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 Weaving
 Weaving is a method of textile production in which two
distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at rig...
Warp weighted loom
The warp-weighted loom is a simple and
ancient form of loom in which
the warp yarns hang freely from a ...
 Back strap loom
 A back strap loom with a shed-rod.
 A simple loom which has its roots in ancient civilizations consis...
Backstrap loom
Pit-looms
.
The weaver sits with his or her legs in the pit
where there are two pedals which manually
open the warp thread...
 Drawloom
 A drawloom is a hand-loom for weaving figured
cloth. In a drawloom, a "figure harness" is used to
control eac...
 Parts of loom
 The major components of the loom are the warp
beam, heddles, harnesses or shafts (as few as two, four
is...
1.Warp Beam
 The warp beam is a beam that holds the warp, or
vertical threads, on the loom. Depending on the loom,
this c...
PARTS OF THE LOOM
3 Harnesses
 harness is a rectangular frame to which a series of wires,
called heddles or healds, are attached. The yarns...
4 Shuttle
 The shuttle is a bobbin which holds the weft yarns.
The shuttle is passed or thrown back and forth to
create t...
 the main operations in weaving.
 In the loom, weave processing includes shedding,
picking, battening(beating) and takin...
 Picking In picking, the weft or pick is passed across
the loom by a shuttle. As the harnesses raise
the heddles or heald...
Picking
 Battening( BEATING). Beating-up or battening in
which the weft is pushed up against the fell of the
cloth by the reed. B...
 2.The secondary motion of the loom
 Taking up and letting off: There are two secondary
motions, because with each weavi...
 BASIC WEAVES
 Fabrics are manufactured in wide varieties and design.
And the different design and effect is produced on...
 Plain Weave
 Most simple and most common type of construction,
Inexpensive to produce, durable, Flat, tight surface is ...
Rib weave: the filling yarns are larger in diameter than the
warp yarns. A rib weave produces fabrics in which fewer
yarns...
 Twills
 After the plain weave the twill is the most common, being
much used for dress goods, suitings, etc., as well as...
 Double Cloth
 In the thicker fabrics like men’s suitings and
overcoatings, there may be a double series of warp
threads...
 PLAIN WEAVE FABRICS
 Crinoline, cheese cloth, buckram, gauze. organdy.,
chiffon, organza, gingham, calico, oxford cloth
Crinoline
cheese cloth
buckram
gauze.
organdy
Plain weave fabrics
gingham
organzacalico
Oxford cloth
Lengthwise cord(rib)
Crosswise rib
dimity
Broad cloth
Gabardine,
warpfaced
Twill fabrics
Surah, even sided flannel
Antique satin
satin
sateen
 Fancy weaves
 Fancy weaves are ornamented weaves meant for making
decorative fabrics. Fancy weaves have an appearance
d...
 Dobby Weaves
 Dobby weaves have small, but intricate designs created using a dobby
attachment to the loom. This attachm...
pique
Bird’s eye
Lattice , wooden bar with metal pegs
Madras shirting
 Jacquard weave
 Jacquard fabrics have complex patterns. These fabrics
are made on the jacquard loom. Jacquard fabrics h...
 . In this way, it carries and guides the warp thread to be
lifted or lowered for passing the weft yarn. The
sequence of ...
 Brocade fabric : It is a patterned fabric woven with the
help of multi-colored threads. It shows a raised pattern in
rel...
Brocade Damask
Matelasse
 Tapestry weave. This is also done by jacquard system
however has very elaborate designs are made usually of
single repea...
Leno weave (also called Gauze weave or Cross
weave) is a weave in which two warp yarns are
twisted around the weft yarns t...
Marquisette is a sheer,
lightweight mesh or
net fabric with a leno weave. It
can be made from almost any
fibre: silk, cott...
 .
 Extra yarn figure weaves require extra warp and/or
filling yarns to create the design. The extra warp and/or
filling...
Fabrics in which the floating yarns are not cut are known as uncut or unclipped
spot weave fabrics. The length of the floa...
The original method for making dotted swiss, swivel weave is sturdiest
and costliest to create of all the dotted swiss typ...
Swivel weaves require an extra filling yarn
to form the design. The same filling yarn is
used to produce the entire motif....
Weft
figuring
 Pile weave
 It is defined as fabrics with cut or uncut loops which
stand up densely on the surface. This textile is mad...
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Weave

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Weave

  1. 1.  Weaving  Weaving is a method of textile production in which two distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right angles to form a fabric or cloth  The longitudinal threads are called the warp(end) and the horizontal or cross threads are the weft (pick)or filling. Cloth is usually woven on a loom, a device that holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are woven through them  The way the warp and filling threads interlace with each other is called the weave. The majority of woven products are created with one of three basic weaves: plain weave, satin weave, or twill.  Woven cloth can be plain (in one colour or a simple pattern), or can be woven in decorative or artistic designs.
  2. 2. Warp weighted loom The warp-weighted loom is a simple and ancient form of loom in which the warp yarns hang freely from a bar supported by upright poles which can be placed at a convenient slant against a wall. Bundles of warp threads are tied to hanging weights called loom weights which keep the threads tight Weaving- history
  3. 3.  Back strap loom  A back strap loom with a shed-rod.  A simple loom which has its roots in ancient civilizations consists of two sticks or bars between which the warps are stretched. One bar is attached to a fixed object, and the other to the weaver usually by means of a strap around the back. On traditional looms, the two main sheds are operated by means of a shed roll over which one set of warps pass, and continuous string heddles which encase each of the warps in the other set. The weaver leans back and uses his or her body weight to tension the loom. To open the shed controlled by the string heddles, the weaver relaxes tension on the warps and raises the heddles. The other shed is usually opened by simply drawing the shed roll toward the weaver. Both simple and complex textiles can be woven on this loom. Width is limited to how far the weaver can reach from side to side to pass the shuttle. Warp faced textiles, often decorated with intricate pick-up patterns woven in complementary and supplementary warp techniques are woven by indigenous peoples today around the world. They produce such things as belts, ponchos, bags, hatbands and carrying cloths. Supplementary weft patterning and brocading is practiced in many regions
  4. 4. Backstrap loom
  5. 5. Pit-looms . The weaver sits with his or her legs in the pit where there are two pedals which manually open the warp threads (longitudinal threads) allowing the weft shuttle (transverse threads) to pass along between the weave. This type of loom leaves the weavers’ hands free to pass the weft shuttle from side to side and to compress the weaving as they go. Often the women assist by threading the cotton onto the bobbins that are used on the weft shuttle.
  6. 6.  Drawloom  A drawloom is a hand-loom for weaving figured cloth. In a drawloom, a "figure harness" is used to control each warp thread separately. A drawloom requires two operators, the weaver and an assistant called a "drawboy" to manage the figure harness.
  7. 7.  Parts of loom  The major components of the loom are the warp beam, heddles, harnesses or shafts (as few as two, four is common,), shuttle, reed, cloth beam, warp beam, treadle etc.  .
  8. 8. 1.Warp Beam  The warp beam is a beam that holds the warp, or vertical threads, on the loom. Depending on the loom, this can be a simple beam or a more complex arrangement allowing for easier warping of the loom. 2 Heddles  Heddles are made of cord or wire, and are attached to the shaft of the loom. The warp threads pass through the heddles, separating the warp threads to allow the weft threads to pass between them easily. 
  9. 9. PARTS OF THE LOOM
  10. 10. 3 Harnesses  harness is a rectangular frame to which a series of wires, called heddles or healds, are attached. The yarns are passed through the eye holes of the heddles, which hang vertically from the harnesses. The weave pattern determines which harness controls which warp yarns, and the number of harnesses used depends on the complexity of the weave. The more harnesses or shafts a loom has, the more design possibilities you will have. Most larger looms have four harnesses, and table looms often only one; however, looms of up to 16 harnesses are available. 
  11. 11. 4 Shuttle  The shuttle is a bobbin which holds the weft yarns. The shuttle is passed or thrown back and forth to create the weft of the fabric. 5 Beater and Reed  The beater of the loom presses the newly created weft thread against the already woven fabric using a reed. This process is called battening.  shuttle reed
  12. 12.  the main operations in weaving.  In the loom, weave processing includes shedding, picking, battening(beating) and taking-up operations  1.Primary operations  Shedding. In Shedding, first the ends are separated by raising or lowering heald frames (harness) to form a clear space where the pick can pass  Shedding is the raising of part of the warp yarn to form a shed (the vertical space between the raised and unraised warp yarns), through which the filling yarn, carried by the shuttle, can be inserted.
  13. 13.  Picking In picking, the weft or pick is passed across the loom by a shuttle. As the harnesses raise the heddles or healds, which raise the warp yarns, the shed is created. The filling yarn in inserted through the shed by a small carrier device called a shuttle. In a traditional shuttle loom, the filling yarn is wound onto a bobbin (quill), which in turn is mounted in the shuttle. A single crossing of the shuttle from one side of the loom to the other is known as a pick. As the shuttle moves back and forth across the shed, it weaves an edge, or selvage, on each side of the fabric to prevent the fabric from raveling.
  14. 14. Picking
  15. 15.  Battening( BEATING). Beating-up or battening in which the weft is pushed up against the fell of the cloth by the reed. Between the heddles and the take- up roll, the warp threads pass through another frame called the reed (which resembles a comb). After the shuttle moves across the loom laying down the WEFT yarn, the weaver uses the reed to press (or batten) each filling yarn against the already woven cloth end (fell). Conventional shuttle looms can operate at speeds of about 150 to 160 picks per minute.
  16. 16.  2.The secondary motion of the loom  Taking up and letting off: There are two secondary motions, because with each weaving operation the newly constructed fabric must be wound on a cloth beam. Taking up of the woven fabric in a regulated manner is called taking up.  Let off Motion in this the warp is let off from the warp beam at a regulated speed to make the filling even and to continue the weaving  3.The tertiary motions of the loom are the stop motions: to stop the loom in the event of a thread break. The two main stop motions are the  warp stop motion  weft stop motion
  17. 17.  BASIC WEAVES  Fabrics are manufactured in wide varieties and design. And the different design and effect is produced on the fabric with the help for various mechanism which is helpful to from different weaves and lots of design which enhances the look of apparels. The great variety of weaves found in the textiles of to-day are modifications of a few fundamental weaves invented in the earliest times. The basic weaves are:  (1) Plain weave. (2) Twills. (3) Sateen.
  18. 18.  Plain Weave  Most simple and most common type of construction, Inexpensive to produce, durable, Flat, tight surface is conducive to printing and other finishes The plain weave is the most common, nearly all light weight goods being thus woven. In plain weaving, each thread of both warp and filling passes alternately over and under the threads at right angles  . This makes a comparatively open cloth, requiring the smallest amount of yarn for the surface covered. This weave is used in nearly all cotton goods, as in muslins, sheetings, calicoes, ginghams, and thin woolen goods. Even in the plain weave variety is obtained by having some of the threads larger than others, either in warp or filling or both, thus producing stripes and checked effects.  Variations of plain weave are — Rib weave. Basket weave.
  19. 19. Rib weave: the filling yarns are larger in diameter than the warp yarns. A rib weave produces fabrics in which fewer yarns per square centimeter are visible on the surface. Matt Weave or Basket weave: here, two or more yarns are used in both the warp and filling direction. These groups of yarns are woven as one, producing a basket effect.  Method of Construction: Each filling yarn goes alternately under and over the warp yarns  Household Uses: Draperies, tablecloths, upholstery.
  20. 20.  Twills  After the plain weave the twill is the most common, being much used for dress goods, suitings, etc., as well as some of the thicker cottons. In this weave the intersections of the threads produce characteristic lines diagonally across the fabric, most often at an angle of 45°. The twill may be hardly visible or very pronounced.  Uneven Twills  A twill made by running both warp and filling under one and over three threads is called a swansdown twill and the reverse is known as the crow weave. In these the diagonal twilled effect is much more marked. Various twills are often combined with each other and with plain weave, making a great variety of texture. Numerous uneven twills are made, two over and three under, etc.
  21. 21.  Double Cloth  In the thicker fabrics like men’s suitings and overcoatings, there may be a double series of warp threads, only one series appearing on the face of the goods, and in the still thicker fabrics, there may be a double set of both warp and filling threads, making double cloth, the two sides of which may be entirely different in color and design.
  22. 22.  PLAIN WEAVE FABRICS  Crinoline, cheese cloth, buckram, gauze. organdy., chiffon, organza, gingham, calico, oxford cloth
  23. 23. Crinoline cheese cloth buckram gauze. organdy Plain weave fabrics
  24. 24. gingham organzacalico Oxford cloth
  25. 25. Lengthwise cord(rib) Crosswise rib dimity Broad cloth
  26. 26. Gabardine, warpfaced Twill fabrics Surah, even sided flannel
  27. 27. Antique satin satin sateen
  28. 28.  Fancy weaves  Fancy weaves are ornamented weaves meant for making decorative fabrics. Fancy weaves have an appearance distinctly different from basic, woven fabrics. However, the construction of fancy weaves is merely a variation of basic weave methods. Fancy weaves have patterns that are an integral part of the construction of the fabric. They are created by adding extra warp or weft yarns to the fabric structure and/or by using special looms, which add to the uniqueness and costliness of the fabric. As a result, most fancy weaves are designed for specific applications.  Types of fancy weaves are: 1 dobby weave 2. Jacquard weave. 3. leno weave.4. pile weave. 5 extra warp and weft figuring. 6 double cloth weave. 7. crepe weave
  29. 29.  Dobby Weaves  Dobby weaves have small, but intricate designs created using a dobby attachment to the loom. This attachment allows fabrics to be created with an all over pattern that is often geometric in style.  Dobby weave is a patterned fabric with small patterns and the designs are made within 24-30 shedding. Dobby Weave produces an all over figured fabrics such as bird's eye,( small diamonds with a dot at the center, or smaller geometric patterns), madras cotton shirting having figures made in contrast colour on plain coloured background, pique-medium or heavy weight fabric with pronounced lengthwise cord combined with small designs The construction of the Dobby weave is very complex and the design is repeated frequently. Dobby weave is created on dobby machines. The machine selectively raises some warp threads and selectively lowers others with the help of a dobby card called lattice The standard dobbies are generally flat and relatively fine or sheer. Heavyweight dobby fabrics are used as home furnishings and for heavy apparel. 
  30. 30. pique Bird’s eye Lattice , wooden bar with metal pegs Madras shirting
  31. 31.  Jacquard weave  Jacquard fabrics have complex patterns. These fabrics are made on the jacquard loom. Jacquard fabrics have floats and luster. They are more stable and stretchy than the fabrics made through basic weaves.  The Jacquard Loom was invented by Joseph Jacquard in 1801. This was a mechanical loom and was controlled by punchcards having punched holes. Many rows of holes were punched on each card. jacquard loom works on the basis of punched cards strung together. Every hole in the card corresponds to a "Bolus" hook. This hook can either be up or down raising or lowering the harness.
  32. 32.  . In this way, it carries and guides the warp thread to be lifted or lowered for passing the weft yarn. The sequence of raised and lowered threads only creates the pattern. Each hook can be joined through the harness to a number of threads. This allows more than one repeat of a pattern. A loom having a 400 hook head might have four threads joined to each hook. Thus, it will result in a fabric which is 1600 warp ends wide with four repeats of the weave going across.
  33. 33.  Brocade fabric : It is a patterned fabric woven with the help of multi-colored threads. It shows a raised pattern in relief against the background and may or may not use metallic threads as part of the pattern. It is usually a heavier fabric mostly used in upholstery and decorative clothing. Damask fabric : Although it looks like brocade but is much finer and sheer than it. It is also a patterned fabric woven mostly with single color with more of satin weave. The fibers that are generally used for making such fabric include silk fiber,linen fiber, cotton fiber, rayon fiber or blends of other synthetic fibers. Matelasse fabric : This fabric made with Jacquard weave has a quilted effect. It is generally made with silk, cotton, rayon or wool fiber. It can be made a little stretchy but that depends on the weave.
  34. 34. Brocade Damask Matelasse
  35. 35.  Tapestry weave. This is also done by jacquard system however has very elaborate designs are made usually of single repeat. It is done by hand. The designs are formed by weft yarns and warp yarns form the background is less visible.
  36. 36. Leno weave (also called Gauze weave or Cross weave) is a weave in which two warp yarns are twisted around the weft yarns to provide a strong yet sheer fabric. The standard warp yarn is paired with a skeleton or 'doup' yarn; these twisted warp yarns grip tightly to the weft which causes the durability of the fabric.
  37. 37. Marquisette is a sheer, lightweight mesh or net fabric with a leno weave. It can be made from almost any fibre: silk, cotton, wool, rayon, nylon, ... Grenadine is a weave characterised by its light, open, gauze-like feel, Leno weave fabrics
  38. 38.  .  Extra yarn figure weaves require extra warp and/or filling yarns to create the design. The extra warp and/or filling yarns are inserted during the weaving process. The three types of surface figure weaves are spot, swivel, and lappet. Clip spot (clip-spot, clip-dot, spot-dot) is a weaving technique that involves extra weft yarns, usually of a contrasting fiber and/or color from the plain ground. The extra yarns are woven into the ground in a generally small pattern. Later the floats, carried on the back of the fabric, are clipped. The surface will appear to be embroidered, and the back will show these cut ends. Clip spot may also be made with extra yarns in the warp instead of the weft. .  .
  39. 39. Fabrics in which the floating yarns are not cut are known as uncut or unclipped spot weave fabrics. The length of the float yarns may be very short or long. In upholstered fabrics, where the back of the fabric is coated to provide stability, even the long yarns are not cut. Uncut spot weave fabrics are woven on looms with dobby or jacquard attachments. Thus, it is possible to produce uncut spot with a jacquard or dobby base fabric.
  40. 40. The original method for making dotted swiss, swivel weave is sturdiest and costliest to create of all the dotted swiss types. Swivel weave, like lappet weave and clip dot, involves extra weft yarns interwoven with a ground fabric. The embroidery-like pattern made is often of a different color and heavier weight than the ground fabric, and small figures other than dots are found. The reverse will show clipped weft floats.
  41. 41. Swivel weaves require an extra filling yarn to form the design. The same filling yarn is used to produce the entire motif. Thus, in swivel weave fabrics, there are no fringes and no floats seen at the back of the fabric.
  42. 42. Weft figuring
  43. 43.  Pile weave  It is defined as fabrics with cut or uncut loops which stand up densely on the surface. This textile is made up of multiple layers that give it a soft feel.  Creating this weave actually involves a process that establishes three different layers. The first layer is referred to as the ground fabric, which is the foundation for the pile and acts as the binder for the material. The second is composed of an interwoven layer of fibers that act as a cushion, creating a soft surface. The final layer is the actual pile and creates a raised effect that can be brushed back and forth with the hand;

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