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Blended learning a framewrok model - isodel 2012


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it is a proposed framework model for designing blended learning in campus.

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Blended learning a framewrok model - isodel 2012

  1. 1. BLENDED LEARNING: A FRAMEWORK MODEL FOR LECTURERS1 Uwes A. Chaeruman Center of ICT for Education, Ministry of Education and Culture Abstract Rapid development of information and communication tehcnology influenced all aspect of human life, including education. These emerging technology with its potentials for education has become special attention for educators, esp. higher education to apply e-learning system. One of e-Learning model used in higer education is blended learning. Blended learning, actually has many blending forms, not only simply just blending between face to face and online instruction. It’s the right and relevant combination of both synchronous and asynchronous learning modes. Its success depends on the ability of lecturers in choosing the relevant technology and tools offered in the synchronous and asynchronous learning seting. This paper will describe a framework model in designing effective blended learning based on the work of William Horton (e-Learning by Design, 2006) and Rachel Van Noord (Blended Learning Continuum, 2007). Hopefully this framework model and its example can give a worthfull guidance for lecturers in designing an effective blended learning. Keywords: e-learning, blended learning, blended learning continuum, synchronous learning, asynchronous learning. e-Learning: System and Models e-Learning is commonly referred to the intentional use of networked information and communication technology in teaching and learning. A number of terms are also used to describe this mode of teaching and learning. They include online learning, virtual learning, distributed learning, web-based learning, etc. Fundamentally, they all refer to educational processes that utilize information and communication technology to mediate asynchronous and as well as synchronous learning and teaching activities (Naidu, 2006). While, Stockley define e-learning as the delivery of a learning, training, or education by electronic means. E-Learning involves the use of a computer or electronic devices in someway to provide training, education or learning materials (Stockley, 2010). Horton define it as the use of information and computer technology to create learning experiences (Horton, 2006). Horton, emphasize the term learning experiences as the main focus in defining e-learning. So, e-Learning is a generic term that explain the use of electronic technology for learning. Since, the focus of e-learning is to facilitate learning experience occurance, we, simply define e-learning as an electronic technology enabled learning. Some authors define e-learning differently, as described above, but its has common purppse, i.e. to facilitate learning experiences more efective,                                                                                                                           1  Presented  at  International  Symposium  of  Open,  Distance  and  e-­‐Learning,  ISODEL  2012,  Bali  4  –  6  Desember   2012.    
  2. 2. efficient and appealing that is enabled by emerging electronic technology, especially information and communication technology. Rashty (1999) as quoted by Noirid classify e-learning delivery system model into three categories, i.e. adjunct, mixed or blended, and full online (Noirid, 2007). This model is viewed as a continuum rather as discrete classification It can be figured out as follows: Figure 1: e-Learning Delivery System Model (adapted from Rashty (1999) by Noirid (2007) Blended Learning One of the continuum of e-learning delivery system model as mentioned above is mixed/blended learning that mix delivery of content, computer mediated communication and or online collaboration with face-to-face instruction appropriately. This means that when delivering blended learning we should pay attention to the appropriateness of decision when, why and how to use online method and when, why and how to use face-to-face instruction. Blended learning is not the same with 50% online and 50% face- to-face. Blended learning combines the best aspects of online learning, structured face-to-face activities, and real world practice. Online learning systems, classroom training, and on-the-job experience have major drawbacks by themselves. The blended learning approach uses the strengths of each to counter the other weaknesses (Soekartawi, 2010). In line with Soekartawi, Graham, classified three kinds of combination of instruction in blended learning, i.e. 1) combination of instructional model; 2) combination of instructional method; and 3) combination of online and face-to-face learning (Graham & Bonk, 2006.). What is the differentiation between online learning and blende learning? The definition of an online program or blended program is similar to the definition Adjunct   Mixed/Blended   Fully  Online   Continuing  tradisional   learning  procceses,  but   enhancing  them  or   extending  them  beyond   classroom  hour  with  online   resources  particularly  using   computer  mediated   communication  (CMC).       Beaming  as  integral  part  of   curricula.  Mixing  delivery  of   content,  CMC,  or  online   collaboration  with  face  to   face  session.  Determining   the  appropriateness  of   online  or  face  to  face  to   deliver  different  aspects  of   curricula.     All  elarning  interactiosn   takes  place  online  and  all   learning  materials  delivered   online,  e.g.  CMS,  streaming   video,  audio  hyperlinked   course  materials,  text  and  collaboration   is  the  key  features  of  this   model    
  3. 3. used for courses; an online program is one where at least 80 percent of the program content is delivered online and a blended program is one where between 30 and 79 percent of the program content is delivered online (Allen, Seaman, & Garret, 2007). Allen figured them out as follows: Proportion of Content Delivered Online Type of Course Typical Description 0% Traditional Course with no online technology used - content is delivered in writing or orally. 1 to 29% Web Facilitated Course which uses web-based technology to facilitate what is essentially a face-to-face course. Uses a course management system (CMS) or web pages to post the syllabus and assignments, for example. 30 to 79% Blended/Hybr id Course that blends online and face-to-face delivery. Substantial proportion of the content is delivered online, typically uses online discussions, and typically has some face-toface meetings. 80+% Online A course where most or all of the content is delivered online. Typically have no face-to-face meetings. Table 1: Classification of Course (Allen, 2007) Blended learning is the combination of multiple approaches to learning. Blended learning can be accomplished through the use of 'blended' virtual and physical resources. A typical example of this would be a combination of technology-based materials and face-to-face sessions used together to deliver instruction. In the strictest sense, blended learning is anytime any instructor combines two methods of delivery of instruction. We figure out the model of blended learning according to Noord that can be shown as follows ( Noord, 2007): Figure 2: Continuum of Blended Learnig (Noord,, 2007) Blended Learning Framework Model Based on the work of Nord as mentioned above, we can categorized learning seting into four quadrant as follows:
  4. 4. Figure 3: Learning Setting Quadrant According to Horton, e-learning process can be categorized into three steps. The frist step is absorb, followed by do and enact (Horton, 2006). If we combined the framework of e-learning seting of Noord and e-learning process of Horton can be explain as follows: • Absorb; the student absorbs information or learning content through self-paced asynchronous mode (quadrant 3). Example: student can learn anytime anywhere animation on CD interactive, portable document file from certain website, or video from youtube provided or suggested by lecturer. Another way, student can learn or absorbs information through live synchronous mode (quadrant 1) from lecturer presentation. • Do; the students can try or doing exercise through self-paced asynchronous animation (quadrant 3) by doing online test. Another way, student can try or doing something together through collaborative asynchronous (quadrant 4) by doing group project assignment etc. • Enact; the student can connect what they have learned both through live synchronous (such as lab practice) or collaborative synchronous (such as group project assignment) seting. Based on those model (Horton and Noord), I propose another framework model. First, we define the e-learning process standard into four steps, i.e. 1) learning; 2) deepening; 3) applying; and 4) assessing/measuring. It can be described as follows:
  5. 5. Figure 4: e-Learning Process Cycle In another way, it can be describe an example as follows: Learning Process Learning Seting and Strategy Synchronous Learning Asynchronous Learnin Live Sync Virtual Sync Self-paced async Collaboratif async Learning presentation Learning multimedia from CD Reading pdf document from website Deepening Classroom discussion Chatting Video conferencing using skype Practicing through online quiz Forum discussion Applying Research Project Lab Practice Individual project assignment Group project assignment Measuring Onsite final test Online test Group project assessment Table 2: e-Learning Process Cycle Framework Model in Action We tried to apply the framework model mentioned above into syllabus of a course. One new component of syllabus that is never included in conventional
  6. 6. syllabus is component of is instructional setting. Its example can be shown as follows: Example from the table above show us that the combination of blended learning use only three modes, i.e. virtual synchronous, self-paced asynchronous dan collaborative asynchronous. Closing and Further Direction This paper intended just to propose a new framework model of blended learning design based on the work of Horton and Noord. We have implemented this model in the course we teach at the State University of Jakarta. Further research is needed not just to identify wether this model can be easily applied or not, but also, the guidance when we should use one of technology, tool and method in synchronous learning seting (live and virtual sunchronous) and asynchronous learning setting (self-paced and collaborative asynchronous. Bibliography Horton, W. (2006). e-Learning by Design. Ca, USA: John Willey and Son. Naidu, S. (2006). e-Learning: a Guide of Principles, Procedures, and Practice. New Delhi: Commonwealth Educational Media Center. Noirid, S. (2007). E-learning Models: A Review of Literature. he 1st International Conference on Educational Reform . Mahasarakham University, THAILAND. Stockley, D. (2010). e-Learning Definition and Explanation. Retrieved February 19, 2010, from Topic Objective Instructional Setting and Strategy Synchronus Asynchronous Basic Concept of Learning Organization Students able to describe an example of learning organization Live: none Virtual: regular chatting (at 12 to 1 pm on Monday, … 2012) Self-paced Async: Reading article from anisasi belajar. Collaborative Async: - Participated ini discussion forum 2 n - Group assignment: making paper example of learning organization