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THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
PRESENTATION # 2
BY :-
SUMERA KHALID
2K7F-MSC-STR-04
TO :-
D...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
INTRODUCTION
 Overview of the Early Years of EE
 Major Eve...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
-The summary list of events.
-Developments and advances sinc...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
 According to Hudson (1992),EE
at once a very old an very n...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Earthquakes in the United States,
1906 in san Francisco, C...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Usami (1998) stated:
In the case of Japan ,I personally thin...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Earthquake engineering in Japan Sano's work,
“coefficient Me...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Robert Mallet invented the word seismology,
……..shake-knowle...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
San Francisco and northern California
earthquake
On April 1...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
FIGURE The 1906 San Francisco earthquake
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
According to Geschwind (1996).
Although engineers learned ex...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Charles Derleth, ) a professor (of structural
Engineering a...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
the Seismological Society of America (SSA)
October 1906,
S...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
State Earthquake Investigation Commission
Reports
1908, det...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
1908 Messina (Italy) and 1923 Kanto (Japan)
Earthquakes
Mess...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
The commission's report appears to be the first
engineering ...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Kanto (Japan) earthquake
September 1,1923
magnitude 8.3
s...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Suyehiro
-development of the mining motion accelerographs.
A...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Santa Barbara, California
On June 29. 1925
magnitude 6.2
...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
The Santa Barbara City Council
on December 17, 1925
 a new ...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
earthquake preparedness in California
Bailey Willis, a profe...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
 Building period's measurements in the United States by
Elm...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
United States was in 1927
earthquakes were recorded by the s...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
In the early 1930s,
Richter devised a numerical scale for gr...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
In 1932, Freeman’s book “Earthquake Damage and
Earthquake In...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Similarly, Housner (1983) Stated, "I think that the
original...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
In 1929,- the Structural Engineers of Southern
California
...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
in 1927, with the cooperation of many engineers and
architec...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
1925 to 1933(contd.)
Among prominent, scientists and enginee...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
FIGURF- The 1933 Long Beach, California, earth quake –
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
most influential report about the Long Beach
earthquake was ...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Binder and Wheeler (1960),
2 California State laws were pass...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
The use of a constant coefficient C in the design
base shear...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
The design requirements of a constant lateral
force coeffici...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
 Thus, building flexibility associated with number
of stori...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
1957 the Seismology Committee of the Structural
Engineers As...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
OBJECTIVES
the development of a seismic code that would
con...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Date Code or provisions
1927 First seismic design appendix i...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
The origin of the EERI
Advisory Committee on Engineering Sei...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
members of the ACES
R.R. Martel and George Housner.
ACES mem...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Today, EERI members are from all over the
world.
EERI sponso...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
The other important conference was the World
Conference on ...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
The second WCEE was held in Japan in 1960
World Conferences ...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
For example, Structural Design for Dynamic Loads
by Norris e...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
in 1972 the journal Earthquake Engineering and
Structural Dy...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
This section presents
 Evolution of The- Definition of EE a...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
definitions for EE:
Okamoto (1973) -"In earthquake engineeri...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Housner (1984) —
"Earthquake engineering broadly encompasses...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Clough (1992) —
"Earthquake engineering-is a scientific disc...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Hudson (1992) —
"Earthquake engineering embraces a very wide...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
the nature of the earthquake problem and
particularly the re...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
combination of the factors for earthquake disaster:
• Severi...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
• The size and distribution of the population and
economic d...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Earthquake preparedness should be emphasized
To prevent an e...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Bertero (1992, 1997, and 2002),
assessing and controlling se...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
3. Evaluating whether the EQGMs could induce any
of the foll...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
5. Assessing the performance of the facility system under di...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
The modern goal of EE
control the seismic risks to socio-eco...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
 There is a need for multidisciplinary groups of
researcher...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
• Advances in computer technology have greatly
facilitated s...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
•Establishment of several important
experimental facilities ...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
• Establishment of the Applied Technology
Council (ATC) in 1...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
• NRC reports prepared by the NAE's Committee
on Earthquake ...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Publication of proceedings of the WCEE and other regional
an...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
Advances in EE have been
extremely impressive.
Great lesso...
THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING
AND ITS MODERN GOAL
The objectives of such studies should be
 to find out what ...
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Presnt 1 for paper

presentation on Earthquake during study of earthquake engineering course in MS Structural Engineering 2010
appreciated and selected for examination

Engr Sumera Khalid
Ms structural Engineering UET taxila

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Presnt 1 for paper

  1. 1. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL
  2. 2. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL PRESENTATION # 2 BY :- SUMERA KHALID 2K7F-MSC-STR-04 TO :- DR. QAISAR UZ ZAMAN
  3. 3. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL INTRODUCTION  Overview of the Early Years of EE  Major Events Contributing to Its Growth until 1960  The Evolution of Definition of EE  Its Goal to the Present Time  The Nature of the Earth Quake Problem  The Factors That Can Create an Earth Quake Preparedness
  4. 4. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL -The summary list of events. -Developments and advances since 1960. -Future challenges of EE. . INTRODUCTION( contd.)
  5. 5. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL  According to Hudson (1992),EE at once a very old an very new subject . BIRTH AND GROWTH OF EE IN THE EARLY YEARS authors to indicate date of start of EE *Housner ,1984 *Usami, 1998 *Hudson , 1992
  6. 6. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Earthquakes in the United States, 1906 in san Francisco, California in Italy, 1909 Messina. Earthquake engineering started at the end of the 19th century “designing structures with a few present of the weight of the structure as the horizontal load.” EVENTS IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY ,AND THE 1906 SAN FRACISCO EARTH QUAKE AND ITS AFTERMATH.(contd.)
  7. 7. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Usami (1998) stated: In the case of Japan ,I personally think the professional practice of earth quake engineering began after a severely damaging earthquake that struck Tokyo …. EVENTS IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY ,AND THE 1906 SAN FRACISCO EARTH QUAKE AND ITS AFTERMATH (contd…) also In 1914 ,Sano, Japanese engineer, developed a quasi dynamic theory, which we now call the seismic coefficient method ……….
  8. 8. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Earthquake engineering in Japan Sano's work, “coefficient Methods for Designing earthquake Resistant Houses” ENGLISH ENGINEERS EVENTS IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY ,AND THE 1906 SAN FRACISCO EARTH QUAKE AND ITS AFTERMATH (contd…) ^Robert Mallet (a civil engineer), ^John Milne (a mining engineer) ^James Ewing and Thomas Gray (both Mechanical engineers),
  9. 9. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Robert Mallet invented the word seismology, ……..shake-knowledge; he also coined the term epicenter EVENTS IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY ,AND THE 1906 SAN FRACISCO EARTH QUAKE AND ITS AFTERMATH (contd…) According to Housner (1984), "Robert Mallet can be called the primeval earthquake engineer.”
  10. 10. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL San Francisco and northern California earthquake On April 18, 1906 (Mw 7.9).  More than 430 km of the San Andreas Fault was ruptured (see Figure 1.1) EVENTS IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY ,AND THE 1906 SAN FRACISCO EARTH QUAKE AND ITS AFTERMATH (contd…)
  11. 11. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL FIGURE The 1906 San Francisco earthquake
  12. 12. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL According to Geschwind (1996). Although engineers learned explicit lessons from the 1906 earthquake, for the most part these lessons did not concern the need for more earthquake-resistant construction. EVENTS IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY ,AND THE 1906 SAN FRACISCO EARTH QUAKE AND ITS AFTERMATH (contd…)
  13. 13. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Charles Derleth, ) a professor (of structural Engineering at the University of California ,1907 American Society of Civil Engineers (ASCE) paper(Derleth, 1907): "An attempt to calculate earthquake stress is futile- Such calculations could lead to no practical conclusions of value" (Housner, 1984). EVENTS IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY ,AND THE 1906 SAN FRACISCO EARTH QUAKE AND ITS AFTERMATH (contd…)
  14. 14. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL the Seismological Society of America (SSA) October 1906, Structural Association of San Francisco in June 1906. EVENTS IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY ,AND THE 1906 SAN FRACISCO EARTH QUAKE AND ITS AFTERMATH (contd…)
  15. 15. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL State Earthquake Investigation Commission Reports 1908, detailed suggestions on proper construction of wooden houses and occasional advice on how buildings might be strengthened against earthquake. 1910, a theoretical discussion of the 1906 earthquake,H.F. Reid (1910) presented the elastic-rebound theory of earthquakes. EVENTS IN THE LATE 19TH CENTURY ,AND THE 1906 SAN FRACISCO EARTH QUAKE AND ITS AFTERMATH (contd…)
  16. 16. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL 1908 Messina (Italy) and 1923 Kanto (Japan) Earthquakes Messina (Italy) earthquake December 28, 1908, (magnitude 7.5) loss of 83,000—to 120,000 lives. According to Housner (1984), this earthquake was responsible for the birth of practical earthquake design of structures
  17. 17. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL The commission's report appears to be the first engineering recommendation for earthquake- resistant structures by means of the equivalent static method. The method apparently proposed by Prof. Panetti, recommended designing 1st story - a horizontal force = 1/2 the building weight 2nd & 3rd stories - horizontal force = 1/8 of the building weight above. 1908 Messina (Italy) and 1923 Kanto (Japan) Earthquakes (contd..)
  18. 18. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Kanto (Japan) earthquake September 1,1923 magnitude 8.3 severe damage in Tokyo and Yokohama. Establishment of the Earthquake Research institute. at the Imperial College of Tokyo headed by Prof, Kyoji Suyehiro. 1908 Messina (Italy) and 1923 Kanto (Japan) Earthquakes (contd..)
  19. 19. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Suyehiro -development of the mining motion accelerographs. As early as the 1920s Dr. Suyehiro clearly outlined the type of accelerographs that would be needed (Hudson, 1963). 1908 Messina (Italy) and 1923 Kanto (Japan) Earthquakes (contd..)
  20. 20. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Santa Barbara, California On June 29. 1925 magnitude 6.2 number of deaths was small the damage was considerable (see figure 1.2). 1925 to 1933
  21. 21. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL The Santa Barbara City Council on December 17, 1925  a new building code with a clause requiring buildings to be designed to withstand horizontal forces produced by either earthquakes or wind (Geschwind, 1991) Binder (1952) pointed out that the year 1925, in my opinion, marks the real beginning of earthquake engineering studies and research in the United States. 1925 to 1933(contd.)
  22. 22. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL earthquake preparedness in California Bailey Willis, a professor emeritus of geology at Stanford University. a laboratory to do research on earthquake matters at Stanford (Freeman, 1932; Blume, 1972; Geschwind, 1996). a shaking table (Geschwind, 1996), built in 1927, with Professor Lydik Jacobsen, of the mechanical engineering department at Stanford, in charge. Blume (1972) summarized the experiments carried out by Jacobsen and his associates on the shaking table 1925 to 1933(contd.)
  23. 23. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL  Building period's measurements in the United States by Elmer Hall (1912), an associate professor of physics at the University of California at Berkeley  (Blume, 1972). Japanese scientists measured wind- induced building motions  Hall's instrument was used to measure motion in six Buildings in San Francisco. 1925 to 1933 (contd.)
  24. 24. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL United States was in 1927 earthquakes were recorded by the southern California regional seismographic network, seismologist Harry Wood was in charge. Wood and Richter (a Caltech graduate in physics) processed the vast amount of data produced by the seismographs (Geschwind, 1996). 1925 to 1933(contd.)
  25. 25. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL In the early 1930s, Richter devised a numerical scale for grading instrumentally recorded earthquakes — the Richter magnitude scales (Richter, 1935). 1925 to 1933(contd.)
  26. 26. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL In 1932, Freeman’s book “Earthquake Damage and Earthquake Insurance” Hudson (1992) stated, "This monumental work not only includes just about everything known about earthquakes at that time, but it is the Nearest thing we have in print to a history of earthquake engineering." 1925 to 1933(contd.)
  27. 27. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Similarly, Housner (1983) Stated, "I think that the original accelerograph should have been called the Freeman accelerograph in recognition of the big contribution that he made." also stated: "I should like to talk today about the founding father of the strong ground motion program in the United States — John R. Freeman 1925 to 1933(contd.)
  28. 28. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL In 1929,- the Structural Engineers of Southern California In 1930 ,-Structural Engineers of Northern California Establishment of tin- Structural Engineers Associations in Southern and Northern California
  29. 29. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL in 1927, with the cooperation of many engineers and architects, The Pacific Coast Building Officials Conference adopted the Uniform Building Code (UBC). The provisions the building should be designed for a lateral force applied at each floor and roof level as a constant percentage (7.5 U) 10%) of the total dead plus live loads of the building above the plane. Initiation of the Uniform Building Code
  30. 30. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL 1925 to 1933(contd.) Among prominent, scientists and engineers who disseminate their views about Long Beach earthquake and earthquake preparedness. Caltech researchers John Burwell  Harry Wood R.R. Martel
  31. 31. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL FIGURF- The 1933 Long Beach, California, earth quake –
  32. 32. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL most influential report about the Long Beach earthquake was from a committee chaired by Robert Milliken. 1925 to 1933(contd.) This earthquake was a major turning point in the field of earthquake-resistant design (EQ-RD) and construction in California.
  33. 33. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Binder and Wheeler (1960), 2 California State laws were passed: (a) the Field Act, 1925 to 1933(contd.) (b) the Riley Act concept of response spectra introduced by Maurice Biota , the concept of response spectra was not used in a specific way in building codes until 1952
  34. 34. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL The use of a constant coefficient C in the design base shear for buildings, V = CW, was adopted in the appendix of the 1927 UBC and in the local codes until 1943. In 1937 Los Angeles County sponsored an investigation to be conducted by Caltech in collaboration with Stanford University and U.S. Coast and Geodetic Survey to determine improvements in seismic requirements of the Los Angeles Building Code (LABC) (Binder, 1952). Progress in Formulating Building Codes: 1933 to 1959
  35. 35. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL The design requirements of a constant lateral force coefficient did not provide a uniform degree of earthquake protection throughout the varying heights of all buildings. The report emphasized replacing a constant factor with one based on equivalent acceleration that would take into account some important dynamic considerations (Binder, 1952). Progress in Formulating Building Codes: 1933 to 1959( contd..)
  36. 36. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL  Thus, building flexibility associated with number of stories was introduced  Some of the findings were adopted into the LABC in January 1943  the 1946 edition of the UBC was basically the same as the 1943 LABC (Binder and Wheeler, 1960). Progress in Formulating Building Codes: 1933 to 1959( contd..)
  37. 37. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL 1957 the Seismology Committee of the Structural Engineers Association of California (SEAOC). develop a uniform code to resolve the differences in several codes used in seismic areas of the United States and California Progress in Formulating Building Codes: 1933 to 1959( contd..)
  38. 38. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL OBJECTIVES the development of a seismic code that would confine its provisions to limiting the extent and type of property damage , a commentary on the code known as a Manual of Practice should complement it. Progress in Formulating Building Codes: 1933 to 1959( contd..)
  39. 39. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Date Code or provisions 1927 First seismic design appendix in U11C: V = CW (C = 0.075 to 0.10} 1933 Los Angeles City Code: V =CW (C - 0.08). First enforced seismic code 1943 Los Angeles City Code: V = CW (C = 60) / (N+4.5)), N > 13 stories 1952 ASCE.-SEAONC: C = K1/T1 (K1= 0.015 to 0.025) 1959 SEAOC: C = KCW (C = 0.05 / (T1")) A summary of the key changes in these provisions before 1960 is provided in Table 1.1.
  40. 40. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL The origin of the EERI Advisory Committee on Engineering Seismology (ACES).  1947 by a small group of individuals  San Francisco to advise the U.S. government on earthquake issues such ns -strong motion instrumentation (Blume, 1994).  The ACES elected  Lydik Jacobsen as the chairman.  Col. William Fox vice chairman  John Blume as the permanent secretary. Establishment of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI)
  41. 41. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL members of the ACES R.R. Martel and George Housner. ACES members formed a non profit organization in 1949 “ the earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI)”. first time the name earthquake engineering was used, at least officially, in the first meeting of the EERI in San Francisco on April 2.1949, Establishment of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) (contd..)
  42. 42. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Today, EERI members are from all over the world. EERI sponsored two historically important EE conferences The Symposium on Earthquake and Blast Effects on Structures was held in 1952 at the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA). C. Martin Duke, a professor at UCLA, chaired the EERI committee. Establishment of the Earthquake Engineering Research Institute (EERI) (contd..)
  43. 43. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL The other important conference was the World Conference on EE (WCEE) (later called the First WCEE), held in 1956 at Berkeley, California. The conference was sponsored by both the EERI and University of California at Berkeley (UCB). Historical Conferences in 1952 and 19569(contd..)
  44. 44. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL The second WCEE was held in Japan in 1960 World Conferences held every four years have successfully brought together many EE researchers, practitioners and public officials. English language books on structural analysis and design for dynamic loads induced by earthquake ground motions started to be published in 1950s Historical Conferences in 1952 and 19569 (contd..)
  45. 45. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL For example, Structural Design for Dynamic Loads by Norris et al. (1959), books on EQ-RD Finally, starting the late 1960s, books on just EE started to be published. For example, books by Borges and Rivera (1969) and Siegel (1970) Applications of Structural Dynamics to EE, Before 1960(contd..)
  46. 46. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL in 1972 the journal Earthquake Engineering and Structural Dynamics (EESD) was established as the official journal of the IAEE. excellent publications by: Freeman (1932), Geschwind (1996), Housner (1983, 1984), Hudson (1988, 1992), Bolt (1996), Roesset and Yao (2002) Einashai (2002) ,Lee et al. (2003). Establishment of the International Association fo Earthquake Engineering, 1960
  47. 47. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL This section presents  Evolution of The- Definition of EE and Its Goal  Nature of Earthquake Problems  Factors That Can Create an Earthquake Disaster  Earthquake Disasters and the Importance of Preparedness  Definition, Assessment and the Steps Involved in Controlling Seismic Risk  Multidisciplinary Nature of EE. The Evolution of EE Since 1960
  48. 48. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL definitions for EE: Okamoto (1973) -"In earthquake engineering a wide range of knowledge that Includes geophysics, geology, seismology, vibration theory, structural dynamics, materials dynamics, structural engineering and construction techniques are necessary. More specifically, earthquake engineering is the application of this knowledge to the single objective of building structures that arc safe against earthquakes”.. The Evolution of EE's Definition and Goal
  49. 49. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Housner (1984) — "Earthquake engineering broadly encompasses all non-technical, as well as technical efforts directed toward minimizing the harmful effects of earthquakes." The Evolution of EE's Definition and Goal
  50. 50. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Clough (1992) — "Earthquake engineering-is a scientific discipline dedicated to providing at reasonable cost an acceptable level of seismic safely in the design of buildings, lifeline systems, and other special structures." The Evolution of EE's Definition and Goal
  51. 51. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Hudson (1992) — "Earthquake engineering embraces a very wide range of activities — social, economic, political, scientific and technical. All these aspects contribute to the overall goal of earthquake engineering — to prevent earthquakes from becoming disasters” Berterof 1992) — "Earthquake engineering is the branch of engineering that encompasses the practical efforts to reduce, and ideally lo avoid, earthquake hazards." The Evolution of EE's Definition and Goal
  52. 52. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL the nature of the earthquake problem and particularly the resultant damages. For example, Press (1984) stated, "Earthquakes are a very special type of natural hazard in the sense that they are very rare, low- probability events, whose consequences, when they do occur, are very large in terms of destruction and suffering” Nature of Earthquake Problems, Disaster and Preparedness
  53. 53. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL combination of the factors for earthquake disaster: • Severity of the earthquake ground motion (EQGM). This depends on,  the earthquake magnitude,  source-to-site distance  direction of fault rupture propagation,  local site conditions  depth to basement rock. Nature of Earthquake Problems, Disaster and Preparedness
  54. 54. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL • The size and distribution of the population and economic developments. • The degree of earthquake preparedness, including comprehensive earthquake risk mitigation programs and their implementation. Nature of Earthquake Problems, Disaster and Preparedness
  55. 55. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Earthquake preparedness should be emphasized To prevent an earthquake from becoming a disaster comprehensive earthquake risk reduction program proper efforts to implement the program; main goal of EE to control the built environment to reduce seismic risks in our urban and rural areas to socio-economically acceptable levels Nature of Earthquake Problems, Disaster and Preparedness
  56. 56. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Bertero (1992, 1997, and 2002), assessing and controlling seismic risk at any given site requires at least the following: 1. Estimating the seismic activity at the site. This requires identification of all seismic sources. 2. Predicting EQGMs (preferably all six components) that could significantly contribute to the seismic risk. Definition, Assessment and Control of Seismic Risk
  57. 57. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL 3. Evaluating whether the EQGMs could induce any of the following potential hazards in the site or the surrounding region: surface fault ruptures, tsunamis,, landslides, floods. 4. Predicting whether the predicted EQGMs could induce ground failure, that is, liquefaction, settlement, subsidence, deferential compaction, loss of bearing and shearing strength and lateral spreading. Definition, Assessment and Control of Seismic Risk
  58. 58. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL 5. Assessing the performance of the facility system under direct and indirect efforts, of the predicted EQGMs and estimating the degree or damage and losses. 6. Evaluating the possibility of the following incidents; fire. Flood, release of hazardous materials, environmental impact and other consequences that could affect the built environment. 7. Conducting a cost-benefit analysis of seismic upgrading and replacing existing hazardous facilities. Definition, Assessment and Control of Seismic Risk
  59. 59. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL The modern goal of EE control the seismic risks to socio-economically acceptable levels. Solution to The problem of seismic risk reduction= Research accompanied by the necessary technological developments implementation of the knowledge in practice. Multidisciplinary Nature of EE
  60. 60. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL  There is a need for multidisciplinary groups of researchers, practicing professionals, users, owners, government officials, insurance industry representatives, and so forth, to develop and ensure the implementations of reliable and suitable policies arid strategies Multidisciplinary Nature of EE
  61. 61. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL • Advances in computer technology have greatly facilitated structural analysis and structural dynamics for EE applications.. • Advances in EQ-RD and EQ-RC. • Construction of the first large U.S. shaking table • Establishment of major EE research centers in the United States and development of significant research Recent Events/ Developments and Future Challenges of EE
  62. 62. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL •Establishment of several important experimental facilities to conduct EE research Cornell University UCB, UCSD, UCD, University at Buffalo (SUNY), University of Michigan, University of Minnesota, University of Nevada at Reno, University of Texas at Austin, University of Washington, Georgia Institute of Technology, Lehigh University, Nist , PCA RPI. Recent Events/ Developments and Future Challenges of EE
  63. 63. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL • Establishment of the Applied Technology Council (ATC) in 1971, ATC 3-06 "Tentative provisions for the development of seismic regulations for buildings," • Establishment of California Universities for Research in Earthquake Engineering (CUREE) Recent Events/ Developments and Future Challenges of EE
  64. 64. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL • NRC reports prepared by the NAE's Committee on Earthquake Engineering Research in 1962, 1982 and 1989 formulated research programs that later were supported by the NSF. • In 2001 the NSF funded the George E. Brown. Network for EE Simulation (NEES). • In 2003, NRC published a report titled "Preventing earthquake disasters" that discusses a research agenda for NEES. Recent Events/ Developments and Future Challenges of EE
  65. 65. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Publication of proceedings of the WCEE and other regional and national EE conferences around the world Publications of books, monographs and reports include reports published by ATC, EERC, EERI, FEMA, MAE, MCEER NCEER, PEER, SEAOC, USGS • Advances in engineering seismology •Advances in innovative strategic and technologies to control the response of facilities to EQGMs Recent Events/ Developments and Future Challenges of EE
  66. 66. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL Advances in EE have been extremely impressive. Great lessons about the nature of earthquakes, characteristic of ground motion, performance of geotechnical, structural, non- structural and lifeline systems during earthquakes,their social and economical impacts. Closing Remarks
  67. 67. THE EARLY YEARS OF EARTHQUAKE ENGINEERING AND ITS MODERN GOAL The objectives of such studies should be  to find out what happened, why it happened, and how to prevent the observed undesirable performance of facilities in future earthquakes.  outcome of such studies should be Improvement of existing seismic code and development of new and simple but reliable provisions. Closing Remarks

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