CULTURAL REPRODUCTION AND SOCIAL REPRODUCTION PIERRE BOURDIEU«The specific role of the sociology of education is assumed once it has establisheditself as the science of the relations between cultural reproduction and socialreproduction.» Pierre Bourdieu
KEYWORDS• cultural reproduction, social reproduction• educational system• reproduction of structures• cultural capital• class• symbolic goods• cultural goods
• By contributing to the reproduction of the structure of the distribution of cultural capital among classes which are decided by power relations of classes, sociology of education takes place between cultural reproduction and social reproduction.• Culture is transferred from generation to generation by class influences on education which causes social distinction.• Among all the solutions throughout the history to the problem of the transmission of power and privileges, education is the best adapted one to the societies which contributes to reproduction of the structure of cultural reproduction and social reproduction, therefore of class relationships because education seems as a neutral attitude assuming individuals from different classes have the same education.
The role of the educational system in the reproduction of thestructure of the distribution of cultural capital• «Structure of the distribution of instruments for the appropriation of symbolic wealth socially designated as worthy of being sought and possessed.»• Bourdieu mentions different classes organized by three major positions: • The lower position (agricultural professions, workers etc.) which are excluded from high culture participation. • The intermediate position (middle class) • The higher position (higher office staff and professionals)
Expenditure on culture 7 6 5 4 3 2 Durable goods 1 Other expenditure 0
• Theatre, concert, museum attandences are according to cultural transmission. Higher influence on the reproduction on the structure of Higher position relations between classes education social distinction legitimization More cultural activities
• Culture – does it only mean books, theatre, cinema, museums?• «…the cinema has a tendency to aquire the power of social distinction that belongs to traditionally approved arts.»• «In short, all of the relations observed between museum attendance and such variables as class or section of a class, age, income, or residence come down, more or less, to the relation between the level of education and attendance.»• «…the action of the educational system can attain full effectiveness only to the extent that it bears upon individuals who have been previously granted a certain familiarity with the world of art by their family upringing.»• Action of school’s effectiveness is unequal to each class.
• «…what is measured by means of the level of education is nothing other than the accumaltion of the effects of training acquired within the family and the academic apprenticeships which themselves presupposed this previous training.»• A class which has the biggest cultural capital have a higher educational value.• With the reproduction of social hierarchies by converting them into academic hierarchies; education system fulfills the function of social order as the evaluation of power relationship between classes.
Cultural Reproduction and Socail Reproduction• Cultural capital is high for teachers but low for head of industries.• Economic capital is high for head of industry but low fro teacher.• Therefore, economic power suppresses cultural power.• «The dominant hierarchy within the educational institution – hierarchy which orders institutions in terms of proportion of those sections richest in cultural capital figuring in public.»• «The dominant hierarchy outside the educational institution – hierarchy which orders institutions in terms of proportion of those sections richest in economic capital and according the positions in hierarchy of ecomoic capital and professions they lead.»