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TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN THE FCT AREA COUNCILS: HOW TO INSPIRE EXTRAORDINARY PERFORMANCE

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Cities are living organism that transform over time through events and driven by leadership process. The vision of Nigeria’s Abuja Federal Capital Territory is to be one of the 20 World Class Capital Cities by the year 2020 through the provision of infrastructure, services, and administration. The city’s mission is to develop into a first class city comparable to the best in the world. This paper discusses how transformational leadership in the FCT Area Councils could inspire extraordinary performance in achieving their vision and mission. A 3-Tier theoretical framework of transformation, leadership and inspiration theories is employed to explain break-point for change, leading for attainment of set goals; and action-event by extraordinary performance. The paper contributes to a thematic workshop on Leadership, Policy and Strategy for Effective Governance for Capacity Building of Elected Chairmen, Councillors and other Senior Officials of the FCT Area Councils. The paper arouses the spirit of transformational leadership among the participants and inculcates the need to inspire extraordinary performance among their followers. The paper strongly recommends series of deliberate actions and events aimed at creating passion for extraordinary performance; taking advantage of the unique and ample opportunities available for rapid development; and particular attention given to utilization best practices, continuous capacity building; and developing partnerships with other cities across the world.

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TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN THE FCT AREA COUNCILS: HOW TO INSPIRE EXTRAORDINARY PERFORMANCE

  1. 1. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN THE FCT AREA COUNCILS: HOW TO INSPIRE EXTRAORDINARY PERFORMANCE BY TANKO AHMED fwc Senior Fellow (Security & Strategic Studies) National Institute (NIPSS), Kuru - Jos
  2. 2. Preamble • Cities are living organism that transform over time through events driven by leadership process. • The visions to be one of the 20 World Class Capital Cities by the year 2020 through the provision of infrastructure, services, and administration. • Its mission is to develop into a first class city comparable to the best in the world. • This paper discusses how transformational leadership in the FCT Area Councils could inspire extraordinary performance in achieving this mission. • A 3-Tier theoretical framework of transformation, leadership and inspiration is employed to project break-point for change; leading for attainment of set goals; and the action- event theory for inspiration, respectively.
  3. 3. INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. “Transformational leaders … inspire followers to … achieve extraordinary outcomes …” – Bass & Riggio (2008)
  5. 5. Background • The thematic formation of leadership, policy and strategy for effective governance is an intrinsic platform for delivery of extraordinary performance in the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Area Councils. • This task is achievable when affairs are driven by transformational leadership, fueled by clearly spelt out policy, and guided by sound strategy. • The preceding lecture on ‘Understanding Leadership, Policy and Strategy’ has already laid a strong and stable foundation for discourse on capacity building, especially on how to inspire extraordinary performance.
  6. 6. Cities as Centres and Movers of Civilization and Development • Cities all over the world are known to be centres and movers of civilization and development especially under transformational leadership able to inspire extraordinary feats. • The FCT has the vision to be one of the 20 World Class Capital Cities by the year 2020 through the mission for providing infrastructure, services and administration. • It aims to develop a first class Federal Capital comparable to the best in the world by effective and efficient administrative framework, critical infrastructure, and services to residents.
  7. 7. Uniqueness of Abuja FCT • The FCT is a capital ‘city-state’ of mayoral and federal ministry status with only 6 area councils which are equivalents of local government areas. • It is host to national seats for federal executive, legislative and judicial headquarters as well as to local, regional and global (international) organizations. • This extraordinary status also includes indigenous, diverse, robust and vibrant population mostly young, educated and enterprising, drawn from all parts of the country and beyond.
  8. 8. Literature Review • Cities are traditionally reflected in their history, power, vitality as well as feats in scaling challenges and opportunities in both classical and contemporary literature (Hollinger, 2001). • The city of Singapore was transformed from a malaria-infested swamp into a shiny metropolis (Zorroli, 2015). • The Abuja FCT and its Area Councils aspire to be among the 20 World Class Cities by 2020.
  9. 9. Theorem • This paper projects a 3-Tier theoretical framework of transformation, leadership and inspiration theories. • Transformation theory establishes the ‘break-point’ for change at which one form transmits into another; leadership theories demonstrate how followers are inspired for attainment of set goals (Bass & Riggio, 2006); and, the theory of inspiration matches actions and events in effective and efficient delivery system (Ruben, 2003; Davis, 2005). • This framework provides the basis for clear assumption on how transformational leadership could inspire extraordinary performance.
  10. 10. Leadership Theories • Leadership theories developed chronologically from the ‘great man theory’ to ‘trait’, ‘behavioural’, ‘contingency’, ‘transactional’ to ‘transformational’ proposition assuming an interactive inspirational process involving both leaders and followers (Charland, 2016). • The transformational leader works with subordinates, identifies needed change, creates clear vision, guides activities, and inspires performance www.businessdictionary.com. • This leadership style projects humane, inspiring, purposeful and result-oriented traits (Cherry, 2016).
  11. 11. A Proposition • The basic assumption of the transformational leadership theory here is: • That people will follow a person who inspires; that a person with vision and passion can achieve great things; and • That the way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy. http://changingminds.org
  12. 12. The Problem • Many cities around the world are stressed by mounting challenges as well as depressed of growth by the combination of rising costs and high demand of providing social and developmental services (Peirce & Guskind, 2013). • While others crumble, those able to reform and harness resources for meaningful progress are able to prosper within same global environment through extraordinary performance. • The argument here is that, even with transformational leadership in place, the idea of being able to inspire breakthrough by extraordinary performance is not always inevitable.
  13. 13. Aim The aim of this paper is to conceptualize, correlate and explain how transformational leadership in the FCT Area Councils can inspire extraordinary performance.
  14. 14. CONCEPTUAL DISCOURSE
  15. 15. Transformational Leadership • Transformational leadership is the style in which a leader identifies the needed change, creates a vision, set out on a mission to guide the change through inspiration and executes the change with commitment of followers (BussinessDictionary.com). • It emphasizes on intrinsic motivation and follower development involving inspiration for success through extraordinary performance (Bryman, 1992; Bass & Riggio, 2006). • It exhibits unique attributes with emphasis on motivation, cooperation, persuasion, cooption and inspiration of followers (Bass & Riggio, 2008)
  16. 16. Attributes of Transitional Leadership • The transformational leader is a visionary, a revolutionary, a change agent, a game changer, and a transformer who is able to inspire extraordinary performance. • By virtue of being elected or appointed to carry out the FCT vision and mission, the Chairmen and Senior Officials of the FCT are presupposed as transformational leadership.
  17. 17. The FCT Area Councils • Area Councils are the lowest in the 3-tier Nigerian geo-political structure of ‘federal’, ‘state’ and ‘local’ governments government. • The Abuja Federal capital Territory (FCT) Area Councils were actually ‘local governments’ later named ‘area councils’. • Presently, the FCT has 6 area councils including Abaji, Abuja Municipal, Gwagwalada, Kuje, Bwari, and Kwali. • These councils are headed by democratically elected Chairmen and Councillors, assisted by other Senior Officials.
  18. 18. Inspiration • Inspiration involves stimulation, encouragement, motivation, galvanization, impassion or spurring to action a group, team, followers or organization for attainment of set goals (Aron, 2015). • This is done through series of well-designed and deliberate actions and events which influence behavior, attitude and zeal of subordinates to perform effectively and efficiently. • This process of influence allows for leaders to make followers or organizations to think, act and deliver beyond the ordinary (Bass & Riggio, 2008; Charland, 2016).
  19. 19. Extraordinary Performance • Extraordinary signifies unusual excellence or feat which attracts deserving and sincere attention, comment, acknowledgement or applause because of being wonderful or awesome. • It depicts additional effort, special purpose, greater commitment or simply going beyond the ordinary or established scope of things. • Its synonyms include being excellence, remarkable, exceptional, amazing, marvelous, incredible, spectacular, outstanding, impressive, noteworthy, great, fantastic, terrific, tremendous or wondrous. • These would be delightful to the ears of applauded transformational leaders and their inspired followers on accomplishment of extraordinary performance.
  20. 20. Performance • Performance refers to the accomplishment of any given task often monitored, evaluated and measured against preset known standard of accuracy, completeness, cost and speed. • Operational performance implies modal functions for effective accomplishment or implementation of tasks or set goals of a venture, agency or organization. • Performance Science employs multidisciplinary approach and draws methodologies from various disciplines in order to understand skills, mechanisms, processes and outcomes of performance activities and experiences (Aron, 2015).
  21. 21. Extraordinary Performance • Extraordinary Performance demand strategies that can help leaders reach beyond ordinary success by increased effectiveness and efficiency for achieving spectacular results (Cameron, 2012). • It is measured on how well objectives are met given internal and external factors influencing available resource management (Ruben, 2003; Davis, 2005). • Extraordinary performance is attained through positive leadership enabling positive climate, relationship, communication and meaningful inspiration.
  22. 22. TRANSFORMATIONAL LEADERSHIP IN THE FCT AREA COUNCILS
  23. 23. Political Leaders and Public Administrators as Transformational Leaders • The participants of this workshop made up of elected Council Chairmen and other Senior Officials are political leaders and public administrators. • By virtue of their political manifestoes, campaign promises, charisma and voters’ support for political leaders; and the duty schedule and responsibility of public administrators, all participants are supposed to be change agents. • Also, the FCT vision and mission require those in charge to be transformational leaders able to inspire extraordinary performance in attainment of set goals.
  24. 24. Ascribed Attributes for the FCT Transformational Leadership • Transformational leadership in the FCT Area Councils is to emphasize intrinsic motivation, positive development of followers and raise awareness of moral standards. • It is to create an ethical climate of share values and high ethical standards encouraging followers to look beyond self-interests to the common good; and to promote cooperation and harmony and use authentic but consistent means of getting results. • These ascribed attributes for FCT transformational leadership demand for an in-built fervor on how to inspire extraordinary performance among its followers.
  25. 25. HOW TO INSPIRE EXTRAORDINARY PERFORMANCE
  26. 26. The Transformational Leadership Report (2007) The goal of transformational leadership is to: “Transform” people and organizations in a literal sense and change them in mind and heart; Enlarge vision, insight, understanding and seek to clarify purposes; Make behavior congruent with beliefs, principles, or values; and Bring about changes that are permanent, self-perpetuating, and momentum building.
  27. 27. The American Management Association (AMA) It tasks the transformational leader to assess strengths and lead by example to rise to challenges; inject passion and sense of purpose to spark creativity and innovation; inspire the team to reach and strive for greater performance on their own; cultivate a culture where followers want to become leaders; and create and articulate vision for the future.
  28. 28. Inspiring Extraordinary Performance The AMA further advised on continuous evaluation style; exploration of skills; assessment of responsibility level; making adjustments and developing process for enhancing competencies; monitoring of progress by milestones; developing adaption process for team’s culture; and creating adjustment action plans.
  29. 29. Passion for Extraordinary Performance • The transformational leader must have passion for extraordinary performance backed by unceasing zeal to inspire for good, better and the best. • In the words of Tim Duncan’s Quote: “Good better best, never let it rest, until your good is better, and your better is best” www.goodreads.com/quotes. • This narrative ascribes routine approach or work habit on how to inspire extraordinary performance towards the attainment of the FCT vision and mission statement.
  30. 30. Transforming People for Better Performance • The Transformational Leadership Report (2007) quoted Steve Covey stating that the goal of transformational leadership is to “transform” people and organizations in a literal sense; to change them in mind and heart; enlarge vision, insight, and understanding. • The Report further seeks to clarify purposes; make behaviour congruent with beliefs, principles, or values; and bring about changes that are permanent, self-perpetuating, and momentum building.
  31. 31. The American Management Association (AMA) The AMA tasks the transformational leader to: Assess strengths and lead by example and rise to challenges; Inject passion and sense of purpose to spark creativity and innovation; Inspire the team to reach and strive for greater performance on their own; Cultivate a culture where followers want to become leaders; and Create and articulate vision for the future.
  32. 32. ON THE WAY FORWARD
  33. 33. Cities as Centres for Extraordinary Breakthrough • Cities have been centres of civilization, development, invention innovation and extraordinary breakthroughs. • This trend alone bestows on any active, robust and virile city like Abuja, to pursue rapid development agenda. • The FCT Area Councils, as parts of this unique and privileged trend could make themselves as hubs or magnetic points for rapid change.
  34. 34. The Breakthrough Cities Report • The Breakthrough Cities Report by the British Council’s Creative Cities Project is active in Russia and 14 other countries in Europe. • It is about how cities can mobilize creativity and knowledge to tackle compelling social and developmental challenges and opportunities. • The project runs provides inspiring ideas on how to make cities better places to live and work (creativecities.britishcouncil.org)
  35. 35. The Urban Ideas Bakery Concept • The ‘Urban Ideas Bakery’ concept which engages community members and international partners to ‘bake urban ideas’ into practical, deliverable solutions to improve quality of life in world cities (creativecities.britishconcil.org). • The proximity of FCT to the nation’s capital and its highest point of activities including direct contact with local, national, regional and global functions gives it unique and ample privileges and opportunities. • Ideas and resources from these sources are available for almost unlimited ventures for transformation and high performance.
  36. 36. The AMAC Youth Skills Acquisition Centre • An example with similarities to the British Council’s Creative Cities Project able to capture available privileges and opportunities is seen in the Abuja Municipal Area Council (AMAC). • The AMAC is constructing a Youth Skills Acquisition Centre for training and development of much needed competency for upcoming, promising and key players in solutions in tackling social and developmental challenges and opportunities. • The multiplier effect of this project would surely bring about extraordinary performance for the AMAC if handled properly.
  37. 37. CONCLUSION
  38. 38. Summary • This paper sets out to conceptualize transformational leadership and extraordinary performance. • It describes and establishes the elected Chairmen and Councillors and other Senior Officials of the FCT Area Councils as political leaders and public administrator within the scope of transformational leaders. • It relates to the proposition that people will follow a person who inspires; and that a person with vision and passion can achieve great things; and that the way to get things done is by injecting enthusiasm and energy.
  39. 39. Conclusion • The paper concludes that transformational leadership could inspire extraordinary performance. • That is, the participants of this workshop made up of elected Chairmen, Councillors and Senior Officials are by implication ‘transformational leaders’ charged with the responsibility of attaining goals set by the FCT vision and mission. • Also, the task is achievable through inspiration for extraordinary performance inherent in the attributes of ‘transformational leadership’, for “transformational leaders inspire followers to achieve extraordinary outcomes”.
  40. 40. Recommendations • The paper strongly recommends series of deliberate actions and events aimed at creating passion for extraordinary performance. • The Area Councils should take advantage of the unique and ample opportunities available for rapid development to make the Abuja FCT a world class centre for service, administration and economic hub for the West African sub-region in particular and the African continent in general. • Also, particular attention should be given to utilization of local and global best practices, continuous capacity building as well as developing partnerships with other cities across the world.
  41. 41. THANK YOU
  42. 42. • Reference • Aron, W. (2015), Frontiers in psychology, performance science, and scope. Journal of Frontiers in Psychology. Retrieved from http://journal.frontiersin.org/journal/psychology/section/performance-science#about 22/8/16 • Bass, B.M. & Riggio, R.E. (2006), Transformational leadership (2nd ed.). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. • Bass, B.M. & Riggio, R.E. (2008), Transformational leadership. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. • Bryman, A. (1992), Charisma and leadership in organizations. London, UK: Sage • Cameron, K. (2008), Positive leadership. San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koeler • Cameron, K. & Wooten, L. (2009), Leading positively: Strategies for extraordinary performance at a glance. The Regents of the University of Michigan, Centre for Positive Organizations • Cameron, K. (2012), Positive leadership: Strategies for extraordinary performance (2nd ed.). San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koeler • Charland, D. (2016), Webmaster@leadership-central. Retrieved from http://www.leadership-central.com/leadership- theories.html#axzz4Hitkpswn 18/8/16 • Cherry, K. (2016), What is transformational leadership? How transformational leadership inspires. VeryWell, April 20. Retrieved from https://www.verywell.com/what-is-transformational-leadership-2795313 • Davis, A.J. (2005), The philosophy of inspiration. Whitefish, MT: Kissinger Publishing • Fitz-Gibbon, C.T. (1990), Performance indicators. BERA Dialogues, (2), November. Clevedon, PA: Multilingual Matters Ltd. • Peirce, N. R. & Guskind, R. (2013), Breakthroughs: Re-creating the American city. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers. • Ruben, D. (2003), Action and its explanation. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press • The American Management Association (AMA), (2016) Retrieved from http://www.amanet.org/training/seminars/Transformational-Leadership- How-to-Inspire-Extraordinary-Performance.aspx 22/8/16 • The Transformational Leadership Report (2007) Retrieved from http://www.trasformationalleadership.net 22/8/16 • Tourish, D. (2013), The dark side of transformational leadership: A critical perspective. London, UK: Routledge • Zorroli, J. (2015), How Singapore became one of the richest places on earth • http://changingminds.org/disciplines/leadership/styles/transformational_leadership.htm • http://www.businessdictionary.com/definition/transformationalleadership.html • http://creativecities.britishcouncil.org/knowledge-and-ideas- bank/element/165/read_the_breakthrough_cities_report_to_learn_how_cities_use_innovation_to_tackle_social_challenges • http://creativecities.britishcouncil.org/urban_co-design_tools/urban_ideas_bakery • https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/93387-good-better-best-never-let-it-rest-until-your-good

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