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Vegetation in landscape

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Vegetation in landscape

  1. 1. VEGETATION IN LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE Presentation by :Saima Sannuta
  2. 2. Plants as Architecture Plants with respect to architecture can perform two roles. They can complement and reinforce the existing architecture of the house or structure, and they can create outdoor rooms. • Trees, shrubs and ground covers can be used to emphasize the desirable architectural lines and masses of the house. The form and branching pattern of particular trees and shrubs can echo the vertical, horizontal and diagonal roof and wall lines of a house. Thus, a pleasing, unifies and harmonious appearance can result. • Texture, form and size are the physical characteristics of plants that provide interest , variety and aesthetic appeal to a landscape. •
  3. 3. Groups of Plant Forms • Trees • Shrubs • Groundcover
  4. 4. Deciduous Trees • Deciduous trees are generally thought of as broadleaf trees meaning that they have broad , flat leaves eg sycamore. • Usually these trees take longer to grow, their wood is harder and has good preservative qualities. • A deciduous forest is a forest made up of trees that will shed their leaves in autumn. These leaves will rot, producing a rich carpet of soil on which plants can feed. Therefore deciduous forests are full of plants and animal life.
  5. 5. Evergreen Trees • An evergreen or coniferous forest is a forest made up of pine trees that are always in leaf. • They do not shed leaves except for a few pine needles to make way for new ones. • These fallen needles have very less nutrients and make very poor soil. Not many plants grow in these forest and so fewer plants and animals are found here.
  6. 6. Fun Facts
  7. 7. Form Form is the 3-dimensional shape of a plant or a plant mass. Overall form is more or less relevant depending on the viewing perspective. • For example , the form of a tree can appear quite different if a viewer is standing under the canopy than it does when the viewer is standing in an open field. • Plant forms can be divided into three groups – trees, shrubs and groundcover. • Trees are distinguished by their large size, their trunks and their canopy. • Shrubs are typically medium sized and are characterized by a mass of foliage covering the branches. • Groundcover is the smallest in size and varies greatly in form,But the distinguishing characteristic is the way plants are used — to cover the ground. Hence the name “Groundcover”. •
  8. 8. Form and Branching Pattern of Trees • The form and branching pattern of trees and shrubs will determine their appropriate role in a spatial theme. Plants with regular, symmetrical full forms in summer and winter are most effective in reinforcing the geometric patterns of a formal theme. A few trees and shrubs with symmetrical growth pattern suitable to formalistic settings include : Trees 1. American Holly 2. Pine Oak 3. Spruce 4. Flowering pear
  9. 9. Form and Branching Pattern of Shrubs • Several shrubs in their natural state have irregular growth pattern but are ‘forced’ into geometrical shapes. • Junipers, arborvitae, spirea and forsythia are often improperly trimmed into boxes and spheres with disastrous results including sparse woody growth. • Care should be taken when choosing plants to ensure their tolerance for such frequent pruning.
  10. 10. Size • Size refers to the overall height and width of the plant and its relative size or scale when compared to other plants, structures and spaces in the yard. • Plants are most often sized by height. • Large plants are trees that grow upto 4-6ft or higher at mature size. • Medium plants, typically shrubs, range from 2-4ft in height. • Small plants, typically groundcover and bedding plants, are 2ft tall or shorter.
  11. 11. Size
  12. 12. Texture • Texture refers to how coarse or fine the overall surface and individual leaves of the plant feel or look ( perceived visual texture). • Like form, a variety of textures provide interest and contrast in the landscape. • Texture can be found in the foliage, flowers, blades and bark of the plant, as well as in the plant’s overall branching pattern. The size and shape of the leaves most often determine the perceived texture of the plant. • A plant can generally be describes as having a course, medium or fine texture. • Coarse texture is more dominant than fine and tends to stand out individually, while fine texture is more subordinate and tends to unify compositions.
  13. 13. Texture FINE MEDIUM COARSE
  14. 14. Functional Uses of Plants • Considering the functional use of plants is a new approach to solving landscape problems. Traditionally, plants have been used for beautification due to their aesthetic qualities. The expression "functional use of plants" helps to explain that plants can perform other functions in the landscape and still beautify. • Plants have horticultural characteristics such as height and spread, branching habit, flowers, fruit, and foliage; they have design qualities such as form, colour, texture, and mass and they have cultural requirements for growth in the landscape.
  15. 15. Plants as a Noise Barrier • Plants can be used functionally to solve some of the environmental problems the homeowner may have on the property. This may include the need for privacy, protection from glare or direct sunlight into windows, or shade on a patio. A thick row of high shrubs bordering a road can reduce noise and prevent litter from entering a yard, or perhaps screen an unpleasant view such as a shopping center or row of buildings.
  16. 16. Plants Used for Climate Control • For climate control, deciduous shade trees might be used to screen the hot summer sun or in winter permit the solar radiation to penetrate to the ground, or to the walls and windows of a building. • Large shrubs can serve as windbreaks to reduce wind velocities. • Changes in solar radiation or light levels are also possible with shading. USE OF DECIDUOUS PLANTS TO DIRECT SUMMER BREEZES TREES CONTROLS SOLAR RADIATION
  17. 17. Architectural Uses of Plants • Plants can be used to form walls, canopies, or floors by taking advantage of their different growth habits and foliage characteristics. A stand of trees or shrubs can create walls to filter or block views, or a canopy of tree branches can provide a sense of shelter. Ground cover planting with uniform foliage and textural characteristics can present the feeling of an architectural floor. Plants can also define a boundary
  18. 18. Engineering Uses of Plants • Trees can stop or diffuse light before it reaches the ground. Engineering functions of plants include using them to screen or soften the sun's glare on the water or smooth shiny surfaces, or to block car lights or street lights. • An edging of ground cover plants along an entranceway or at corners of a walk helps direct attention and movement of people. Traffic movement along walks and drives can be controlled with shrubs or trees. • Plants can add, absorb and deflect sound by the presence and movement of their foliage and branches. Plants are particularly useful in noise control when joined with landforms. Plants can remove and trap pollutants from the air as well as introduce fragrance or odors from flowers or foliage, such as the spicy scented leaves of the bayberry.
  19. 19. POLLUTION CONTROL: EMBANKMENTS, DECIDUOUS AND EVERGREEN PLANTINGS, AND MASONRY WALLS ARE USED TOGETHER. USE OF WIND BREAKS TO CONTROL WINTER WINDS. ANGLES AND GLARE SOURCE AND RESPECTIVE ANGLES OF REFLECTION. PLACEMENT OF PLANTS BETWEEN GLARE SOURCE AND VIEWER.
  20. 20. Creating Outdoor Rooms VARIOUS PLANT TYPES, HEIGHTS AND COMBINATIONS CREATE PARTIAL SCREENS AND OVERHEAD CANOPIES INWARD FOCUSED SPACE OUTWARD FOCUSED SPACE A SCULPTURED HEDGE CREATES A PARTIAL SCREEN BETWEEN THE PARKING AREA AND THE ENTRANCE COURTYARD
  21. 21. Aesthetic Uses of Plants • The aesthetic functions of plants are the easiest to understand. Plants traditionally have been used for beautification; unfortunately, most people think this is the only reason to landscape with plants. • Aesthetically, plants can become a piece of living sculpture. When placed against a plain wall or fence, they create an interesting shadow pattern of branches and leaves. Plants can be used as background for other plantings, or arranged to provide visual coherence to unrelated objects or structures. They provide suitable environments for birds and other wildlife. • Plants may be used for diverse purposes in the modern landscape. Rarely should plants be simply ornamental; rather, they should serve multiple roles, making the modern landscape both attractive and functional.
  22. 22. Aesthetic Uses of Plants PLANTS CAN ACT AS SCUPTURE WHEN PLACED AGAINST A BLANK WALL DIFFERENT FORMS CAN BE USED TO MAKE THE LANDSCAPE INTERESTING TREES – BACKGROUND SHRUBS – MIDDLE GROUND GROUNDCOVER- FOREGROUND
  23. 23. THE ROLE OF PLANTS IN CREATING ARCHITECTURE SHOULD NOT BE UNDERESTIMATED. YOU CAN USE COVERS, SHRUBS, AND TREES TO CREATE FLOORS, CEILINGS AND WALLS OF OUTDOOR ROOMS TO ADD UNITY, BALANCE, AND RHYTHM TO A SPATIAL COMPOSITION AND TO FRAME AND ENHACE EXISTING ARCHITECTURE Thank You

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