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Systems Slide 1 Systems Slide 2 Systems Slide 3 Systems Slide 4 Systems Slide 5 Systems Slide 6 Systems Slide 7 Systems Slide 8 Systems Slide 9 Systems Slide 10 Systems Slide 11 Systems Slide 12 Systems Slide 13 Systems Slide 14 Systems Slide 15 Systems Slide 16 Systems Slide 17 Systems Slide 18 Systems Slide 19 Systems Slide 20 Systems Slide 21 Systems Slide 22 Systems Slide 23 Systems Slide 24 Systems Slide 25 Systems Slide 26 Systems Slide 27 Systems Slide 28 Systems Slide 29 Systems Slide 30
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  1. 1. what is a system? A system is a collection on interrelated components that work together to perform a specific task or achieve a goal. In a system, the different components are connected with each other and they are interdependent. Each component is a subsystem of the original system and carries out a part of the system task.
  2. 2. Two Types of Systems Natural Systems Man Made Systems
  3. 3. Natural Systems    River Systems Mountain Systems Air Systems
  4. 4. Natural Systems Eg. The human body represents a complete natural system. Our human body contains complex muscle, bone, respiratory, digestive and circulatory subsystems, each providing a specific part of the system task.
  5. 5. Man Made Systems  Social Systems  Formal Organization  Transport Systems  Communication Systems  Automated Systems
  6. 6. Let us consider the respiratory subsystem which provides air to the body from the environment. Some of the components of the respiratory subsystem includes nasal passages, lungs etc. Each component, such as lungs, can itself be considered as a subsystem. Similarly, the heart and blood vessels can be considered as components of the circulatory subsystem.
  7. 7. What Is an Information System? Data: Streams of raw facts representing events such as business transactions Information: Clusters of facts that are meaningful and useful to human beings in the processes such as making decisions
  8. 8. Computer-Based Information System (CBIS) Rely on computer hardware and software Processing and disseminating information
  9. 9. Formal Systems Fixed definitions of data, procedures Collecting, storing, processing, disseminating, using data
  10. 10. Functions of an Information System
  11. 11. Types of Information Systems
  13. 13. What is MIS ? Keen Definition MIS is the development and use of effective information systems in organization. Broad Definition The design and use of effective information systems in business. Narrow Definition An information system that facilitates management by producing structured, summarized reports on a regular and recurring basis. 14
  14. 14. Problems with MIS Lack of management involvement with the design of the MIS. Narrow and/or inappropriate emphasis of the computer system. Undue concentration on how low level data processing applications particularly in the accounting area. Lack of management knowledge of computers. Poor appreciation by information by information specialists of management’s true information requirements and of organizational problems. Lack of top management support. 15
  15. 15. Key Points Information increases knowledge, reduces uncertainty, adds value when used. Data are facts which have been recorded. Information is processed data which is understood by the user. The value of information comes from its use. Good information is :- relevant, accurate, in time to be used, sent to the right person, and is understandable. Communication systems include a source, a message, and the destination A MIS provides managers at all levels with appropriate information for planning, control and decision making. 16
  16. 16. Relationship between Data Processing & MIS Characteristics of MIS     Oriented toward Decision Making Summary Information Medium & Long Range Prediction & Control Oriented Characteristics of Data Processing      Perform the Transaction Processing Detail Data Short Range Real Time Daily Operation Oriented 17
  17. 17. The Part of an Information System Personnel Hardware Inputs Processes Programs Procedures Outputs Data Files 18
  18. 18. The parts of an information system Inputs Processes Data Files Outputs Personnel Hardware 19
  19. 19. Systems Named collection of processors tat satisfy some functional need of the business. Combination of manual and computer processors. Will take into account the needs of many functional areas. Considers the day-to-day and management information needs of the organization. 20
  20. 20. Goals of Systems include Supporting the business needs. Supporting management decision making Integration with other systems. Reacting to business and technology change. Acceptance and exploitation by employees. Providing a competitive edge. 21
  21. 21. Categories of systems Optional Managerial Strategic 22
  22. 22. Development of systems is far from easy…? Process of converting more abstract concepts into more absolute products. Many problems to overcome… Business problems. Technologies, tools and technique problems. Attitudes of the users and exiting development staff. 23
  23. 23. Business problems The lack of a clear direction. A rapid rate of change. No commitments from senior management. Conflicting requirements. Differences in management style. Multiple solutions to the same problem. Differing levels of responsibility. Lack of control. 24
  24. 24. Technologies, tools, techniques The proliferation of micro-computers. Short life- span of the hardware. A vast range of non-integrated software. Instant worldwide communication raising expectation levels. Tools emerging only recently to help control development. 25
  25. 25. Attitudes of users and development staff Users often do not know what they really want or need. Users find it difficult to communicate their requirements. Systems builders cannot or will not listen to their users and rarely build what is needed. System builders are are often the last people to accept change in their own domain. 26
  26. 26. Consequences of problems Systems More costly than estimated. Arrived later than expected. Not met the requirements of users. With serious maintenance problems and work load. Application backlog – Software crisis. 27
  27. 27. Software Crisis – A problem of Demand and supply of Quality products Demand 1985 = World Wide Software Cost = US $ 140M Observed growth rate = 12% /year 28
  28. 28. Software Crisis – A problem of Demand and supply of Quality Products Supply Status 1979 – Only in 7 (seven) US Govt Projects. Paid for but not delivered = US Delivered but not used = US Abandoned or reworked = US Used after changes = US Used as delivered = US $ $ $ $ $ 3.2 2.0 1.3 0.2 0.1 Million Million Million Million Million 29
  29. 29. Structure programming Techniques. Systems Life Cycle Approach. Structured Systems Development Methodologies. Prototyping and CASE orientation. Reusable Software Libraries. Formal Methods. 30
  • RakeshKumar3206

    Aug. 8, 2018


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