addressing negatively correlated PODs and POPs<br />Present separately-e.g H&S campaign in Europe.<br />Leverage equity of another entity-Miller Lite used former professional athletes who debated the merits of ‘great taste(POP) as opposed to ‘Less filling/light(POD)’. These ae negatively correlated benefits.<br />Redefine the relationship-Apple launched the Macintosh with key POD-”user friendly”. Tag line used “ Power to be your best.”<br />
  15. 15. Issues in Implementing Brand Positioning<br />Establishing Category Membership<br />Identifying & Choosing POP’s & POD’s<br />Communicating & Establishing POP’s & POD’s<br />Sustaining & Evolving POD’s & POP’s<br />
  16. 16. Major Challenges in Positioning<br />Find compelling & impactful points-of-difference (MacMillan & McGrath, HBR, ‘97)<br />How do people become aware of their need for your product and service?<br />How do consumers find your offering?<br />How do consumers make their final selection?<br />How do consumers order and purchase your product or service?<br />What happens when your product or service is delivered?<br />How is your product installed?<br />How is your product or service paid for?<br />
  17. 17. Major Challenges in Positioning<br />Find compelling & impactful points-of-difference (cont.) <br />How is your product stored?<br />How is your product moved around?<br />What is the consumer really using your product for?<br />What do consumers need help with when they use your product?<br />What about returns or exchanges?<br />How is your product repaired or serviced?<br />What happens when your product is disposed of or no longer used?<br />
  18. 18. Communicating & Establishing POP’s & POD’s<br />Create POP’s and POD’s in the face of attribute & benefit trade-offs<br />Price & quality<br />Convenience & quality<br />Taste & low calories<br />Efficacy & mildness<br />Power & safety<br />Ubiquity & prestige<br />Comprehensiveness (variety) & simplicity<br />Strength & refinement<br />
  19. 19. Strategies to Reconcile Attribute & Benefit Trade-Offs<br />Establish separate marketing programs<br />Leverage secondary association (e.g., co-brand)<br />Re-define the relationship from negative to positive<br />
  20. 20. Sustaining & EvolvingPOP’s & POD’s<br />Core Brand Values &<br /> Core Brand Proposition<br />These piontout the importance of internal branding-making sure that members of the organization are properly aligned with the brand and what it represents.<br />
  21. 21. Core Brand Values<br />Set of abstract concepts or phrases that characterize the 5-10 most important dimensions of the mental map of a brand. <br />Relate to points-of-parity and points-of-difference<br />Mental Map  Core Brand Values  Brand Mantra<br />
  22. 22. Brand Mantras<br />A brand mantra is an articulation of the “heart and soul” of the brand.<br />Brand mantras are short three to five word phrases that capture the irrefutable essence or spirit of the brand positioning and brand values. <br />Nike<br />Authentic Athletic Performance<br />Disney<br />Fun Family Entertainment<br />