Weaving is a method of textile production in which two
distinct sets of yarns or threads are interlaced at right
angles to form a fabric or cloth
The longitudinal threads are called the warp(end) and the
horizontal or cross threads are the weft (pick)or
filling. Cloth is usually woven on a loom, a device that
holds the warp threads in place while filling threads are
woven through them
The way the warp and filling threads interlace with each
other is called the weave. The majority of woven products
are created with one of three basic weaves: plain
weave, satin weave, or twill.
Woven cloth can be plain (in one colour or a simple
pattern), or can be woven in decorative or artistic designs.
Warp weighted loom
The warp-weighted loom is a simple and
ancient form of loom in which
the warp yarns hang freely from a bar
supported by upright poles which can be
placed at a convenient slant against a wall.
Bundles of warp threads are tied to hanging
weights called loom weights which keep
the threads tight
Back strap loom
A back strap loom with a shed-rod.
A simple loom which has its roots in ancient civilizations consists of
two sticks or bars between which the warps are stretched. One bar is
attached to a fixed object, and the other to the weaver usually by means
of a strap around the back. On traditional looms, the two main sheds
are operated by means of a shed roll over which one set of warps pass,
and continuous string heddles which encase each of the warps in the
other set. The weaver leans back and uses his or her body weight to
tension the loom. To open the shed controlled by the string heddles,
the weaver relaxes tension on the warps and raises the heddles. The
other shed is usually opened by simply drawing the shed roll toward
the weaver. Both simple and complex textiles can be woven on this
loom. Width is limited to how far the weaver can reach from side to
side to pass the shuttle. Warp faced textiles, often decorated with
intricate pick-up patterns woven in complementary and supplementary
warp techniques are woven by indigenous peoples today around the
world. They produce such things as belts, ponchos, bags, hatbands and
carrying cloths. Supplementary weft patterning and brocading is
practiced in many regions
The weaver sits with his or her legs in the pit
where there are two pedals which manually
open the warp threads (longitudinal
threads) allowing the weft shuttle
(transverse threads) to pass along between
the weave. This type of loom leaves the
weavers’ hands free to pass the weft shuttle
from side to side and to compress the
weaving as they go. Often the women assist
by threading the cotton onto the bobbins
that are used on the weft shuttle.
A drawloom is a hand-loom for weaving figured
cloth. In a drawloom, a "figure harness" is used to
control each warp thread separately. A drawloom
requires two operators, the weaver and an assistant
called a "drawboy" to manage the figure harness.
Parts of loom
The major components of the loom are the warp
beam, heddles, harnesses or shafts (as few as two, four
is common,), shuttle, reed, cloth beam, warp beam,
The warp beam is a beam that holds the warp, or
vertical threads, on the loom. Depending on the loom,
this can be a simple beam or a more complex
arrangement allowing for easier warping of the loom.
Heddles are made of cord or wire, and are attached to
the shaft of the loom. The warp threads pass through
the heddles, separating the warp threads to allow the
weft threads to pass between them easily.
harness is a rectangular frame to which a series of wires,
called heddles or healds, are attached. The yarns are passed
through the eye holes of the heddles, which hang vertically
from the harnesses. The weave pattern determines which
harness controls which warp yarns, and the number of
harnesses used depends on the complexity of the
weave. The more harnesses or shafts a loom has, the more
design possibilities you will have. Most larger looms have
four harnesses, and table looms often only one; however,
looms of up to 16 harnesses are available.
The shuttle is a bobbin which holds the weft yarns.
The shuttle is passed or thrown back and forth to
create the weft of the fabric.
5 Beater and Reed
The beater of the loom presses the newly created weft
thread against the already woven fabric using a reed.
This process is called battening.
the main operations in weaving.
In the loom, weave processing includes shedding,
picking, battening(beating) and taking-up operations
Shedding. In Shedding, first the ends are separated
by raising or lowering heald frames (harness) to form a
clear space where the pick can pass
Shedding is the raising of part of the warp yarn to form
a shed (the vertical space between the raised and
unraised warp yarns), through which the filling yarn,
carried by the shuttle, can be inserted.
Picking In picking, the weft or pick is passed across
the loom by a shuttle. As the harnesses raise
the heddles or healds, which raise the warp yarns, the
shed is created. The filling yarn in inserted through
the shed by a small carrier device called a shuttle. In a
traditional shuttle loom, the filling yarn is wound onto
a bobbin (quill), which in turn is mounted in the
shuttle. A single crossing of the shuttle from one side
of the loom to the other is known as a pick. As the
shuttle moves back and forth across the shed, it weaves
an edge, or selvage, on each side of the fabric to
prevent the fabric from raveling.
Battening( BEATING). Beating-up or battening in
which the weft is pushed up against the fell of the
cloth by the reed. Between the heddles and the take-
up roll, the warp threads pass through another frame
called the reed (which resembles a comb). After the
shuttle moves across the loom laying down the WEFT
yarn, the weaver uses the reed to press (or batten) each
filling yarn against the already woven cloth end (fell).
Conventional shuttle looms can operate at speeds of
about 150 to 160 picks per minute.
2.The secondary motion of the loom
Taking up and letting off: There are two secondary
motions, because with each weaving operation the newly
constructed fabric must be wound on a cloth beam. Taking
up of the woven fabric in a regulated manner is called
Let off Motion in this the warp is let off from the warp
beam at a regulated speed to make the filling even and to
continue the weaving
3.The tertiary motions of the loom are the stop motions:
to stop the loom in the event of a thread break. The two
main stop motions are the
warp stop motion
weft stop motion
Fabrics are manufactured in wide varieties and design.
And the different design and effect is produced on the
fabric with the help for various mechanism which is
helpful to from different weaves and lots of design
which enhances the look of apparels. The great variety
of weaves found in the textiles of to-day are
modifications of a few fundamental weaves invented
in the earliest times.
The basic weaves are:
(1) Plain weave.
Most simple and most common type of construction,
Inexpensive to produce, durable, Flat, tight surface is conducive
to printing and other finishes The plain weave is the most
common, nearly all light weight goods being thus woven. In
plain weaving, each thread of both warp and filling passes
alternately over and under the threads at right angles
. This makes a comparatively open cloth, requiring the smallest
amount of yarn for the surface covered. This weave is used in
nearly all cotton goods, as in muslins, sheetings, calicoes,
ginghams, and thin woolen goods. Even in the plain weave
variety is obtained by having some of the threads larger than
others, either in warp or filling or both, thus producing stripes
and checked effects.
Variations of plain weave are —
Rib weave: the filling yarns are larger in diameter than the
warp yarns. A rib weave produces fabrics in which fewer
yarns per square centimeter are visible on the surface.
Matt Weave or Basket weave: here, two or more yarns are
used in both the warp and filling direction. These groups of
yarns are woven as one, producing a basket effect.
Method of Construction: Each filling yarn goes
alternately under and over the warp yarns
Household Uses: Draperies, tablecloths, upholstery.
After the plain weave the twill is the most common, being
much used for dress goods, suitings, etc., as well as some of
the thicker cottons. In this weave the intersections of the
threads produce characteristic lines diagonally across the
fabric, most often at an angle of 45°. The twill may be
hardly visible or very pronounced.
A twill made by running both warp and filling under one
and over three threads is called a swansdown twill and the
reverse is known as the crow weave. In these the diagonal
twilled effect is much more marked. Various twills are often
combined with each other and with plain weave, making a
great variety of texture. Numerous uneven twills are made,
two over and three under, etc.
In the thicker fabrics like men’s suitings and
overcoatings, there may be a double series of warp
threads, only one series appearing on the face of the
goods, and in the still thicker fabrics, there may be a
double set of both warp and filling threads, making
double cloth, the two sides of which may be entirely
different in color and design.
Fancy weaves are ornamented weaves meant for making
decorative fabrics. Fancy weaves have an appearance
distinctly different from basic, woven fabrics. However, the
construction of fancy weaves is merely a variation of basic
weave methods. Fancy weaves have patterns that are an
integral part of the construction of the fabric. They are
created by adding extra warp or weft yarns to the fabric
structure and/or by using special looms, which add to the
uniqueness and costliness of the fabric. As a result, most
fancy weaves are designed for specific applications.
Types of fancy weaves are: 1 dobby weave 2. Jacquard
weave. 3. leno weave.4. pile weave. 5 extra warp and weft
figuring. 6 double cloth weave. 7. crepe weave
Dobby weaves have small, but intricate designs created using a dobby
attachment to the loom. This attachment allows fabrics to be created with an
all over pattern that is often geometric in style.
Dobby weave is a patterned fabric with small patterns and the designs are
made within 24-30 shedding. Dobby Weave produces an all over figured fabrics
such as bird's eye,( small diamonds with a dot at the center, or smaller
geometric patterns), madras cotton shirting having figures made in contrast
colour on plain coloured background, pique-medium or heavy weight fabric
with pronounced lengthwise cord combined with small designs The
construction of the Dobby weave is very complex and the design is repeated
Dobby weave is created on dobby machines. The machine selectively raises
some warp threads and selectively lowers others with the help of a dobby card
called lattice The standard dobbies are generally flat and relatively fine or
Heavyweight dobby fabrics are used as home furnishings and for heavy
Lattice , wooden bar with metal pegs
Jacquard fabrics have complex patterns. These fabrics
are made on the jacquard loom. Jacquard fabrics have
floats and luster. They are more stable and stretchy
than the fabrics made through basic weaves.
The Jacquard Loom was invented by Joseph
Jacquard in 1801. This was a mechanical loom and
was controlled by punchcards having punched holes.
Many rows of holes were punched on each card.
jacquard loom works on the basis of punched cards
strung together. Every hole in the card corresponds to
a "Bolus" hook. This hook can either be up or down
raising or lowering the harness.
. In this way, it carries and guides the warp thread to be
lifted or lowered for passing the weft yarn. The
sequence of raised and lowered threads only creates
the pattern. Each hook can be joined through the
harness to a number of threads. This allows more than
one repeat of a pattern. A loom having a 400 hook
head might have four threads joined to each hook.
Thus, it will result in a fabric which is 1600 warp ends
wide with four repeats of the weave going across.
Brocade fabric : It is a patterned fabric woven with the
help of multi-colored threads. It shows a raised pattern in
relief against the background and may or may not use
metallic threads as part of the pattern. It is usually a heavier
fabric mostly used in upholstery and decorative clothing.
Damask fabric : Although it looks like brocade but is
much finer and sheer than it. It is also a patterned fabric
woven mostly with single color with more of satin weave.
The fibers that are generally used for making such fabric
include silk fiber,linen fiber, cotton fiber, rayon fiber or
blends of other synthetic fibers.
Matelasse fabric : This fabric made with Jacquard weave
has a quilted effect. It is generally made with silk, cotton,
rayon or wool fiber. It can be made a little stretchy but that
depends on the weave.
Tapestry weave. This is also done by jacquard system
however has very elaborate designs are made usually of
single repeat. It is done by hand. The designs are formed by
weft yarns and warp yarns form the background is less
Leno weave (also called Gauze weave or Cross
weave) is a weave in which two warp yarns are
twisted around the weft yarns to provide a
strong yet sheer fabric. The standard warp yarn
is paired with a skeleton or 'doup' yarn; these
twisted warp yarns grip tightly to the weft
which causes the durability of the fabric.
Marquisette is a sheer,
lightweight mesh or
net fabric with a leno weave. It
can be made from almost any
fibre: silk, cotton, wool, rayon,
Grenadine is a weave characterised by its
light, open, gauze-like feel,
Leno weave fabrics
Extra yarn figure weaves require extra warp and/or
filling yarns to create the design. The extra warp and/or
filling yarns are inserted during the weaving process. The
three types of surface figure weaves are spot, swivel, and
Clip spot (clip-spot, clip-dot, spot-dot) is a weaving
technique that involves extra weft yarns, usually of a
contrasting fiber and/or color from the plain ground. The
extra yarns are woven into the ground in a generally small
pattern. Later the floats, carried on the back of the fabric,
are clipped. The surface will appear to be embroidered, and
the back will show these cut ends. Clip spot may also be
made with extra yarns in the warp instead of the weft.
Fabrics in which the floating yarns are not cut are known as uncut or unclipped
spot weave fabrics. The length of the float yarns may be very short or long. In
upholstered fabrics, where the back of the fabric is coated to provide stability, even
the long yarns are not cut. Uncut spot weave fabrics are woven on looms with dobby
or jacquard attachments. Thus, it is possible to produce uncut spot with a jacquard
or dobby base fabric.
The original method for making dotted swiss, swivel weave is sturdiest
and costliest to create of all the dotted swiss types. Swivel weave, like
lappet weave and clip dot, involves extra weft yarns interwoven with a
ground fabric. The embroidery-like pattern made is often of a different
color and heavier weight than the ground fabric, and small figures other
than dots are found. The reverse will show clipped weft floats.
Swivel weaves require an extra filling yarn
to form the design. The same filling yarn is
used to produce the entire motif. Thus, in
swivel weave fabrics, there are no fringes and
no floats seen at the back of the fabric.
It is defined as fabrics with cut or uncut loops which
stand up densely on the surface. This textile is made
up of multiple layers that give it a soft feel.
Creating this weave actually involves a process that
establishes three different layers. The first layer is
referred to as the ground fabric, which is the
foundation for the pile and acts as the binder for the
material. The second is composed of an interwoven
layer of fibers that act as a cushion, creating a soft
surface. The final layer is the actual pile and creates a
raised effect that can be brushed back and forth with