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Social dimensions


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Gender and Development

Research from around the world has shown that gender inequalities tends to slow down economic growth and make the rise from poverty more difficult.

Published in: Education
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Social dimensions

  2. 2. Gender One of the universal dimensions on which status differences are based. A social construct specifying the socially and culturally prescribed roles that men and women to follow. It shapes the lives of all people in all societies.
  3. 3. Theories of Gender Development Social Learning Theory Cognitive Developmental Theory Gender Schema Theory
  4. 4. Social Learning Theory Believe that parents, as the distributors of reinforcement, reinforce appropriate gender role behaviors.
  5. 5. Cognitive-developmental theory Derived from Kohlberg’s speculations about gender development. We know from Piaget’s work that children engage in symbolic thinking, they acquire their gender identity and then Kohlberg believes, they begin the process of acquiring gender-appropriate behavior.
  6. 6. A schema is a mental blueprint for organizing information. Such a schema helps a child to develop gender identity and formulate an appropriate gender role. Children develop an integrated schema or picture of what gender is and should be. Gender-schema Theory
  7. 7. What is Gender Stereotyping? Gender Stereotyping is defined as the belief humans hold the characteristics associated with males and females
  8. 8. Several problems exist: 1. When the characteristic, associated with a particular gender, has negative image. 2. When a unique individual is assumed to have all the characteristics associated with his or her Gender.
  9. 9. Gender equality gives women and men the same entitlements to all aspects of human development, including economic, social, cultural, civil and political rights, the same level of respect, the same opportunities to make choices, the same level of power to shape the outcomes of these choices. Gender and Equality
  10. 10. Today, the word gender has its implication. It also means sexlessness or equality of the sexes. Feminism has become an accepted movement. Feminism means advocacy of women’s right on the ground of equality of the sexes. Gender equality has gained wide acceptance as an important goal for many countries around the world.
  11. 11. “Gender shapes the lives of all people in all societies. It influences all aspects of our lives, the schooling we receive, the social roles we play, and the power and authority we command. Population processes – where women and men live, how they bear and rear children, and how they die – are shaped by gender as well. (Riley, 1997)
  12. 12. Four themes characterize feminist theorizing on gender inequality. 1.Men and women are situated in society not only differently but also unequally. 2. This inequality results from the organization of society, not from any significant biological or personality differences between men and women.
  13. 13. 3. Although, individual human beings may vary somewhat from each other in the profile of their potentials and traits, no significant pattern of natural variation distinguishes the sexes. 4. All inequality theories assume both men and women will respond fairly easily and naturally to more egalitarian social structures and situations.
  14. 14. Gender and Power
  15. 15. Gender refers to the different ways men and women play in society, and to the relative power they yield. Power is a basic fabric of society and is possessed in varying degrees by social actors in diverse social categories. Power becomes abusive and exploitative only when independence and individuality of one person or group of people become so dominant that freedom for other is compromised.
  16. 16. Women and children have often been on the abusive side of power. Some causes that are often referred to are: 1. The greater physical strength that men tend to have which creates imbalance of power between men and women resulting from social structures and historical practices in regard to finances, education, roles of authority and decision making. 2. The abuse of power by men and failure of cultural pressures to prevent such abuse. 3. A distorted view of sexuality and the objectification of the female.
  17. 17. Determinants Of Power Status Resources Self- confidence Experiences
  18. 18. Gender and Education
  19. 19. Investing in education is seen as one of the fundamental ways in which nation states and their citizens can move toward long-term development goals and improve both social and economic standard of living. The education of women is seen as providing the key to securing intergenerational transfer of knowledge and proving the substance of long-term gender equality and social change.
  20. 20. Significant gains have been made in women’s education as a result of global advocacy, more often than not, the gains are fragile, vulnerable to changes in economic and social environments, and lagging behind in male rates enrolment and achievement.
  21. 21. Schools also reinforce gendered social roles. Researchers have documented the differential treatment accorded to males and females in the classroom that reinforces a sense of inferiority and lack of initiative among female students. (Sadker and Sadker, 1988) Boys are far more likely than girls to be given specific information that guides the improvement of their performance. (Boggiano and Barett, 1991)