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This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License   Che...
Ionic Bonding This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales...
IONIC BONDING <ul><li>Very important form of bonding – main bonding mechanism of metals: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>>80 ele...
Ionic Bonding –   main bonding mechanism of the metals This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncomme...
Forming Ionic Bonds <ul><li>IONIC BONDS  are electrostatic in nature, and are formed by transferring electrons from an  el...
Electron Givers <ul><li>Most metals have 1–3 valence electrons that they would like to lose </li></ul><ul><li>Metals are t...
Electron Takers <ul><li>Elements on the RHS of the periodic table (non-metals) would like to gain electrons </li></ul><ul>...
For Example… <ul><li>Cu(I) Cu  –  e –     Cu + </li></ul><ul><li>Cu(II) Cu  –  2e –     Cu 2+ </li></ul><ul><li>O + 2e –...
Some Common Ions This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wa...
Structural types <ul><li>Common geometries adopted: </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-N...
<ul><li>There are only a few structural shapes adopted in solid ionic compounds (salts): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rock Sa...
Rock Salt Structure This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England &...
Rock Salt Type –  cubic This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: Engla...
<ul><li>The  COORDINATION NUMBER  of an ion is the number of nearest neighbours </li></ul>Definition… This work is license...
Caesium Chloride Type – BCC This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: E...
Caesium Chloride Type – BCC This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: E...
Fluorite Type  This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wale...
Rutile Type This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales L...
Metallic Bonding This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wa...
Solid State Metals <ul><li>METALLIC BONDING  is a variation on both covalent and ionic bonding: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>...
The Metallic Bond This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & W...
Coordinate Bonding This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & ...
Transition Metals This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & W...
The Coordinate Bond <ul><li>The  COORDINATE BOND  occurs when a species donates its lone pair of electrons to a metal ion ...
Definition… <ul><li>A species that donates a lone pair of electrons to a metal ion to form a coordinate bond is called a  ...
Definitions… <ul><li>Covalent bond </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic bond </li></ul><ul><li>Metallic bond </li></ul><ul><li>Coordina...
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License   Ack...
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Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 1 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 2 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 3 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 4 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 5 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 6 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 7 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 8 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 9 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 10 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 11 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 12 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 13 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 14 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 15 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 16 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 17 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 18 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 19 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 20 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 21 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 22 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 23 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 24 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 25 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 26 Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds Slide 27
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Lecture materials for the Introductory Chemistry course for Forensic Scientists, University of Lincoln, UK. See http://forensicchemistry.lincoln.ac.uk/ for more details.

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Chemical Structure: Chemical Bonding. Ionic, Metallic & Coordinate Bonds

  1. 1. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Chemical Bonding 4 IONIC, METALLIC & COORDINATE BONDS University of Lincoln presentation
  2. 2. Ionic Bonding This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  3. 3. IONIC BONDING <ul><li>Very important form of bonding – main bonding mechanism of metals: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>>80 elements are METALS </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>19 elements are non-metals </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>5 elements are metalloids </li></ul></ul></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  4. 4. Ionic Bonding – main bonding mechanism of the metals This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Ionic f - block elements H Be Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra Sc Y La Ac Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Zr Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Pb Bi Po At Rn Xe Kr Ar Ne Sb Te I Ga Al Ge Si P S Cl As Se Br Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr He B C N O F Lanthanoids Actinoids d – block elements Hydrogen and s – block elements p – block elements
  5. 5. Forming Ionic Bonds <ul><li>IONIC BONDS are electrostatic in nature, and are formed by transferring electrons from an electron giver to an electron taker </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License ELECTRON GIVER ELECTRON TAKER e – Cation (+) Anion (-)
  6. 6. Electron Givers <ul><li>Most metals have 1–3 valence electrons that they would like to lose </li></ul><ul><li>Metals are therefore ELECTRON GIVERS </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  7. 7. Electron Takers <ul><li>Elements on the RHS of the periodic table (non-metals) would like to gain electrons </li></ul><ul><li>Non-metals are therefore good </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRON TAKERS </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  8. 8. For Example… <ul><li>Cu(I) Cu – e –  Cu + </li></ul><ul><li>Cu(II) Cu – 2e –  Cu 2+ </li></ul><ul><li>O + 2e –  O 2– </li></ul><ul><li>Overall reactions: </li></ul><ul><li>Cu(I) 4Cu + O 2  2Cu 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>Cu(II) 2Cu + O 2  2CuO </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  9. 9. Some Common Ions This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Silicate SiO 4 4– Hydroxide OH – Sulphate SO 4 2– Carbonate CO 3 2– Sulphide S 2– Peroxide O 2 2– Oxide O 2– Chloride Cl – Name Symbol ANIONS Tin(II) Sn 2+ Iron(III) Fe 3+ Iron(II) Fe 2+ Copper(II) Cu 2+ Copper(I) Cu + Calcium Ca 2+ Potassium K + Sodium Na + Name Symbol CATIONS
  10. 10. Structural types <ul><li>Common geometries adopted: </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Octahedral geometry Tetrahedral geometry
  11. 11. <ul><li>There are only a few structural shapes adopted in solid ionic compounds (salts): </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rock Salt (sodium chloride) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Caesium chloride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fluorite (calcium fluoride) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rutile (titanium(IV) oxide) </li></ul></ul></ul>Structural shapes This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  12. 12. Rock Salt Structure This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License S 2– Pb 2+ PbS Lead(II) sulfide S 2– Mg 2+ MgS Magnesium sulfide O 2– Fe 2+ FeO Iron(II) oxide O 2– Ba 2+ BaO Barium oxide O 2– Ca 2+ CaO Calcium oxide O 2– Mg 2+ MgO Magnesium oxide Cl – Ag + AgCl Silver chloride F – Ag + AgF Silver fluoride I – K + KI Potassium iodide Br – K + KBr Potassium bromide Cl – Li + LiCl Lithium chloride H – Na + NaH Sodium hydride F – Na + NaF Sodium fluoride Cl – Na + NaCl Sodium chloride Anion Cation Formula Compound
  13. 13. Rock Salt Type – cubic This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Cation + Anion – The COORDINATION NUMBER of each Cation + ion = 6 The COORDINATION NUMBER of each Anion – ion = 6 NaCl: 801 C S=35.9g/100ml (25C)
  14. 14. <ul><li>The COORDINATION NUMBER of an ion is the number of nearest neighbours </li></ul>Definition… This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  15. 15. Caesium Chloride Type – BCC This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License BCC = Body centred cubic Cesium chloride unit cell (space filling diagram) Cesium chloride unit cell (ball and stick diagram)
  16. 16. Caesium Chloride Type – BCC This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Cation + Anion – The COORDINATION NUMBER of each Cation + ion = 8 The COORDINATION NUMBER of each Anion – ion = 8 CsCl: 645 C S=162g/100ml (1 C) A unit cell of caesium chloride Extending the caesium chloride structure
  17. 17. Fluorite Type This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Cation + Anion – The COORDINATION NUMBER of each Cation + ion = 8 The COORDINATION NUMBER of each Anion – ion = 4 CaF 2 : 1402 C S=virtually insoluble CaF 2 unit cell
  18. 18. Rutile Type This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Cation + Anion – The COORDINATION NUMBER of each Cation + ion = 6 The COORDINATION NUMBER of each Anion – ion = 3 TiO 2 : 1870 C S=Insoluble Unit cell of rutile type TiO 2
  19. 19. Metallic Bonding This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  20. 20. Solid State Metals <ul><li>METALLIC BONDING is a variation on both covalent and ionic bonding: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The bonding is electrostatic in nature (like ionic) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>but involves the sharing of electrons (like covalent) over many atoms of the same type </li></ul></ul></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  21. 21. The Metallic Bond This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Metal ion Electron The structure of a metal consists of a lattice of bonded metal cations with a ‘ sea of electrons ’. The electrons are not bound, and can move throughout the structure – hence metals are good conductors of electricity
  22. 22. Coordinate Bonding This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  23. 23. Transition Metals This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License The TRANSITION METALS (d- and f-block metals) usually form COORDINATE BONDS f - block elements H Be Li Na K Rb Cs Fr Mg Ca Sr Ba Ra Sc Y La Ac Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Zr Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Pb Bi Po At Rn Xe Kr Ar Ne Sb Te I Ga Al Ge Si P S Cl As Se Br Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb Lu Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr He B C N O F Lanthanoids Actinoids d – block elements Hydrogen and s – block elements p – block elements
  24. 24. The Coordinate Bond <ul><li>The COORDINATE BOND occurs when a species donates its lone pair of electrons to a metal ion </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Cl Lone pair The metal does NOT use its own valence electrons for bonding Fe 2+
  25. 25. Definition… <ul><li>A species that donates a lone pair of electrons to a metal ion to form a coordinate bond is called a LIGAND </li></ul><ul><li>A ligand can be either anionic or neutral </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  26. 26. Definitions… <ul><li>Covalent bond </li></ul><ul><li>Ionic bond </li></ul><ul><li>Metallic bond </li></ul><ul><li>Coordinate bond </li></ul><ul><li>Coordination number </li></ul><ul><li>Ligand </li></ul>This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License
  27. 27. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.0 UK: England & Wales License Acknowledgements <ul><li>JISC </li></ul><ul><li>HEA </li></ul><ul><li>Centre for Educational Research and Development </li></ul><ul><li>School of natural and applied sciences </li></ul><ul><li>School of Journalism </li></ul><ul><li>SirenFM </li></ul><ul><li>http:// tango.freedesktop.org </li></ul>
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Lecture materials for the Introductory Chemistry course for Forensic Scientists, University of Lincoln, UK. See http://forensicchemistry.lincoln.ac.uk/ for more details.

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