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Cranes ppt

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Cranes ppt

  1. 1. OSHA Office of Training & Education1 CranesCranes
  2. 2. OSHA Office of Training & Education2 Major Causes of Crane Accidents • Contact with power lines • Overturns • Falls • Mechanical failures
  3. 3. OSHA Office of Training & Education3 •Instability – unsecured load, load capacity exceeded, or ground not level or too soft •Lack of communication - the point of operation is a distance from the crane operator or not in full view of the operator •Lack of training •Inadequate maintenance or inspection How Do Accidents Occur?
  4. 4. OSHA Office of Training & Education4 Who is at Risk • Operators • Persons at Crane Site
  5. 5. OSHA Office of Training & Education5 Definitions • Crane – Consists of a rotating structure for lifting and lowering horizontally on rubber tires or crawler treads • Hoist - Used to lift and lower load. • Boom – An inclined spar, strut, or other long member supporting the hoisting tackle • Boom stops – A device used to limit the angle of the boom at its highest position • Brake – To slow or stop motion by friction or power • Block – Sheaves or grooved pulleys in a frame with hook, eye and strap • Jib – Extension attached to the boom point to provide added boom length for lifting specified loads.
  6. 6. OSHA Office of Training & Education6 Crane Parts
  7. 7. OSHA Office of Training & Education7 Types of Cranes • Mobile • Hydraulic • Overhead • Gantry • Tower
  8. 8. OSHA Office of Training & Education8 • Improper load rating • Excessive speeds • No hand signals • Inadequate inspection and maintenance • Unguarded parts • Unguarded swing radius Crane Hazards • Working too close to power lines • Improper exhaust system • Shattered windows • No steps/guardrails walkways • No boom angle indicator • Not using outriggers
  9. 9. OSHA Office of Training & Education9 Planning Before Start-Up • Level the crane and ensure support surface is firm and able to support the load • Contact power line owners and determine precautions. Know the location and voltage of overhead power lines. • Know the basic crane capacities, limitations, and job site restrictions, such as the location of power lines, unstable soil, or high winds. • Make other personnel aware of hoisting activities. • Barricade areas within swing radius. • Ensure proper maintenance and inspections. • Determine safe areas to store materials and place machinery.
  10. 10. OSHA Office of Training & Education10 Competent Person The competent person must inspect all machinery and equipment prior to each use, and during use, to make sure it is in safe operating condition. If it needs fixing, take it out of service and don’t use it until it is fixed Broken Track
  11. 11. OSHA Office of Training & Education11 Load Capacity - Speed - Warnings • Make sure the crane operator can see the:  Rated Load Capacities  Operating Speeds  Special Hazard Warning or Instruction Load Rating Chart
  12. 12. OSHA Office of Training & Education12 Know the Weight of the Load • Refer to shipping ticket or other documentation • Ensure lift calculations are correct • Ensure load is within load chart rating for boom length and load radius of crane • Crane is rated by the maximum weight it will lift at a minimum radius and minimum boom length – the further from its centerpoint, the less it will lift
  13. 13. OSHA Office of Training & Education13 Load Limiting Factors • Not level • Wind • Side loads • On its wheels • Lifting over the side • Use of extensions, jibs and other attachments • Limits of wire rope, slings and lifting devices
  14. 14. OSHA Office of Training & Education14 Mobile Cranes – Lifting Principles • Center of Gravity • Leverage • Stability • Structural Integrity
  15. 15. OSHA Office of Training & Education15 Load Example – 30 ton crane • Will lift 60,000 pounds at 10 feet from the center pin of the crane • Based on level surface, no wind, and outriggers fully extended • At 25 feet from the center pin with an 80 foot boom, the capacity is only 14,950 pounds • At 74 feet from the center pin, the capacity is only 4,800 pounds
  16. 16. OSHA Office of Training & Education16 Improper Load Improper loads or speeds can result in the tipping of the crane
  17. 17. OSHA Office of Training & Education17 Improper Load
  18. 18. OSHA Office of Training & Education18 Improper Load
  19. 19. OSHA Office of Training & Education19 Stay clear from power lines at least 10 feet Power Lines
  20. 20. OSHA Office of Training & Education20 An illustration of the signals must be posted at the job site Hand Signals
  21. 21. OSHA Office of Training & Education21 Guard Moving Parts Unguarded Chain Drive Guard moving parts such as gears or belts
  22. 22. OSHA Office of Training & Education22 Swing Radius Stay out of the swing radius of the crane – Make sure there are barrier guards showing swing radius
  23. 23. OSHA Office of Training & Education23 Operator Visibility Broken Window Make sure broken windows or other obstructions do not prevent the operator from seeing
  24. 24. OSHA Office of Training & Education24 Ladders Ladder Use ladders to get to the upper portion of the cab
  25. 25. OSHA Office of Training & Education25 Guardrails Runways and steps need to have guardrails, handholds and slip resistant surfaces
  26. 26. OSHA Office of Training & Education26 Suspended Loads Don’t stand under suspended loads
  27. 27. OSHA Office of Training & Education27 Boom Angle Indicator A boom angle indicator must be on the crane
  28. 28. OSHA Office of Training & Education28 Supporting Surface Cranes must be on a firm supporting surface and level within 1 percent
  29. 29. OSHA Office of Training & Education29 The grooves must be smooth and free from surface defects which could cause rope damage Sheaves
  30. 30. OSHA Office of Training & Education30 Rigging Equipment Slings Types of slings include alloy steel chain, wire rope, metal mesh, natural or synthetic fiber rope, and synthetic web. Chain Wire rope Metal mesh Synthetic
  31. 31. OSHA Office of Training & Education31 Annual Inspections Inspection of the hoisting machinery must be made by a competent person The employer must maintain a record of these inspections Crane wasn’t inspected and tipped over
  32. 32. OSHA Office of Training & Education32 What to Inspect • Correct air pressure and no leaks • Tires properly inflated • Clearance for tail swing • Wire rope wear • Physical damage to crane • Loose or missing hardware, nuts, or bolts • Fluid leaks
  33. 33. OSHA Office of Training & Education33 Remove From Service Immediately remove damaged or defective slings from service
  34. 34. OSHA Office of Training & Education34 Damaged wire rope Broken Strands Damaged wire rope must be taken out of service Crushed Rope
  35. 35. OSHA Office of Training & Education35 Worn Part
  36. 36. OSHA Office of Training & Education36 Conduct regular inspections of tires for excessive wear or damage Tire Inspections
  37. 37. OSHA Office of Training & Education37 Training • Operators: must qualify on specific crane type Must include on-the-job training • Supervisor / competent person
  38. 38. OSHA Office of Training & Education38 Summary • An unstable load, lack of communication, lack of training, and inadequate maintenance or inspection are major contributors to crane accidents. • Operators or others working in the area can be victims to “struck by" and "caught in" injuries. • Contact with power lines causes many accidents. • A competent person must inspect a crane regularly to insure it is in proper order. • Planning and training reduces accidents.

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