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Doors ppt

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door and windows -building construction

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Doors ppt

  1. 1. WHAT IS A DOOR A door is defined as a movable barrier , secured in an opening , known as a door way through a building wall or partition for the purpose of providing an access to the inside of a building or rooms of a building. A door is held in position by a door frame , the members of which are located at the sides and top of the opening or door way.
  2. 2. HISTORY OF DOORS The earliest in records are those represented in the paintings of the Egyptian tombs, in which they are shown as single or double doors, each in a single piece of wood. In Egypt, where the climate is intensely dry, there would be no fear of their warping, but in other countries it would be necessary to frame them, which according to Vitruvius (iv. 6.) was done with stiles (sea/si) and rails (see: Frame and panel): the spaces enclosed being filled with panels (tympana) let into grooves made in the stiles and rails. The stiles were the vertical boards, one of which, tenoned or hinged, is known as the hanging stile, the other as the middle or meeting stile. The horizontal cross pieces are the top rail, bottom rail, and middle or intermediate rails. The most ancient doors were in timber, those made for King Solomon's temple being in olive wood (I Kings vi. 31-35), which were carved and overlaid with gold. The doors dwelt upon in Homer would appear to have been cased in silver or brass. Besides Olive wood, elm, cedar, oak and cypress were used. A 5,000-year-old door has been found by archaeologists in Switzerland.[2] SOME TYPES OF ANCIENT DOORS
  3. 3. LOCATION OF DOORS • The designer or the planner should observe the folowing rules while deciding the location of door • The number of doors should be minimum for a room for better movement and for no obstruction in the room • From view point of utility of the accommodation and privacy of the occupants , doors , should preferably be located near the corner of a room • The location , number and size of the windows are decided considering various factors • From view point of good ventilation and free air circulation inside the room , the doors , should be located opposite walls facing each other
  4. 4. Plan of room with 3 doors Plan of room with 1 door The above plans explain us how much its important to have proper location of doors while constructing a house.
  5. 5. SIZES OF DOORS
  6. 6. Chart showing location and sizes of doors
  7. 7. DOORS IN PLAN
  8. 8. DESIGN AND STYLE • Many kinds of doors have specific names, depending on their purpose. The most common variety of door is the single-leaf door which consists of a single rigid panel that fills the doorway. Many variations on this basic design are possible, such as the double-leaf door ordouble doors and French windows that have two adjacent independent panels hinged on each side of the doorway. • A half door or Dutch door[7] or stable door is divided in half horizontally. Traditionally the top half can be opened to allow a horse or other animal to be fed, while the bottom half remained closed to keep the animal inside. This style of door has been adapted for homes.Saloon doors are a pair of lightweight swing doors often found in public bars, and especially associated with the American west. Saloon doors, also known as cafe doors, often use bidirectional hinges which close the door regardless of which direction it is opened by incorporating springs. Saloon doors that only extend from knee-level to chest-level are known as batwing doors. • A blind door, Gibb door, or jib door is a door with no visible trim or operable components. It is designed to blend with the adjacent wall in all finishes, and visually to be a part of the wall, a disguised door.[8] • A barn door is a door characteristic of a barn. They are often/always found on barns, and because of a barn's immense size (often) doors are subsequently big for utility. • A French door is a door style consisting of a frame around one or more transparent or translucent panels (called lights or lites) that may be installed singly, in matching pairs, or even as series. A matching pair of these doors is called a French window as it resembles a door-height casement window. When a pair of French doors is used as a French window, the application does not generally include a central mullion (as do some casement window pairs), thus allowing a wider unobstructed opening. The frame typically requires a weather strip at floor level and where the doors meet to prevent water ingress. An espagnolette bolt may allow the head and foot of each door to be secured in one movement. The slender window joinery maximizes light into the room and minimizes the visual impact of the doorway joinery when considered externally. Often, the doors of a French
  9. 9. • A louvred door has fixed or movable wooden fins (often called slats or louvers) which permit open ventilation while preserving privacy and preventing the passage of light to the interior. Being relatively weak structures, they are most commonly used forwardrobes and drying rooms, where security is of less importance than good ventilation, although a very similar structure is commonly used to form window shutters. Double louvred doors were introduced into Seagate, built in Florida in 1929 by Gwendolyn and Powel Crosley, that provided the desired circulation of air with an added degree of privacy in that it is impossible to see through the fins in any direction. • A composite door is a single leaf door that can be solid or with glass, and is usually filled with high density foam. In the United Kingdom, it is common for composite doors to be certified to BS PAS 23/24[9] and be compliant with Secured by Design. • A flush door is a completely smooth door, having plywood or MDF fixed over a light timber frame, the hollow parts of which are often filled with a cardboard core material. Skins can also be made out of hardboards, the first of which was invented by William H Mason in 1924. Called Masonite, its construction involved pressing and steaming wood chips into boards. Flush doors are most commonly employed in the interior of a dwelling, although slightly more substantial versions are occasionally used as exterior doors, especially within hotels and other buildings containing many independent dwellings. • A moulded door has the same structure as that of flush door. The only difference is that the surface material is a moulded skin made of MDF. Skins can also be made out of hardboards. • A ledge and brace door is a door made from multiple vertical planks fixed together by two horizontal planks (the ledges) and kept square by a diagonal plank (the brace). • A wicket door is a pedestrian door built into a much larger door allowing access without requiring the opening of the larger door. Examples might be found on the ceremonial door of a cathedral or in a large vehicle door in a garage or hangar. • A bifold door is a door unit that has several sections, folding in pairs. Wood is the most common material, and doors may also be metal or glass. Bifolds are most commonly made for closets, but may also be used as units between rooms. • A sliding glass door, sometimes called an Arcadia door or a Patio door, is a door made of glass that slides open and sometimes has a screen (a removable metal mesh that covers the door). • Australian doors are a pair of plywood swinging doors often found in Australian public houses. These doors are generally red or brown in color and bear a resemblance to the more formal doors found in other British Colonies' public houses. • A false door is a wall decoration that looks like a door. In ancient Egyptian architecture, this was a common element in a tomb, the false door representing a gate to the afterlife. They can also be found in the funerary architecture of the desert tribes (e.g., Libyan Ghirza).
  10. 10. A DOOR IN SOUTH INDIA A DECORATED DOOR IN SOUTH INDIA A DOOR IN RURAL PUNJAB FRENCH WINDOW DOOR U.K
  11. 11. TYPES OF MECHANISM
  12. 12. TECHNICAL TERMS IN DOOR
  13. 13. • TECHNICAL TERMS • FRAME • This consists of an assembly of horizontal and vertical members which are placed among the top , sides and the bottom of an opening so as to form an enclosure and act as a support for a door • HEAD • This is the top horizontal member of the frame. • HORNS • These are the horizontal projections of the top and bottom members of the frame which are embedded into side walls • SILLS • This are horizontal bottom member of the frame which may or may not be provided . The sill is generally not provided in door frame.
  14. 14. • HOLDFASTS • These are mild steel flat bars of section 30mm x 6mm and length of 20cm , which are used to hold the frame in position • JAMB • This is vertical cross wall face of a door or window opening which supports the frame and against which the shutters rest when they approach. • REVEAL • This is external jamb of a door openings which is at right angles to the face of the wall. • REBATE • This is a cut or recess made inside a frame all round on one side into which the door shutters are received by means of hinges. • STILES OR STYLES • These are vertical outside members of a shutter or framework.
  15. 15. • SHUTTTER • A movable barrier consisting of a panelled assembly or otherwise which fits into the frame is termed as a shutter. • TOP RAIL • This is the top most horizontal member of the shutter or frame work. • LOCK RAIL • This is the intermediate horizontal member of the shutter where locking arrangement is provided. • BOTTOM RAIL • This is the lower most horizontal member of the shutter or frame work. • PANEL • This is the area which is enclosed between the rails.
  16. 16. RESIDENTIAL DOORS
  17. 17. VARIOUS TYPES OF RESIDENTIAL DOORS
  18. 18. COMMERCIAL DOORS
  19. 19. VARIOUS TYPES OF COMMERCIAL DOORS
  20. 20. DIFFERENT TYPES OF DOORS BATTENED AND LEDGED DOOR This is the simplest form of door which is frequently used for narrow openings . The use of this type of door is prefered where cost is main factor rather then the strength and material.
  21. 21. A detailed explanation of battened and ledged door with labelling of parts
  22. 22. BATTENED , LEDGED AND BRACED DOORS This door is modification of battened door and ledged doors in which additional diagonal members called braces are provided to increase its strength. BATTENED,LEDGED,FRAMED AND BRACED DOORS The door is the modification over the battened , ledged , and framed type in which additional members known as braces have been added this type of doors are largely used for external work.
  23. 23. Different type of battened, ledged, braced and framed doors
  24. 24. Plan , elevation and section of framed ledged braced and battened door
  25. 25. FRAMED AND PANELLED DOORS Frame-and-panel doors nearly always look pretty good. The reason is that harmony automatically results from the construction: as you can see in the drawings, all the lines follow the architecture of the frame. Nevertheless, if you build without paying attention to proportions and details, while the door might not run all the way to ugly, it probably won’t look its best. There are many small decisions to be made, and getting them right is what makes a door really pleasing to the eye.
  26. 26. DIFFERENT TYPES OF PANELLED DOORS
  27. 27. FLUSH DOORS A flush door is a completely smooth door, having plywood or MDF fixed over a light timber frame, the hollow parts of which are often filled with a cardboard core material. Skins can also be made out of hardboards, the first of which was invented by William H Mason in 1924. Called Masonite, its construction involved pressing and steaming wood chips into boards. Flush doors are most commonly employed in the interior of a dwelling, although slightly more substantial versions are occasionally used as exterior doors, especially within hotels and other buildings containing many independent dwellings
  28. 28. DETAILS OF GLAZED AND FLUSH DOOR
  29. 29. DIFFERENT TYPES OF GLAZED AND FLUSH DOOR
  30. 30. GLAZED AND SASH DOORS Sometimes the doors either fully glazed or partly glazed and partly panelled are used to supplement the natural lighting provided by windows or doors to make the interior visible during day time this types of doors are known as glazed or sash doors
  31. 31. LOUVERED DOORS AND VENETIANED DOORS A louvred door has fixed or movable wooden fins (often called slats or louvers) which permit open ventilation while preserving privacy and preventing the passage of light to the interior. Being relatively weak structures, they are most commonly used forwardrobes and drying rooms, where security is of less importance than good ventilation, although a very similar structure is commonly used to form window shutters. Double louvred doors were introduced into Seagate, built in Florida in 1929 by Gwendolyn and Powel Crosley, that provided the desired circulation of air with an added degree of privacy in that it is impossible to see through the fins in any direction.
  32. 32. Louvered doors
  33. 33. Different types of louvered doors
  34. 34. WIRE GAUZED DOORS These doors are used where it is desired to allow the free air into the room but to avoid the nuisance of flies insects etc.. Such doors are provided with a wire gauze therefore these types of doors are known as wire gauzed doors
  35. 35. Wire gauzed doors
  36. 36. COLLAPSIBLE STEEL DOORS These door neither require hinges for opening or closing the shutters nor any frame for hanging them these doors are extensively used for main enterence of shops, garages,etc….
  37. 37. Collapsible steel doors
  38. 38. ROLLING STEEL SHUTTER DOORS These doors are capable of being rolled up at the top easily and cause no obstruction either in the openings or in the floor space .
  39. 39. Details of rolling steel shutter
  40. 40. REVOLVING DOORS A revolving door has several wings or leaves, generally four, radiating from a central shaft, forming compartments that rotate about a vertical axis. A revolving door allows people to pass in both directions without colliding, and forms an airlock maintaining a seal between inside and out. A pivot door, instead of hinges, is supported on a bearing some distance away from the edge, so that there is more or less of a gap on the pivot side as well as the opening side. In some cases the pivot is central, creating two equal openings.
  41. 41. DETAILS OF REVOLVING DOORS
  42. 42. REVOLVING DOOR
  43. 43. SWING DOORS Most doors are hinged along one side to allow the door to pivot away from the doorway in one direction but not in the other. The axis of rotation is usually vertical. In some cases, such as hinged garage doors, the axis may be horizontal, above the door opening. Doors can be hinged so that the axis of rotation is not in the plane of the door to reduce the space required on the side to which the door opens. This requires a mechanism so that the axis of rotation is on the side other than that in which the door opens. This is sometimes the case in trains or airplanes, such as for the door to the toilet, which opens inward. A swing doors has special double-action hinges that allow it to open either outwards or inwards, and is usually sprung to keep it closed.
  44. 44. WORKING OF A SWING DOOR
  45. 45. APPLICATIONS OF DOORS Architectural doors have numerous general and specialized uses. Doors are generally used to separate interior spaces (rooms, closets, etc.) for privacy, convenience, security, and safety reasons. Doors are also used to secure passages into a building from the exterior for reasons of safety and climate control. Doors also are applied in more specialized cases: A trapdoor is a door that is oriented horizontally in a floor or ceiling, often accessed via a ladder. Blast-proof doors are constructed to allow access to a structure but also to provide protection from the force of explosions. A garden door is any door that opens to a garden or backyard. This term is often used specifically for French windows, double French doors (with lites instead of panels), in place of a sliding glass door. The term also may refer to what is known as patio doors. A jib door is a concealed door, whose surface reflects the moldings and finishes of the wall. These were used in historic English houses, mainly as servants' doors.
  46. 46. BUILDING CONSTRUCTION SHEETS DONE ON DOORS TYPES OF DOORS AND MOULDING - SHEET 1
  47. 47. TYPES OF DOORS AND PANEL MOULDING - SHEET 2
  48. 48. BATTENED AND LEDGED DOORS - SHEET 3
  49. 49. DIFFERENT TYPES OF DOORS - SHEET 4
  50. 50. DIFFERENT TYPES OF DOORS – SHEET 5 THE END

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