3 generations of online pedagogy for EDEN - Lisbon 2020
Interaction & Empowerment
Through Three Generations of
• We can (and must) continuously improve
the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and
time efficiency of the learning experience.
• Student empowerment and freedom is
integral to life-long education and learning.
• Continuing education opportunity is a
basic human right.
Is this your first virtual conference?
What is your most significant:
Be it resolved, “the Covid-19
Pandemic will have no lasting
impact on EDEN’s and my own
Anderson, T., & Mason, R. (1993). International computer conferencing for professional development:
The Bangkok Project. American Journal of Distance Education, 7(2), 5-18.
I love online
used to be better
What is the Pedagogy??
• I kind of got better at teaching
online when I started asking better
questions: “what pedagogic
principles drive what I normally
do?” and “what online
platforms and technology can
help me appropriate these into
an online learning space?”.
• Samantha Elizabeth McMahon -
It’s all about Interaction,
Empowerment and Engagement
“Learning is experience,
everything else is just
Interaction Through Three Generations
of Online Learning Pedagogy
1. Behaviourist/Cognitive –
2. Social Constructivist –
Anderson, T., & Dron, J. (2011). Three generations
of distance education pedagogy.
IRRODL, 12(3), 80-97
Gagne’s Events of Instruction (1965)
1. Gain learners' attention
2. Inform learner of objectives
3. Stimulate recall of previous information
4. Present stimulus material
5. Provide learner guidance
6. Elicit performance
7. Provide Feedback
8. Assess performance
9. Enhance transfer opportunities
Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
Enhanced by the “cognitive
• Cognitive Load
• Working Memory
• Multiple Representations
• Split-attention effect
• Variability Effect
• Multi-media effect
– (Sorden, 2005)
“learning as acquiring and using conceptual and cognitive structures”
Greeno, Collins and Resnick, 1996
• Maximizes Freedom:
– Space, time, pace,
• Allows and promotes
• Freedom from “group think”
• Power of auto-didacticism
• Freedom from groups
Nature of Knowledge
Cognitive Behavioural 1st Gen.
• Knowledge is logically coherent, existing
independent of perspective
• Context free
• Capable of being transmitted
• Assumes closed systems with discoverable
relationships between inputs and outputs
Technologies in 1st generation
• OERs, simulations, text books, One way
Lectures - with advancements??
Carroll says. “There’s a humanistic
connection through a chatbot that I would
never have expected.
Students are almost more comfortable
sharing those fears with a chatbot.”
Got Coronavirus Questions? Your College Chatbot May Have Answers.
• are rarely grounded in learning
• cannot be suggested to support
• do not offer any information about
effective learning tactics and
• have significant limitations in how
their evaluation is conducted and
Matcha, Uzir, Gašević and Pardo. (2020)
A Systematic Review of Empirical Studies on Learning Analytics Dashboards:
A Self-Regulated Learning Perspective.
IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, vol. 13, no. 2
Learning Analytics Dashboards
Surveillance Capitalism In
• Danger of cloud
computing owning and
selling our data.
• Privacy Issues
• Need for schools to own
their own social media
• We turn over much of the learning
experience, as consumers, to the
responsibility of the teacher and learning
• Often focuses on empirical data
• Do the new technologies really add value
– less the known and unknown side
• How does enhanced use of tech, effect
those with less technological and
• How does this pedagogy move beyond
high stakes testing?
• Interaction is mostly one on one
• Large and important role of student-
• Significant assessment and privacy issues
• OERs, MOOCs and analytics promise to
reduce costs and increase efficiency of
• Group Orientated, paced
• Membership and exclusion, closed
• Classrooms - at a distance or on campus
• Hierarchies of control
• Focus on collaboration and shared purpose
“Creating a successful online community is
dependent on knowing what works in the face-
to-face environment and implementing
effective parallels online”
(Cuthbertson & Falcone, 2014)
Constructivist Knowledge is:
• Socially constructed
• Arrived at through dialogic encounters
• “Dialogic as an epistemological framework
supports an account of education as the
discursive construction of shared knowledge”
– Wegerif, R.
The Power of Synchronous
Learning in Groups
• Social Modeling
• Comfort level for student
OERs at work!
• Group based
• Limited in size
– Dunbar’s Max ~150 for a tribe
– Max. 50 persons/section in post secondary
• Mutual awareness of each other
• Teacher domination and dependency?
• Not scalable, Max student/teacher ratio
Tools to Support Constructivist
Online ABC LD in Excel
From Laurillard, D. (2012) Teaching as a Design Science.
Building Pedagogical Patterns for Learning and Technology,
• Tools to allow
groups to work
efficiently to build
at a distance.
Messaging, file spaces, videoconference, collaborative editing
• Focuses on “lived” experience of participants
• Answers why or how? – not how many or
• Constructivism in practice – more than talk?
• Interviews and focus groups – now with
voice transcription and machine qualitative
• How much interaction is enough???
• What inhibits/supports group collaboration?
Social Constructivist Pedagogy
• Not scalable, expensive in terms of time
• New group tools enhance efficiency
• Focuses on human development –
student-student and student-teacher
• Easiest pedagogy for teachers and
learners transitioning to online learning
3rd Generation Connective
• Connectivism - Siemens and Downes
• Heutagogy – Hase, S., & Kenyon, C. (2000). From
Andragogy to Heutagogy.
• Chaos Theory
• Rhizomatic Learning “The community is the curriculum”
• Communities of Practice – Etienne Wagner
• Activity Theory & Actor Network Theory (ANT)
– “systemic interactions of people and the objects that they use
in their interactions.”
• Is created by linking to appropriate people and objects
• May be created and stored in non human devices
• Is as much about capacity as current competence
• Assumes the ubiquitous Internet
• Is emergent
Disruptions of Connectivism
• Demands high levels of net
literacy and presence of
students and teachers
• Openness is scary
• New roles for teachers
• Issues of artifact
ownership, persistence &
• Too manic for some
Dron and Anderson,
Teaching Crowds (2014)
how (pedagogy, process)?
with whom (if anyone)?
using what (medium/tools)?
choosing to choose
Researching 3rd Connectivist
– Wang et al (2016) – innovating;
sensemaking; wayfinding; operating
– Examining and archiving of learning artifacts
– Types and diversity of student’s net presence
– Need for design-based studies that can adapt
to ongoing change in tech affordances
Connectivist Learning Summary
• Born on the Net
• Locus of control shifts to students with
focus on student responsibility for their
own learning and building of their own
learning nets and sets
• Is emergent and disruptive
• For advanced learners only??
The Social Aggregations of
3 Generations Pedagogies
3rd Gen. Connectivist
2nd Gen. Social
• Students deserve the experience and the skill
development associated with all three
– Learning structured content by oneself (1st)
– Learning in groups and developing (2nd)
– Developing networks and network literacies
• There is no one pedagogical model, context,
depth, intensity or aggregation that supports
learning for everyone
• Multiple types of research needed.
slides available on Slideshare
Terry Anderson email@example.com
Your comments and questions
The Social Aggregation makes a
Difference to Interaction
• Available from AUPress – CC