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3 d chapter 3 3d design elements

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3 d chapter 3 3d design elements

  1. 1. CHAPTER 33D DESIGN ELEMENTS
  2. 2. Introduction Form Anish Kapoor. Cloud Gate. Chicago, IL. Form is the overall 3D shape of an object, the complete configuration of its mass. Formal refers to the design qualities of a work, separate from subject and content.
  3. 3. • Depth: the extra dimension that lifts three-dimensional form up and off the plane. • Viewing: three- dimensional objects are viewed in the round rather than from a single viewpoint. Introduction Form What makes 3D form different from 2D shape? Three views of Yoshitomo Nara’s Pupcup. Bozart Toys Inc. 81⁄2" high.
  4. 4. Introduction Form and Content Subject Matter refers to the objects represented in a work. In this example the subject is a figure. Works that contain human or animal imagery as their primary subject are called figurative. Content refers to the meaning of the work, what it expresses or communicates. This sculpture is a grave marker. It was designed to honor a deceased loved one. Form: This sculpture is a static, rounded monolith. The hooded top creates a shadowed void that shelters the face. What contributes more to its content— its subject matter or its form? Augustus Saint-Gaudens. Adams Memorial. Bronze, modeled 1886– 1891, cast 1969. Bronze, 5' 97⁄8" × 3' 37⁄8" × 3' 81⁄2.
  5. 5. Form generates response. It stimulates the viewer to feel. This installation does not contain a subject, yet it is highly expressive. When one walks around and in between the large, curved planes of oxidized steel, the full experience unfolds. The viewer, dwarfed by steel “walls” over twelve feet high, “feels” the pressure of those tilting planes and curved paths. This is not an intellectual experience; it is a felt experience, emotional and visceral, generated by the formal qualities of design. Richard Serra. Installation view of the exhibition “Richard Serra Sculpture: Forty Years,” MoMA. Introduction Form and Content
  6. 6. • A form is a positive element. • The space around and inside a form is negative space. • 3D forms can be geometric or curvilinear, concave or convex, static or dynamic, solid or spatial, etc. • They can be designed for viewing in the round or be a relief, which is a three-dimensional form designed for viewing from a single, frontal viewpoint. • 3D forms can be any combination of these aspects and have numerous other properties as well. Introduction Aspects of 3D Form
  7. 7. Form The Cube • The cube is one of the five Platonic solids. • It is iconic and has a long history of use in art, design, and architecture. • Its form is considered perfect and ideal. • The cube is a static form expressing stillness and stability. Charles Ray. Ink Box. 1986. Steel, ink, automobile paint, 3' × 3' × 3'.
  8. 8. Designing the space within and between the mass is as important as designing the mass. Interaction between the negative spaces and positive forms in this sculpture create a dynamic form. Interstitial space refers to the space between forms. Mass and Space Interaction Henry Moore. Sculpture. “Sculpture is the art of the hole and the lump.” — Auguste Rodin
  9. 9. Mass and Space Interaction Mass and space exist in tandem and continually interact with one another. Mass can… •occupy space, • define and shape space, • activate space, and • give meaning to space. The soaring arches of this gothic cathedral demonstrate how mass can be formed to give shape and meaning to an interior space. Interior of Laon Cathedral (looking northeast), Laon, France. Begun c. 1190
  10. 10. Louise Bourgeois. Maman. 2005. Bronze, stainless steel and marble, 10 meters high In this thirty foot high outdoor sculpture a small amount of mass delicately defines, shapes and activates a large interior space. Mass and Space Interaction
  11. 11. Line A Point Set In Motion Line is mathematically defined as a point set in motion. The sculpture on the right by Charles Ray demonstrates this with a streaming line of ink that flows from a small hole in the ceiling to one in the floor. Charles Ray. Ink Line. 1987. Ink and pump, dimensions variable.
  12. 12. Line A Point Set In Motion Line is a dynamic element. It generates eye movement along its path and is a strong directional force. Line is one of the simplest elements in design, yet it is infinitely versatile… Claes Oldenburg and Coosje van Bruggen. Gartenschlauch (Garden Hose). 1983. Steel painted with polyurethane enamel. Two parts, in an area approximately 6,000 sq. ft.; faucet: 35 ft. 5 in. ×8 ft. 12 in. × 7 ft. 1 in.; hose: 410 ft. long × 20 in. diameter.
  13. 13. Line Gesture Line can… • express direction, • communicate energy and gesture, • define and shape space, • activate space, etc. Alexander Calder. Sow. 1928. Wire construction, 71⁄2" × 1' 5" × 3".
  14. 14. Line Gesture The visual and expressive possibilities of line are infinite. Christo and Jeanne- Claude. Running Fence, Sonoma and Marin Coun- ties, California, 1972–76.
  15. 15. Plane The Two Dimensional Element Points, lines, planes, and rectangular solids are related structurally and share a theoretical process of generation— • a moving point generates a line, • a moving line generates a plane, and • a moving plane generates a rectangular solid. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe. Barcelona Pavilion. Barce- lona. 1929.
  16. 16. Planes are ubiquitous design elements. The built world is planar and geometric. How many planes can you find in our classroom? Plane The Two Dimensional Element Santiago Calatrava. Tenerife Opera House.
  17. 17. Planes can be… • flat • curved • geometric • organic • interpenetrating • stacked • folded • cut, etc. How many ways can you manipulate a sheet of paper to transform it into a 3D form? Plane The Two Dimensional Element Pablo Picasso. Guitar. 1912. Sheet metal and wire, 2' 61⁄2" × 1' 17⁄8" × 75⁄8".
  18. 18. Two-dimensional shape has long contributed to the development of three-dimensional form, and the relationship between these dimensional realms is rich and diverse. This chair folds completely flat when not in use, resembling the two-dimensional condition of its origin—a sheet of three-quarter inch plywood. 2D to 3D The Relationship of the Planar to the Dimensional Ufuk Keskin and Efecem Kutuk. SheetSeat folding chair, 3⁄4" thick, wood laminate
  19. 19. 2D to 3D The Relationship of the Planar to the Dimensional This origami praying mantis beautifully demonstrates the transition from the planar to the dimensional. A single, uncut plane has been folded to form a complex praying mantis. The 2D diagram is on the right. Robert J. Land. Origami praying mantis, length 4”
  20. 20. Surface is one of the first characteristics of form perceived by a viewer. Texture is that aspect of a surface that we can experience by touching. Seed Cathedral, detail. 2010 Shanghai World Expo. Thomas Heatherwick Studio. Surface Qualities Texture
  21. 21. Seed Cathedral. 2010 Shanghai World Expo. Thomas Heatherwick Studio. Surface Qualities Texture Texture is also an important visual characteristic of form. Determining a surface for a sculpture, product, or building has significant implications. How many common functional objects can you name whose texture is essential to the product’s function?
  22. 22. What other formal contrasts can you identify in this photograph? Surface Qualities Texture Texture is relative to context. To emphasize a texture, position it with a contrasting texture. Jeff Koons. Balloon Dog in front of Brant Foundation Art Study Center. 1994–2000.
  23. 23. Surface Qualities Color Intrinsic Color refers to objects that retain the natural color of the material that forms them, such as the bronze sculpture on the right. Monochrome refers to objects of a single color. Patination is a traditional method of altering surface color in metal by applying chemical formulas. Charioteer of Delphi. 478–474 BCE. Greece, Bronze, 5' × 11".
  24. 24. Applied Color refers to the application of color to an object. Surfaces can be painted, coated, glazed, enameled, oxidized, anodized, galvanized, patinated, and so forth. Polychrome refers to objects containing more than one color. Katharina Grosse. Atoms outside Eggs, detail. 2007. Acrylic on wall, floor and Styrofoam on polyurethane on wood, 221⁄2” × 662⁄3” × 471⁄5”. Image not yet available.
  25. 25. Luis Barragan. San Cristobal equestrian estate. 1966–1968. Mexico City. Surface Qualities Color Color can be used to distinguish different parts of a design.
  26. 26. Surface Qualities Color Translucent and transparent colors do not reflect light, they filter it and come close to presenting color as pure light. Tapio Wirkkala. Bolle. Venini glass. Blown glass handworked with the “incalmo” technique, vessel heights from 73⁄5" to 1' 67⁄10".
  27. 27. Light illuminates form and casts shadow, enabling us to perceive form. Reflected Light • White best reveals form, as it is the most reflective color. • Black objects absorb most of the light that falls on them, causing them to appear less nuanced. Eva Zeisel. Hallcraft/Tomorrow’s Classic. c. 1952. Cruet, sauce bowl, and ladle. Hall China. Light Chromatic Luminosity
  28. 28. Luminosity refers to the emission of light. Objects that emit light have dual natures— they are objects with structure and they are light- emitting vehicles. This sculpture by Dan Flavin, made of mundane florescent tubes, transcends its humble origin and completely transforms the corner of the room with reflected light. Dan Flavin. Untitled (to Donna) 6. 1971. Fluorescent lights, overall: 8' × 8' Light Chromatic Luminosity
  29. 29. Light as Pure Medium While great use is made of light in the theater, the use of light as a sole medium devoid of objects remains a kind of utopian dream in the arts. The two beams of light rising into the evening sky at the 9/11 Memorial in New York exemplify: • designing with light and atmosphere as pure media devoid of other objects; • designing with reflected light from drifting clouds; and • the power of light as a symbolic force in visual communication. Proun Space studio. Tribute in Light, 9/11 Memorial, New York City. Light Chromatic Luminosity
  30. 30. Time and Motion Kinetic Structure Traditional stationary forms involve time and motion as the viewer moves around them to perceive the entire form. Kinetic structures utilize time and motion directly within their forms. Robotics, the design and use of robots, is a rapidly developing realm of kinetic form. Aibo robotic dog. Sony
  31. 31. Time and Motion Kinetic Structure Tony Oursler. Half (Brain). 1998. 2 Sony CPJ 200 projectors, 2 video- tapes, 2 Samsung VCRs, polystyrene foam, paint, performance by: Tony Oursler. Each 1' 2" × 1' 1" × 1' 1" (plus equipment). This work uses two static forms that contain video projections of a man’s face with the soundtrack of a screaming man to create a psychologically charged, multisensory experience in time and motion.

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