EDEN seminar introduction to Community of Inquiry Model
Community of Inquiry Model and
Terry Anderson, Ph.D.
EDEN NAP Webinar, 13th January 2021
Title: Social presence and interaction in e-learning
The COI is a Model
◦ A model is a simplified description of complex
◦ Graphically Shows critical components
◦ Shows relationships amongst these components
◦ Leads to elaboration, explication and application
• “has became a robust guideline for researchers …. to
explore tracings and evidence of interaction and
learning in online courses”
• A guide for instructors to make informed educational
• Most cited research model in online and blended
• Seminal articles cited over 14,000 times by other
researchers (Google Scholar Dec. 2020)
Castellanos-Reyes, D. (2020) 20 Years of the Community of Inquiry
Framework. TechTrends 64
Motivation for developing the
◦ Need to show that online learning CAN be a social experience
◦ Need to measure components of the online experience to provide
empirical validity to teaching and learning claims
◦ Need to be able to distinguish between a good and a poor online course
◦ A mental model for developing quality online teaching
Value of Community
• Generates commitment and belonging
• Building block for future friendships and social
• Builds inclusiveness, cultural awareness and
• Diverse viewpoints enrich problem solving
• Reduces trauma of social isolation in Covid times
Community of Inquiry Model
Garrison, D. R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000).
Critical inquiry in a text-based environment:
computer conferencing in higher education.
The Internet and Higher Education, 2 (2-3), 87-
Addresses orrefers to the group using inclusive pronouns
Interactive Behaviours Continuing a thread
Quoting from others’ messages.
Referring explicitly to others’ messages.
Complimenting, expressing appreciation
Affective Behaviours Expression of emotions
Social Presence Indicators
Assessing the COI
36 Likert scale Items
Swan, K., Shea, P., Richardson, J., Ice, P., Garrison, D. R., Cleveland-
Innes, M., & Arbaugh, J. B. (2008). Validating a measurement tool
of presence in online communities of inquiry.
BUT the COI and other Constructivist Educational Models do not Scale!
• COI most widely quoted heuristic and research theory
in online learning
• Simple model capable of guiding, but not restraining
teaching and curriculum development
• Developed for an online context from a constructivist
• Does it speak to learning in your course contexts?
• Is it a useful tool for education development and
Terry Anderson firstname.lastname@example.org