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VDIS10030 DESIGN
AND THE
ENVIRONMENTSangeeta Jain
Design and the Environment
• In recent years, we hear about global warming often. We have passed the stage
where we consid...
“Designers actually have more potential to slow environmental degradation
than economists, politicians and environmentalis...
What can designers do?
• It is increasingly apparent that current patterns of consumption and production are
unsustainable...
Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)
• A life cycle assessment or LCA, identifies opportunities for improvement by quantifying
the im...
This graphic shows the main
stages of a cradle-to-grave
full life-cycle and the
resources that go into the
system and wast...
Life Cycle Analysis (LCA)
• As the term “Cradle to Grave” suggests, it is an analysis of a product/service right from
crea...
Life Cycle
Analysis
“Cradle to
Grave Model”
Life Cycle Analysis
“Cradle to Gate Model”
http://buddhajeans.com/encyclopedia/cradle-to-gate/
Cradle to Grave Analysis
The main stages for analysis include:
• Raw material extraction
• Material processing
• Design
• ...
Cradle to Grave Analysis
• Here's a simple graphic of the direct mail life-cycle. It's highly simplified - and really only...
Cradle to Grave Analysis
There are typically 4 steps in conducting a cradle to grave analysis:
• Step 1: Define the object...
Cradle to Grave Analysis
• Consumer behaviour is an important consideration for the cradle-to-grave analysis. For
example ...
Cradle to Cradle is a design framework for going beyond sustainability and designing for
abundance in a Circular Economy.
Cradle to Cradle (C2C)
• In 2002, German chemist Michael Braungart and American architect William McDonough
heralded it wi...
Simplified cradle-to-cradle
packaging life cycle using
biological nutrients.
http://web.stanford.edu/class/me221/readings/...
Cradle to Cradle (C2C)
Cradle to cradle assumes that a product or its components are not disposed of but are
used in other...
http://buddhajeans.com/encyclopedia/cradle-to-cradle-design/
Resources:
• http://www.d4s-sbs.org/d4s_sbs_manual_site.pdf
• http://www.hpcorporategroup.com/the-life-cycle-assessment-cr...
Design and the Environment - Cradle to Grave
Design and the Environment - Cradle to Grave
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Design and the Environment - Cradle to Grave

  1. 1. VDIS10030 DESIGN AND THE ENVIRONMENTSangeeta Jain
  2. 2. Design and the Environment • In recent years, we hear about global warming often. We have passed the stage where we consider it as a possibility and are right now feeling the “heat” of it. Global temperatures are rising. The polar ice caps are melting. Weather is becoming more extreme. The sea levels are rising. The impact of these changes are devastating. It is believed that in the years to come rising sea levels may destroy coastal communities, there could be shortage of food, some species may become extinct etc. Thus the threats that climate change poses are pushing environmental concerns to the forefront. While much emphasis is currently placed on climate change, there are other environmental concerns too. These include the availability of potable fresh water, increased deforestation, reduced biodiversity and the destruction of ecosystems. Reversing these patterns requires dramatic changes in consumption and production at the process, product, service and system levels. There is a growing demand to research and implement innovative processes and develop better products and services.
  3. 3. “Designers actually have more potential to slow environmental degradation than economists, politicians and environmentalist. Their power is catalytic.” Alastair Faud-Luke Source: The Eco-Design Handbook
  4. 4. What can designers do? • It is increasingly apparent that current patterns of consumption and production are unsustainable, as evidenced in the ever increasing rate of adverse environmental and social impacts. To keep pace with the rapidly changing setting, many environmental movements have expanded their scope to include social and economic concerns. This combination of environmental, social, and economic priorities is referred to as ‘sustainability.’ • Designers are considered to be problem solvers. Thus we certainly have a major role to play in finding unique sustainable design solution(s)to the problem of global warming and climate change. We can make a difference especially today when people have started to notice the value of a good design. However in order to relieve the negative environmental, social and economic impacts and to develop eco-friendly products and create sustainable design, we first need to understand the cause of it by understanding the life cycle of the product, service or process.
  5. 5. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) • A life cycle assessment or LCA, identifies opportunities for improvement by quantifying the impacts that a product has on the environment throughout its full life cycle - from production and manufacturing to the disposal phase. • A full LCA is also known as a "Cradle to Grave" sustainability assessment. • Cradle to Grave is a biomimetic approach to the design of products and systems that models human industry on nature's processes viewing materials as nutrients circulating in healthy, safe metabolisms. It can be used to assess the environmental impacts of a product's life and provide a sound basis for informed decisions. • It sounds analytical and complex but with some basic theory graphic designers can certainly apply some practical LCA to their graphic design projects.
  6. 6. This graphic shows the main stages of a cradle-to-grave full life-cycle and the resources that go into the system and waste that comes out (this can happen at every stage, not just at the end). http://sustainable-graphic- design.blogspot.in/2011/07/materials- life-cycle-assessment-in.html
  7. 7. Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) • As the term “Cradle to Grave” suggests, it is an analysis of a product/service right from creation to disposal; throughout the life cycle. Cradle to Grave analysis includes physical goods as well as services and technological processes. It is a technique to assess environmental impacts associated with all the stages of a product's life from raw material extraction through materials processing, manufacture, distribution, use, repair and maintenance, and disposal or recycling. • Designers use this process to help critique their products. The main stages of the life cycle usually follows the cradle-to-grave model (full life-cycle). Occasionally the cradle-to-gate model (partial life-cycle until it reaches the consumer).
  8. 8. Life Cycle Analysis “Cradle to Grave Model”
  9. 9. Life Cycle Analysis “Cradle to Gate Model” http://buddhajeans.com/encyclopedia/cradle-to-gate/
  10. 10. Cradle to Grave Analysis The main stages for analysis include: • Raw material extraction • Material processing • Design • Manufacture • Distribution • Use • Repair/maintenance • Disposal With regard to the following factors: • Raw Material use • Water use • Energy use • Waste production • Waste disposal (air, land, water) • Transportation steps
  11. 11. Cradle to Grave Analysis • Here's a simple graphic of the direct mail life-cycle. It's highly simplified - and really only shows the journey of the paper, not the ink or other consumables and it only ends in the bin rather than a landfill or incinerator. Even so, notice that it's not really a "cycle" but a linear flow. The thing that makes this linear flow possible is cheap energy to transport and process the trees into printed material. http://sustainable-graphic-design.blogspot.in/2011/07/sustainability-graphic-designers.html
  12. 12. Cradle to Grave Analysis There are typically 4 steps in conducting a cradle to grave analysis: • Step 1: Define the objective of the analysis • Why am I conducting the analysis? • Step 2: Define the scope of the analysis • who, what, when, where, and how. • Who is going to conduct the analysis? • What will be included? When and where will it take place? • And, how will the analysis be conducted? • Step 3: Collect background data • Step 4: Interpret the data and devise an action plan
  13. 13. Cradle to Grave Analysis • Consumer behaviour is an important consideration for the cradle-to-grave analysis. For example a design of packaging needs a complementary system that makes it as easy as possible for the consumer to recycle or compost the package. Therefore some questions to consider related consumer behaviour include: • What economic or other incentives might encourage consumers to recycle packaging? • How easy is it for consumers to disassemble and store packaging? • How far will consumers travel to recycle or compost packaging? • Additionally, a designer needs to have a general understanding about the origin and their environmental impacts, within the context of the current life cycle. This provides a basis for assessing the impact of design modifications in a cradle-to-grave system.
  14. 14. Cradle to Cradle is a design framework for going beyond sustainability and designing for abundance in a Circular Economy.
  15. 15. Cradle to Cradle (C2C) • In 2002, German chemist Michael Braungart and American architect William McDonough heralded it with their book ‘Cradle to Cradle: Remaking the Way We Make Things’. This framework seeks to create production techniques that are not just efficient but are essentially waste free. • Its central premise is that products should be conceived from the very start with intelligent design and the intention that they would eventually be recycled, as either ‘technical’ or ‘biological’ nutrients. Time Magazine has called it “a unified philosophy that - in demonstrable and practical ways - is changing the design of the world.” • In a cradle-to-grave model, products that have reached the end of their useful lives are considered worthless. Whereas the Cradle to Cradle methodology looks at how, at the end of that product’s useful life, they can be taken apart and recycled – or “up-cycled” into products that may have a value and sophistication beyond that of their original use. Simply, it’s a philosophy of birth-to-rebirth.
  16. 16. Simplified cradle-to-cradle packaging life cycle using biological nutrients. http://web.stanford.edu/class/me221/readings/C2 C_Design_Guidelines_PKG.pdf
  17. 17. Cradle to Cradle (C2C) Cradle to cradle assumes that a product or its components are not disposed of but are used in other products and/or processes. It factors in the options for reuse, recycling, recovery and remanufacturing. • Reuse – using a product without change or remodelling, whether for the original or a different application • Recovery – capturing or extracting elements of a product or process, for example, chemicals from computer parts or heat from a production process • Recycle – processing a product or components into a changed form, usually for a different application • Remanufacture –rebuilding a product to its original (or better) specifications; this goes beyond reconditioning or repairing to an acceptable working state.
  18. 18. http://buddhajeans.com/encyclopedia/cradle-to-cradle-design/
  19. 19. Resources: • http://www.d4s-sbs.org/d4s_sbs_manual_site.pdf • http://www.hpcorporategroup.com/the-life-cycle-assessment-cradle-to-grave- sustainability.html • http://sustainable-graphic-design.blogspot.in/2011/07/materials-life-cycle-assessment- in.html • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cradle-to-cradle_design • http://sustainable-graphic-design.blogspot.in/2011/07/sustainability-graphic- designers.html
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Design and the Environment - Cradle to Grave

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