Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Grading & judging of wool
Introduction
•Grading: Grading refers to the average diameter or
thickness of the fibers. It also means the placing of ent...
Benefits:
• The potential range of end products that wool may be used for is dictated by
many qualities, including finenes...
Systems of grading of wool
There are two systems of wool grading.
• American system or blood system.
• British system or n...
BLOOD SYSTEM
• This system is of American origin and it is chiefly used in USA.
• This is based on fineness of wool. Fleec...
NUMERICAL SYSTEM
• It consists of finest count to which it can be spun. This is used in most
countries of the world.
• Thi...
Comparison of both systems
PARAMETERS OF JUDGING WOOL QUALITY
• Diameter/thickness: The fineness of wool depends upon its
diameter. It varies from 0....
• Staple length: It is total length of a fibre in its natural condition. It is obtained
by measuring the natural staple wi...
• Kemp: It is chalky, white lustreless and dead fibre growing with wool which
resist dye stuff. It is a reject wool fibre....
• Crimpiness: It is waviness of the wool fibre. Its number varies
from 2 to 12 per cm depending upon qualities as follows:
It is valuable property in spinning and increase elasticity of the yarn and fabric.
An uneven growth of elongated cells in...
• Dyeing properties: Wool is one of the fibres easiest to dye, because dyes
penetrates-easily into the fibre and it is per...
• Action of heat: Wool is poor conductor od heat, and for this reason it is very
desirable where warmth is desired.
• Mois...
Conclusion
The importance of grading and judging within a given lot or fleece of
wool depend upon various factors. A produ...
References
• JAGDISH PARKASH. Goat, sheep & pig Production and management. p.
254.
• https://sites.google.com/site/viveklp...
Grading and judging of wool
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Grading and judging of wool

1,852 views

Published on

Systems of grading of wool
Blood system
Numerical System

Published in: Education
  • Your customer service is one of the best experiences I have had. Thanks again. =>> https://w.url.cn/s/A9eBVEi
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Grading and judging of wool

  1. 1. Grading & judging of wool
  2. 2. Introduction •Grading: Grading refers to the average diameter or thickness of the fibers. It also means the placing of entire fleeces in their grade piles according to fineness and length.
  3. 3. Benefits: • The potential range of end products that wool may be used for is dictated by many qualities, including fineness, clean wool yield, length, color, and uniformity. • Fineness, or grade, is of primary importance in determining market value of raw wool. • Reliable information on the grades and quality of wool helps ranchers calculate the true value of these products. • They also are better able to plan and execute breeding programs through which they can produce the most popular and profitable types of wool.
  4. 4. Systems of grading of wool There are two systems of wool grading. • American system or blood system. • British system or numerical system/spinning count system.
  5. 5. BLOOD SYSTEM • This system is of American origin and it is chiefly used in USA. • This is based on fineness of wool. Fleeces of the same diameter shorn from full blooded Merino called ‘’Fine’’. • The other grades are as follows: • Half-blood, 3/8 blood, ¼ blood. These are described on relative fineness of the wool obtained from sheep containing fractional amounts of Merino blood. • Lower quarter blood, commons and braid are the wool of descending order in quality from quarter (1/4) blood wool.
  6. 6. NUMERICAL SYSTEM • It consists of finest count to which it can be spun. This is used in most countries of the world. • This system is based on number of yarn or hanks that can be made from one pound of scoured or combed wool. • If fineness of fibre is more the length of yarn is greater. A hank is equal to 512 m in length. • A grade of 60’s would mean that 60 hanks could be made from 1 pound and it would be superior/finer to wool of 50’s. • Similarly, a grade of 50’s would be finer than a 40’s wool. In case of 40’s wool, the number of hanks is 40 and so on.
  7. 7. Comparison of both systems
  8. 8. PARAMETERS OF JUDGING WOOL QUALITY • Diameter/thickness: The fineness of wool depends upon its diameter. It varies from 0.008 to 0.002 inch (0.2 to 0.05 mm).
  9. 9. • Staple length: It is total length of a fibre in its natural condition. It is obtained by measuring the natural staple without stretching the crimps out of the fibre. • Fiber length: It is the total length of the fibre after removing the crimps or waviness by straightening staple wool. • Elasticity: The property of wool fibres to return to their original or natural form after being stretched or compressed. Wool is quite elastic and therefore resist wrinkling, bagging and tearing
  10. 10. • Kemp: It is chalky, white lustreless and dead fibre growing with wool which resist dye stuff. It is a reject wool fibre. • Heterotype: Fibres which occur in the fleeces of indiscriminately bred sheep. They show, at different parts of their length, the physical structure and characteristics of both wool and hair. • Lustre: It is ability of wool to reflect light. Wool with lustre when dyed has brighter appearance than wool without lustre. Coarse wool with fewer scales has more lustre than fine wool because of smoothness of fibre. The brilliant, glossy appearance of wool is associated with English long wools.
  11. 11. • Crimpiness: It is waviness of the wool fibre. Its number varies from 2 to 12 per cm depending upon qualities as follows:
  12. 12. It is valuable property in spinning and increase elasticity of the yarn and fabric. An uneven growth of elongated cells in the cortex (middle part of the fibre) causes fibre to contract and bend which gives a wavy appearance. In fine wool crimps are very pronounced. • Strength of wool: It signifies the property of wool fibre to undergo processing without breaking. Wool fibre and fabrics are usually strong and durable. It is necessary for textile material. • Conductivity: Wool is best of fibres for holding in body heat and also keeping heat out. This is due to insulating value and to open porous nature of fabric made from it.
  13. 13. • Dyeing properties: Wool is one of the fibres easiest to dye, because dyes penetrates-easily into the fibre and it is permanent. • Softness: Soft wool produces fabrics softer to touch. In a soft, pliable fibre the scales are numerous and fit one over the another loosely. • Inflammability: Wool is slower to burn and on burned it gives off a pungent odour and forms a bead where burning ceases. • Action of chemicals: Dilute acid do not act upon wool. The affinity which exist between wool and dilute acid is utilized in dyeing with acid colours. Alkalies weaken the wool and may even completely dissolve it.
  14. 14. • Action of heat: Wool is poor conductor od heat, and for this reason it is very desirable where warmth is desired. • Moisture: Wool readily absorbs and gives off moisture. Under normal conditions the moisture content varies from 12 to 17%. When placed on damp cloth may even absorb more moisture even up to 30%. • Bulkiness: It generally indicates a high yield of clean wool. Squeezing the fleece together with the hands may help you estimate clean wool. If you are able to compress the fleece so that your hands close together, the yield of clean wool will be low.
  15. 15. Conclusion The importance of grading and judging within a given lot or fleece of wool depend upon various factors. A producer with a good knowledge of wool encounters fewer problems in production and marketing. Reliable information on the grades and quality of wool helps ranchers calculate the true value of these products. They also are better able to plan and execute breeding programs through which they can produce the most popular and profitable types of wool.
  16. 16. References • JAGDISH PARKASH. Goat, sheep & pig Production and management. p. 254. • https://sites.google.com/site/viveklpm/wool/wool-quality-assessment

×