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HOMEOBOX GENE
BY
ADESEJI WASIU ADEBAYO
08/46KA006
Department of Anatomy,
University of Ilorin
ANA 811:MOLECULAR EMBRYOLOGY...
OUTLINE
• INTRODUCTION
• DISCOVERY
• HOMEODOMAIN
• HOX GENES
• CONCLUSION
• REFERENCES
2
What are HomeoboxGenes?
•Homeoboxgenesare a large family of similar genes thatdirect and
regulate the formation of many bo...
Discovery
•Homeoboxes were discovered independently in
1983 by Ernst Hafen, Michael Levine, and William
McGinnis in Basel ...
Homeodomain
•Homeobox genes contain a 180 base pairs DNA sequence that
provides instructions for making a string of 60 ami...
Homeotic Genes
 Master genes of development.
6
HUMAN HOX GENE
7
Human hox genes are collected into homeotic clusters.
o There are 4 homeotic clusters, labelled A,B,C and...
HUMAN HOX GENE
8
The four numerically corresponding genes for the four different clusters form a
paralogous group.
o The h...
9
DISTAL-LESS GENE (Dlx)
10
• Dlx genes are involved in the development of the nervous system and of
limbs.
• Dlx 1 and Dlx ...
Other Groups of Homoebox Genes
11
Classes of Human Homeoboxes
1. ANTP class homeoboxes
6. SINE class homeoboxes
HOXL subclass homeoboxes
7. TALE class homeb...
FUNCTIONS OF HOMEOBOX
13
• Three-dimensional patterning and body plan formation during embryogenesis are largely
attributa...
Clinicalcorrelations…
14
15
Aniridia
Synpolydactyly
Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome
Branchiootorenal syndrome
Coloboma
Combined pituitary hormone
deficien...
Synpolydactyly
16
Mutation in the HOX D13 gene.
Aniridia
17
Aniridia with PAX6 gene mutation.
Axenfeld-rieger syndrome
18
mutations in one of the genes known as PAX6, PITX2 and
FOXC1.
HOMEOBOX GENE AND GENETIC
ENGINEERING
19
Can we create new organs from our own tissues?
In a study to review potential fut...
CONCLUSION
20
• Homebox genes are very important factor in normal morphogenesis in animals including human.
• Mutations of...
REFERENCES
• McGinnis W, Levine M, Hafen E, Kuroiwa A, Gehring W (1984). "A conserved DNA sequence in homoeotic genes
of t...
THANK YOU FOR LISTENING
22
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Homeobox genes

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Homeobox genes in molecular embryology and genetic engineering.

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Homeobox genes

  1. 1. HOMEOBOX GENE BY ADESEJI WASIU ADEBAYO 08/46KA006 Department of Anatomy, University of Ilorin ANA 811:MOLECULAR EMBRYOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING 1
  2. 2. OUTLINE • INTRODUCTION • DISCOVERY • HOMEODOMAIN • HOX GENES • CONCLUSION • REFERENCES 2
  3. 3. What are HomeoboxGenes? •Homeoboxgenesare a large family of similar genes thatdirect and regulate the formation of many body structures during early embryonic development. •Homeobox is a DNA sequence, around 180 base pairs long, involved in the regulation of patterns of anatomicaldevelopment (morphogenesis) in animals,fungi and plants. •The gene is a unit of information that encodes a genetic characteristic. 3
  4. 4. Discovery •Homeoboxes were discovered independently in 1983 by Ernst Hafen, Michael Levine, and William McGinnis in Basel (McGinnis et al., 1984) and Matthew P. Scott and Amy Weiner in Bloomington (Scott and Weiner, 1984). •The existence of homeoboxes was first discovered in fruit fly (Drosophila melanogaster). 4
  5. 5. Homeodomain •Homeobox genes contain a 180 base pairs DNA sequence that provides instructions for making a string of 60 amino acids protein building blocks known as the homeodomain. •Homeodomain act astranscription factors, o Bind to DNA and controls transcription of other genes in the cell o Initiate patterns of gene expression 5
  6. 6. Homeotic Genes  Master genes of development. 6
  7. 7. HUMAN HOX GENE 7 Human hox genes are collected into homeotic clusters. o There are 4 homeotic clusters, labelled A,B,C and D, o Each cluster is situated on a different chromosome. o Each homeotic cluster consists of 13 homeotic genes numbered sequentially from 1 to 13.
  8. 8. HUMAN HOX GENE 8 The four numerically corresponding genes for the four different clusters form a paralogous group. o The hox genes are responsible for patterning along the antero-posterior axis. o The genes are expressed sequentially beginning with the paralogous group 1, which is expressed first o The sequential genes specify different segments in cranio-caudal sequence extending from paralogous group 1, which specifies the most cranial structures, to paralogous group 13, which specifies the most caudal structures. o Thus the first genes to be expressed specify the most cranial structures while the last to be expressed specify the most caudal structures. This is responsible for the cranio-caudal sequence of development, where the more cranial segments develop slightly before the more caudal structures. Consequently the upper limb develops ahead of the lower limb.
  9. 9. 9
  10. 10. DISTAL-LESS GENE (Dlx) 10 • Dlx genes are involved in the development of the nervous system and of limbs. • Dlx 1 and Dlx 2 are expressed by migrating cortical interneurons during neurogenesis. • Other members of the distal-less homeobox group are DLX1, DLX2, DLX3, DLX4, DLX5, and DLX6.
  11. 11. Other Groups of Homoebox Genes 11
  12. 12. Classes of Human Homeoboxes 1. ANTP class homeoboxes 6. SINE class homeoboxes HOXL subclass homeoboxes 7. TALE class homeboxes and pseudogenes NKL subclass homeoboxes and pseudogenes 8. CUT class homeoboxes and pseudogenes 2. PRD class homeoboxes and pseudogenes 9. PROS class homeoboxes 3. LIM class homeoboxes 10. ZF class homeoboxes and pseudogenes 4. POU class homeoboxes and pseudogenes 11. CERS class homeoboxes 5. HNF class homeoboxes 12
  13. 13. FUNCTIONS OF HOMEOBOX 13 • Three-dimensional patterning and body plan formation during embryogenesis are largely attributable to action of homeobox genes, due to their capacity to spatiotemporally regulate the basic processes of differentiation, proliferation, and migration (Manley and Levine, 1985; Han et al., 1989). • Homeobox genes can regulate genes responsible for cell adhesion, migration, proliferation, growth arrest, and the expression of cytokines needed for extracellular matrix interactions (Graba et al., 1997; Svingen and Tonissen, 2006; Hueber et al., 2007)
  14. 14. Clinicalcorrelations… 14
  15. 15. 15 Aniridia Synpolydactyly Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome Branchiootorenal syndrome Coloboma Combined pituitary hormone deficiency Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome Congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscles Congenital hypothyroidism Craniofacial-deafness-hand syndrome Enlarged parietal foramina facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy Frontonasal dysplasia Gillespie syndrome hand-foot-genital syndrome Langer mesomelic dysplasia Léri-Weill dyschondrosteosis Microphthalmia Mowat-Wilson syndrome
  16. 16. Synpolydactyly 16 Mutation in the HOX D13 gene.
  17. 17. Aniridia 17 Aniridia with PAX6 gene mutation.
  18. 18. Axenfeld-rieger syndrome 18 mutations in one of the genes known as PAX6, PITX2 and FOXC1.
  19. 19. HOMEOBOX GENE AND GENETIC ENGINEERING 19 Can we create new organs from our own tissues? In a study to review potential future methods of curing metabolic disorders such as diabetes, and analyze the capacity to genetically manipulate the developmental fate of a tissue in vivo using "master regulator" genes. • the homeobox gene Pancreatic and Duodenal Homeobox gene-1 were systemically delivered to liver of mice, by recombinant adenovirus technology, and analyzed whether it induces a developmental shift toward a beta cell phenotype • PDX-1 is sufficient to activate the endogenous, otherwise silent, mouse insulin 1 and 2 and pro-insulin convertase gene expression in liver. • PDX-1 expression in liver resulted in a 25-fold increase in hepatic immunoreactive insulin content and a threefold increase in plasma immunoreactive insulin levels, as compared to control adenovirus-treated mice. (Ferber, 2000).
  20. 20. CONCLUSION 20 • Homebox genes are very important factor in normal morphogenesis in animals including human. • Mutations of these groups of gene lead to abnormal formation of structures. • Homebox genes might be the gateway in the field of genetic engineering to create new organs from our own tissues
  21. 21. REFERENCES • McGinnis W, Levine M, Hafen E, Kuroiwa A, Gehring W (1984). "A conserved DNA sequence in homoeotic genes of the Drosophila Antennapedia and bithorax complexes". Nature 308 (5958): 428–33. • Scott M, Weiner A (1984). "Structural relationships among genes that control development: sequence homology between the Antennapedia, Ultrabithorax, and fushi tarazu loci of Drosophila". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 81 (13): 4115–9 • Graba, Y., Aragnol, D., and Pradel, J. (1997). Drosophila Hox complex downstream targets and the function of homeotic genes. Bioessays 19, 379–388 • Han, K., Levine, M. S., and Manley, J. L. (1989). Synergistic activation and repression of transcription by Drosophila homeobox proteins. Cell 56, 573–583. • Ferber S. (2000). Can we create new organs from our own tissues? Isr Med Assoc J. 2 Suppl:32-6. • Manley, J. L., and Levine, M. S. (1985). The homeo box and mammalian development. Cell 43, 1–2. doi: 10.1016/0092-8674(85)90002-9 • Hueber, S. D., Bezdan, D., Henz, S. R., Blank, M., Wu, H., and Lohmann, I. (2007). Comparative analysis of Hox downstream genes in Drosophila. Development 134, 381–392. • Svingen, T., and Tonissen, K. F. (2006). Hox transcription factors and their elusive mammalian gene targets. Heredity (Edinb.) 97, 88–96. 21
  22. 22. THANK YOU FOR LISTENING 22

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