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Buchroithner - Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas

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Presentation from Third InDOG Doctoral Conference in Olomouc, Czech Republic. 13. - 16. October 2014

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Buchroithner - Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas

  1. 1. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas Manfred F. Buchroithner, Tino Pieczonka, Nicolai Holzer, Benjamin Schröter Technische Universität Dresden, Institut für Kartographie
  2. 2. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Introduction Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas Background Glacial melt significantly contributes to the water resource. Lack of long-term measurements of glacier mass budgets Existing studies are focusing on single glaciers or small catchments only: - Ak-Shirak (Aizen et al. 2007, GaPC) - Tomur region (Pieczonka et al. 2013, RSE; Wang et al. 2013, QI) - Inylchek glacier (Shangguan et al. 2014, TCD) - Gurla Mandhata (Holzer et. al., submitted to RSE) - Muztag Ata (Holzer et al., in prep. for TC) No region-wide geodetic mass balance studies for many regions in High Asia since the 1970s!
  3. 3. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Introduction Corona 1970 Aerial imagery 1984 We have to know the past in order to understand the presence! Cartosat-1 2007 The cryosphere has changed tremendously during the last decades Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  4. 4. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Introduction Elevation difference of all HMA glaciers 2003 – 2009 based on ICESat  Geodetic assessments to improve spatial and temporal coverage Gardner et al. (2013), Science 1973 – 2013 Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  5. 5. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Introduction Available data from in-situ measurements (and modelling) 2 3 Mass Budget Data for Tien Shan (Sorg et al. 2012) 4 6 1 5 Pamir Karakorum Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas Mass budget data published by Yao et al. (2012)
  6. 6. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Data Historical satellite imagery KH-4 Corona, KH-7 Gambit, KH-9 Hexagon Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  7. 7. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Study Region Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  8. 8. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Study Region Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  9. 9. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Study Region Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  10. 10. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Study Region Tino Pieczonka et al. The suitability of historical optical satellite imagery for investigations of the cryosphere
  11. 11. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Study Region Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  12. 12. Terrestrial camera system, Zhadang Glacier 2010/2011
  13. 13. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Data Data characteristics KH-4 KH-7 KH-9 First launch 1959 1963 1971 Geometric. res. 1.8-7.6 m 0.6 – 1.2 m 6-9 m Radiometric res. 8 Bit 8 Bit 8 Bit Spectral res. Panchromatic Panchromatic Panchromatic Coverage 15 x 210 – 42 x 580 km ca. 20 x 150 km 250 x 125 km Preprocessing Rectification Georeferencing Rectification Georeferencing Rectification Georeferencing Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  14. 14. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Forward (FWD) approx. 60% overlap Aft (AFT) Camera KH-4 KH-4 Corona Initial objectives: Gathering information about the military strenght of the former Soviet Union Panoramic distortion plus motion Sohn et al. (2002) Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  15. 15. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Results KH-4 Everest Region DEM Comparison Cartosat-1 – KH-4B Corona (2007 – 1970) Glacier mass loss: almost 0.6 km³ Glaciers thinning: 0.37±0.27 m a-1 Specific mass balance: -0.32±0.08 m w.e.a-1 Bolch et al. (2011), The Cryosphere Pieczonka et al. (2011), ISPRS Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  16. 16. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Camera – KH-7 KH-7 Gambit Monocamera system -> random stereoscopic coverage KH-7 vs. KH-4: High resolution 77 inch focal length (cf. 24 inch KH-4) telescopic strip camera system ... large area of coverage and improved ground resolution (<1 m vs. 8 m) 18 000 panchromatic and 230 color images acquired -> only few of them in stereo Glacier length changes from 1964 to 2013 at Gurla Mandhata (Holzer et al., sumitted to RSE) KH-7 Gambit-1 ortho image of 5 Dec. 1964 vs. Pleiades ortho image of 18 Oct. 2013 Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  17. 17. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Camera KH-9 KH-9 Hexagon Camera design of KH-9 comparable to that of LFC (Surazakov and Aizen, 2009) -> 23x46 cm frame, 30.5 cm focal length -> 1058 reseau crosses vs. 45 (LFC), four fiducials vs. 12 (LFC) Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  18. 18. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Preprocessing KH-9 KH-9 Hexagon Reconstruction of interior image geometry by use of reseau grid coordinates Basic assumptions: Cross spacing 1 cm, centre cross undistorted Correction of film distortion based on 2nd order polynomial Distortion vectors from actual to theoretic reseau grid coordinates Bicubic interpolation/Inpaint Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  19. 19. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography 1987-03-24 1987-07-22 Results KH-9 Length Changes 1976-2005 (Nyainqentanglha/Tibet) Zhadang: 225 ± 45m (~8m/a) 125 ± 45m (~4m/a) 480 ± 45m (~17m/a) 430 ± 45m (~15m/a) Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  20. 20. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Glacier Area Changes Glacier retreat 1975-2008 3.7±4.8 % with decreasing shrinkage rates west to east. MB: -0.22 ± 0.17 m w.e./a MB: -0.52 ± 0.17 m w.e./a MB: -0.34 ± 0.18 m w.e./a Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  21. 21. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Multitemporal DTM Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  22. 22. Glacier mass budgets Tomur-Inylchek region ID Glacier MB [m w.e.a-1] Δa a-1 [%] ΔhDebris a-1 [m a-1] 9 Kaindy -0.28±0.17 -0.14±0.14 -1.25±0.20 11 Tomur -0.57±0.17 -0.02±0.08 -1.50±0.20 12 South In. -0.27±0.17 -0.07±0.05 -0.87±0.20 13 North In. -0.20±0.17 +0.13±0.08 +0.36±0.20 14 Koxkar -0.34±0.18 -0.03±0.08 -0.78±0.21 Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  23. 23. Glacier tongue of Kaindy glacier with exposed ice cliffs Photo: T. Pieczonka, 2012
  24. 24. Results KH-9 TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Glacier Volume Change (Tomur Region) 1999 (SRTM3) – 2009 (SPOT5) 1976 (KH-9) – 2009 (SRTM3) Pieczonka et al. (2013), RSE Mass budget 1976-2009 -0.35 ± 0.15 m w.e./a Mass budget 1999-2009 -0.23 ± 0.19 m w.e./a Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  25. 25. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Long-term glacier variations at Muztag Ata (eastern Pamir) from 1973 – 2013 (Holzer et al, in prep. for TC) Glaciers shrinkage from 274.3 ± 10.6 km² (1973) to 272.7 ± 1.0 km² in 2013 (-0.02±0.1%a-1) is insignificant. Mass budgets are almost balanced from 1973-2013 (-0.01±0.30 m w.e.a-1), but slightly more negative before 1999 and more positive afterwards. Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  26. 26. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography High resolution Digital Elevation Models (1m) from Pléiades stereo imagery at Muztag Ata and Gurla Mandhata (Holzer et al, in prep. for TC) Hillshade showing the middle part of the debris covered Kekesayi Glacier at Muztag Ata in the east Pamir.
  27. 27. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Glacier variations at Gurla Mandhata (Naimona’nyi), Tibet: a multi-sensoral approach including TanDEM-X, Pléiades and KH-7 Gambit-1 (Holzer et al., sumitted to RSE) DEM of Pléiades (2013) to SRTM-3 (1999) DEM of TanDEM-X (2012) to SRTM-3 (1999) Glacier mass balance of Gurla Glacier: -0,21±0.18 m w.e.a-1 determined from both Pléiades and TanDEM-X DEMs relative to SRTM-3 DEM Difference images to SRTM-3 after post-processing for glacier mass balance calculation and uncertainty assessment
  28. 28. Periodic Glacial Lake Outburst Floods threatening the oldest Buddhist monastery in NW Nepal (Kropáček et al, in prep. for NHESS) DEM of Pléiades (2013) to SRTM-3 (1999) TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Glacier mass balance of Halji Glacier from Pléiades to SRTM-3: -0.40±0.30 m w.e.a-1
  29. 29. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Environmental Sciences>> Institute of Cartography Conclusions Conclusions - Knowledge especially for the last decade significantly improved by using historical satellite images. - High potentials of new remote sensing datasets for glaciological studies (e.g. Pléiades, TanDEM-X) - Careful co-registration is required in order to determine reliable glacier mass budgets. - On average, significant glacier mass loss across High Asia since the 1970s, but there are also advancing/surging glaciers. - More studies are needed to extend the coverage both in space and especially in time. Manfred Buchroithner Multitemporal remote sensing-based 3D mapping of glacier changes in remote areas
  30. 30. TU Dresden >> Faculty of Forest, Geo and Hydro Sciences >> Institute of Cartography Thank you for your attention Any questions? manfred.buchroithner@tu-dresden.de

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