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Online Distance Training Model: a Case-based Experience Research


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It's paper presented in an international symposium on open, distance and e-learningon December in 2012 in Bali.

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Online Distance Training Model: a Case-based Experience Research

  1. 1. Online  Distance  Training  Model1   Case  Study  at  Pusdiklat  Aparatur  Kesehatan,  Ministry  of  Health,  Indonesia     Uwes  Anis  Chaeruman   Center  of  ICT  for  Education,  Minsitry  of  Education  and  Culture     Abstract   This   research   was   aimed   to   describe   the   implementation   of   Online   Distance   Training   at   Pusdiklat   Aparatur   Kesehatan,   Ministry   of   Health,   Indonesia.   Case   study   research   method   using   multiple   data   collection   techniques   (such   as   archival  records,  questionnaires  and  interview  used  to  gain  information  related   to  its  implementation.  This  research  question  focused  in  what  is  online  distance   training  look  like,  how  the  online  distance  training  designed  and  implemented,   and   what   are   the   obstacles   found   in   implementing   it.   Research   finding   found   that   1)   online   distance   training   dedicated   only   for   certain   training   course   and   target  audiences  that  was  relevant  to  be  conducted  online;  2)  online  distance   training   designed   and   implemented   based   on   the   principles   of   e-­‐learning   designed   principles;   3)   some   obstacles   mostly   related   to   low   motivation   of   training  participants,  internet  speed  and  access,  ICT  literacy,  and  content  quality.   This   research   suggest   recommendations   as   follows:   1)   Pusdiklat   should   have   policy   related   to   incentives   model   for   training   participants;   2)   online   distance   training  should  tightly  dedicated  only  for  target  audience  with  high  ICT  literacy;   3)  Pusdiklat  should  consider  the  availability  of  adequate  computer  and  internet   access;  4)  e-­‐learning  content  should  be  design  and  developed  well.   Keywords:  distance  learning,  online  learning,  e-­‐learning     Rationale   e-­‐Learning   is   a   popular   terminology   in   the   era   of   information,   now.   Almost   all   educational   institutions,   such   as   university,   education   and   training   centers,     and   even   corporate   institutions   have   initiative   to   conduct   e-­‐learning.   One   of   the   government  training  institution  which  has  initiative  to  conduct  e-­‐learning  system  is   Pusdiklat   Aparatur   Kesehatan,   Ministry   of   Health,   Indonesia.   Initiative   of   online   distance   learning   for   training   has   been   begun   since   2009.   It’s   assumed   that   after                                                                                                                             1  Presented  at  International  Symposium  of  Open,  Distance  and  e-­‐Learning,  ISODEL  2012,  Bali  4  –  6  Desember  2012.  
  2. 2. three   years   piloting   project,   Pusdiklat   Aparatur   Kesehatan,   has   found   and   established   its   own   model.   That’s   why   this   research   conducted   to   find   out   as   is   briefly  how  and  why  online  distance  training  implemented.       Theoretical  Foundation   Distance  Learning   Distance   education   is   defined   as   institution-­‐based   formal   education   where   the   learning  group  is  separated,  and  where  interactive  telecommunications  systems  are   used  to  connect  learners,  resources,  and  instructors  (Simonson,  Sharon,  Michae  ,  &   Susan   ,   2006).   The   characteristic   of   distance   education   is   institutional   based.   Since   learning  group  is  separated,  then  telecommunication  system  used  as    consequences.   Perraton  as  quoted  by  Simonson,  define  distance  education  as  an  educational  process   in  which  significant  proportion  of  the  teaching  is  conducted  by  someone  removed  in   space   and/or   time   from   the   learner   (   Simonson   &   Schlosser,   2006).   This   definition   describe   the   typical   of   distance   education   is   conducted   by   someone   remove   in   distance  separated  both  by  space  or  time  with  the  learner.   e-­‐Learning   e-­‐Learning   is   commonly   referred   to   the   intentional   use   of   networked   information   and   communication  technology  in  teaching  and  learning.  A  number  of  terms  are  also  used  to   describe  this  mode  of  teaching  and  learning.  They  include  online  learning,  virtual  learning,   distributed  learning,  web-­‐based  learning,  etc.  Fundamentally,  they  all  refer  to  educational   processes  that  utilize  information  and  communication  technology  to  mediate  asynchronous   and  as  well  as  synchronous  learning  and  teaching  activities  (Naidu,  2006).  While,  Stockley   define  e-­‐learning  as  the  delivery  of  a  learning,  training,  or  education  by  electronic  means.  E-­‐ Learning   involves   the   use   of   a   computer   or   electronic   devices   in   someway   to   provide   training,   education   or   learning   materials   (Stockley,   2010).   Horton   define   it   as   the   use   of   information   and   computer   technology   to   create   learning   experiences   (Horton,   2006).   Horton,  emphasize  the  term  learning  experiences  as  the  main  focus  in  defining  e-­‐learning.     So,  e-­‐Learning  is  a  generic  term  that  explains  the  use  of  electronic  technology  for  learning.   Since,   the   focus   of   e-­‐learning   is   to   facilitate   learning   experience,     we,   simply   define   e-­‐ learning   as   an   electronic   technology   enabled   learning.   Some   authors   define   e-­‐learning   differently,   as   described   above,   but   its   has   common   purppse,   i.e.   to   facilitate   learning   experiences  more  efective,  efficient  and  appealing  that  is  enabled  by  emerging  electronic   technology,  especially  information  and  communication  technology.  
  3. 3. Rashty   (1999)   as   quoted   by   Noirid   classify   e-­‐learning   delivery   system   model   into   three   categories,   i.e.   adjunct,   mixed   or   blended,   and   full   online   (Noirid,   2007).   This   model   is   viewed  as  a  continuum  rather  as  discrete  classification  It  can  be  figured  out  as  follows:                         Figure  1:  e-­‐Learning  Delivery  System  Model   (adapted  from  Rashty  (1999)  by  Noirid  (2007)     e-­‐Learning  and  Distance  Learning   Distance   learning,   as   described   above,   needs   telecommunication   technology   as   a   mean  to  facilitate  communication  and  content  delivery  between  tutor/teachers  and   students.   So,   in   the   context   of   distance   learning/training,   e-­‐learning,   in   terms   of   using  information  and  communication  technology  to  facilitate  learning  experience  is   a   consequence.     The   position   of   e-­‐learning   in   distance   learnig/training   can   be   described  as  follows:   Adjunct   Mixed/Blended   Fully  Online   Continuing  tradisional   learning  procceses,  but   enhancing  them  or   extending  them  beyond   classroom  hour  with  online   resources  particularly  using   computer  mediated   communication  (CMC).       Beaming  as  integral  part  of   curricula.  Mixing  delivery  of   content,  CMC,  or  online   collaboration  with  face  to   face  session.  Determining   the  appropriateness  of   online  or  face  to  face  to   deliver  different  aspects  of   curricula.     All  elarning  interactiosn   takes  place  online  and  all   learning  materials  delivered   online,  e.g.  CMS,  streaming   video,  audio  hyperlinked   course  materials,  text  and  collaboration   is  the  key  features  of  this   model     Pendidikan /Pelatihan   Jarak  Jauh   e-­‐learning   Online   learning,   web-­‐based   learning,   dan  lain-­‐
  4. 4. Actually,   e-­‐learning   in   the   context   of   distance   learning   can   be   fully   online   (online   web-­‐based  learning),  computer-­‐based  training,  or  blended  (combination  of  any  kinds   of  synchronous  and  synchronous  learning  setting).  Holden  classified  e-­‐learning   story  in  distance  learning  into  five  generation  as  follows  (Holden  &  Westfall,  2005):   Generation 1: Correspondence model Generation 2: Broadcast (Radio dan TV) model Generation 3: Computer-aided Learning Model Generation 4: Combination of generation 1, 2 and 3 Generation 5: Artificial artificial intelligence- based learning environment model Model lingkungan belajar yang berbasis   e-­‐Learning  Cycle  in  Distance  Education/Training   How  is  learning  experience  occur  in  the  context  of  e-­‐learning?  The  same  process  of   learning  in  the  context  of  conventional  learning  should  also  happen  in  e-­‐learning.   Horton  provide  framework  how  learning  experience/activities  should  happen  in  e-­‐ learning.   He   described   three   steps   of   learning   activities,   i.e.,   absorb,   do,   and   connect.  It  can  be  described  as  follows  (Horton,  2006):                      
  5. 5. More  detailed  he  explained  that  in  the  first  step,  absorb  knowledge,  typically  by  reading  text,   watching  ananimation,  or  listening  to  narration.  In  an  absorb  activity,  the  learner  is  physically   passive,  but  mentally  active.  A  second  type  of  learning  activity  has  learners  do  something  with   what  they  are  learning.  It  might  have  the  learner  practice  a  procedure,  play  a  game,  or  answer   questions.  The  learner  practices,  explores,  and  discovers.  The  final  type  of  learning  activity  has   learners   connect   what   they   are   learning   to   their   work,   their   lives,   or   their   prior   learning.   Connect   activities   are   aimed   at   making   it   easier   to   apply   learning   when   it   is   needed   later   (Horton,  2006).  More  concrete  explanation  can  be  showed  as  follows:                                                                                                                          (Horton,  2006)     Research  Method   The  aim  of  this  research  was  to  describe  as  is  the  why  and  the  how  online  distance   training  implemented  at  Pusdiklat  Aparatur  Kesehatan,  Ministry  of  Health  Indonesia.   The  relevant  method  to  study  this  kind  of  aim  was  case  study  research.  The  main   characteristic  of  case  study  research  is  using  multiple  data  collection  techniques  (Yin,   2008).   The   data   collection   techniques   used   were   archival   records   (from   online   records  of  students  and  tutor  activities)  followed  by  questionnaires  and  interview   both  to  students  and  tutors.  Purposive  sampling  used  for  this  research  involving  six   tutors,  and  160  training  participants  who  follows  six  online  distance  training  courses.   The  research  conducted  during  three  months  from  July  to  October  2012.       Research  Findings   Distance  Training  Model  Used   A   unique   distance   training   model   found   from   this   research   was   the   integration   between  online  distance  training    and  regular  intensive  training.  According  to  the  
  6. 6. document   of   “Panduan   Diklat   Jarak   Jauh   Pusdiklat   Aparatur   Kesehatan”,   it   was   stated  that  distance  training  model  used  was  the  combination  of  online  and  regular   intensive  training.  There  were  two  approaches  they  used,  i.e.  1)  fully  online  distance   training  model;  and  2)  combination  of  online  distance  training  and  intensive  training.   Model   1   dedicated   for   certain   courses   that   no   need   practical   skills.   The   model   2   dedicated  for  courses  that  need  both  knowledge,  attitudes,  and  skills.     The  model  1  can  be  shown  as  follows:                         While  the  model  2  can  be  shown  as  follows:                      
  7. 7. There  were  six  courses  offered  during  training  periods  of  July  to  November  2012.   Three   of   them   offered   through   model   1   (i.e.   Kebijakan   Surveilans   Epidemiologi,   Pengantar  Epidemiologi,  and  Surveilans  Epidemiologi)  and  three  of  others  offered   through   model   2   (i.e.   Penyelidikan   Eipdemiologi,   Mengolah   Data   dengan   EpiInfo,   and  Komunikasi  Resiko).           Online  Learning  Activities  Standard   Online   distance   training   at   Pusdiklat   Aparatur   Kesehatan   has   a   standard   learning   process   or   cycle.   It   consist   of   four   cycle   of   activities.   Each   courses   divided   into   several  chunking  of  topics  called  kegiatan  belajar  (KB)  or  learning  activities.  Training   participants   should   follows   four   cycle   of   learning   in   each   KB,   i.e.   1)   learning   the   content;  2)  deepening  knowledge  and  skills  through  forum  discussion  and  chatting;   3)   applying   knowledge   and   skills   through   following   online   assignment;   and   4)   measuring   competency   through   following   online   quizzes   and   online   final   test.   Training   participants   couldn’t   followed   the   second   cycle   before   finishing   the   first   cycle   and   so   on.   For   this   purpose,   Pusdiklat   Aparatur   Kesehatan   has   modified   or   customized   the   learning   management   system   used   (moodle   platform)   so   that   compatible  with  the  learning  cycle  standard  mentioned  above.  The  process  can  be   shown  as  follows:          
  8. 8. Training  Participants  Activities   The  training  course  offered  to  followed  by  160  participants  from  four  provinces  in   Indonesia,  i.e.  DKI  Jakarta  (Jakarta),  Jawa  Barat  (West  Java),  Sumatera  Utara  (North   Sumatera)  and  Sumetera  Selatan  (South  Sumatera).  Reseacrh  finding  showed  that   participants  from  Sumatera  Utara  have  higher  participation  compare  to  three  other   provinces.  It  can  be  shown  as  follows:                       Table  above  showed  surprisingly  that  participants  form  Sumatera  (Sumatera  Utara   and  Sumatera  Selatan)  have  higher  course  participation  and  completion  compare  to   two  other  provinces.  While  Jawa  Barat  in  the  lowest  rank.  It  can  be  concluded  that,   overall,  the  degree  of  participation  and  completion  of  all  courses  offered  were  low.       Enabling  and  Inhibiting  Factors   Enabling  Factors   Research  found  several  enabling  factors  as  follows:   1.  Training  Participation  Acceptance;  Training  participants  perceived  that  online  distance   training  was  important  and  needed.  Research  questionnaires  showed  that  84%  training   participants  agree  to  have  training  through  online  distance  training  system.  They  (63,2%   participants)  also  felt  that  online  distance  training  was  flexible  (they  can  learn  anytime,   anywhere  according  to  the  pace  of  their  learning  speed).     2.   Policy   and   Decision   Makers   Support;   Director   of   Pusdiklat   Aparatur   Kesehatan   and   Secretary   General   of   Ministry   of   Health   gave   full   support   to   conduct   a   research   and   development   of   distance   training   models   for   certain   situation.   It   can   be   seen   that  
  9. 9. Ministry  of  Health,  have  some  initiatives  in  distance  training  for  Kepala  Dinas  Kesehatan   with   WHO.   Secretary   General   also   stated   that,   “if   this   online   distance   training   model   realistic,   implementable   and   has   high   impact   for   professional   development   of   health   HRD,  then  we  should  continue  to  study  and  develop  it.  She  stated  this  statement  in  the   event  of  online  distance  training  launching,  on  July  2012  at  Denpasar  Hotel,  Kuningan,   Jakarta.   3.   All   Learning   Activities   as   Part   of   Evaluation;   other   enabling   factors   were   relevant   discussion   forum   issues   and   contextual   assignment   as   part   of   the   evaluation   components.   89%   participants   stated   that   they   following   and   doing   assignment   since   they  were  part  of  the  evaluation  components,  beside  online  quizzes  and  final  test.     Inhibiting  Factors   In  one  hand  they  agree  and  willing  to  have  training  through  online  distance  training,  but,  in   the  other  hand  they  participation  and  the  completion  of  course  were  very  low.  Research   findings   showed   that   on   the   other   hand   there   were   so   many   hindrances   faced   during   following  the  training.  Some  hindrances  were  as  follows:   1.  Low  quality  of  e-­‐learning  content;  90%  participants  stated  that  e-­‐learning  content  were   too  monotonous,  text  book  based,  unattractive  and  interactive.  They  (86%  participants)   prefer  to  content  delivered  through  video,  animation  or  simulation.   2.  Delayed  Feedback  from  Tutor;  one  weakness  of  the  learning  process/activity  applied  in   his  online  distance  training  model  were  participants  couldn’t  go  to  second  or  third  cycle   before  finishing  the  prior  cycle.  When  tutor  delayed  giving  feedback  and  grade,  they  have   to  wait  long  enough  to  go  to  the  next  steps.  Research  finding  show  that  73%  participants   stated  that  they  have  problem  with  delayed  feedback  and  grade  from  tutor.     3.   Low   ICT   Literacy   Familiarity   With   the   Learning   Management   System;   tutor   and   participants  have  difficulty  to  follow  the  course  at  the  first  time.  It’s  showed  by  so  many   complaints  from  tutor  and  participants  to  the  administrators  on  how  to  log  ini,  managing   forums  discussion,  assignment,  etc.  Interview  with  administrator  showed  that  they  had   to  conduct  more  than  four  times  training  and  orientation  to  the  tutors  to  overcome  this   situation.     4.  Low  motivation  and  learning  independency  of  participants;  Low  motivation  showed  by   the  low  level  of  participant  participation  and  completion  the  course  as  mentioned  above.   There  were  so  many  causes  actually.  The  main  cause  were  “no  civil  effect”  and  incentives   for  participants.  Participants  have  no  benefits  for  their  career  from  the  completion  of  the   training.    
  10. 10. 5.  Lack  internet  access  and  speed;  some  participants  (60%)  still  have  problem  with  internet   acces  and  speed.   6.   User   Friendliness   of   LMS;   most   of   participants   (74%)   and   tutors   (100%)   stated   that   learning  management  system  interface  was  too  complicated.       Conclusion  and  Recommendations   Pusdiklat  Aparatur  Kesehatan,  Ministry  of  Health  has  a  model  of  online  distance  training.   This  model  was  still  immature.  But,  as  a  starting  point,  this  model  can  be  a  good  benchmark   to   be   continuously   developed.   The   integration   of   online   distance   training   and   regular   intensive  training  was  a  good  example  of  a  new  training  paradigm  where  distance  training   and  regular  training  holistically  is  part  of  the  whole  process  of  training.  It  cannot  be  partially   developed  and  implemented.  It  should  be  integrated.  In  the  future,  it’s  possible  to  integrate   betwee  online  training,  on  the  job  training  and  intensive  regular  conventional  training.   Online  distance  training  model  of  Pusdiklat  Aparatur  Kesehatan,  has  succeed  to  establish  an   online  learning  activities  standard  that  comprises  of  four  step,  i.e.  1)  learning  content;  2)   deepening  knowledge  and  skills  through  discussion  forum;  3)  applying  knowledge  and  skills   through  assignment;  and  4)  measuring  knowledge  and  skills  through  online  quizzes  and  test.     Participation   and   completion   participants   on   all   courses   offered,   overall,   was   still   disappointing.  It’s  true,  caused  by  so  many  inhibiting  factors,  such  as  1)  low  quality  of  e-­‐ learning  contents;  2)  delayed  feedback;  3)  low  ICT  literacy;  4)  low  motivation  and  learning   independency;  5)  lack  internet  access  and  speed;  and  6)  low  user  friendliness  of  LMS.   But,   among   hindrances   mentioned   above,   there   were   some   enabling   factors   such   as   1)   Training  participation  acceptance;  2)  policy  and  decision  makers  support;  and  3)  all  learning   activities  as  part  of  evaluation.  These  factors  was  very  important  for  the  sustainability  of  the   training  models.     In  the  future  it’s  highly  recommend  to  maintain  success  and  eliminate  inhibiting  factors.   Here   are   some   recommendation:   1)   providing   participants   with   high   quality   and   well   designed  and  developed  e-­‐learning  contents;  2)  forcing  tutors  to  give  immediate  feedback   for   forum   discussion   and   assignment;   3)   making   an   incentive   policy   related   to   the   “civil   effect”  that  will  force  participants  to  have  inner  motivation  to  follow  training;  4)  make  some   revision   on   LMS   and   learning   activities   standard   that   make   participants   easy,   appealing   without  sacrificing  effectivity  of  learning  itself.          
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