Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
Microbiology and Parasitology
UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION
Some rules
• Listen when others are talking
• Show respect for other opinions
• If you don’t understand, don’t hesitate to...
Microbiology
Virus: Ebola
Fungi: Mushroom
Bacteria: Salmonella
ENEMY OR… …FRIEND
Algae: Algal bloom
MICROBES
Course content
• Theory
– Burton’s Microbiology for the Health Sciences – P.G. Engelkirk & J. Duben
– Microbiology and Inf...
Website
• http://pson-biochemphys.yurls.net/en/page/
Today
• Microbes
– Definition
– Presence
– Variety
– Enemy or friend?
• Historical Background
– Earliest known diseases
– ...
Definition?
• MICRO – BIO – LOGY
– μικρος = micros = “small”
– βιος = bios = “life”
– λογος = logos = “science”
– “The stu...
Presence of Microbes
• Microbes are ubiquitous: virtually everywhere
– Water (photosynthetic algae, plankton)
– Dead or de...
Variety of Microbes
• Categories
– Acellar: Viroids, Virus, Prion
– Prokaryotes (cellular without nucleus): Bacteria, Arch...
Microflora
Indigenous
microflora
(100 trillion)
Nonpathogens
(97%)
Opportunistic
pathogens
Pathogens /
infectious agents
(...
Disease
• Microbial enemies…
– …cause disease
– “Pathogens”
– Two categories
• Infectious diseases
– 50.000 deaths/day
– M...
Earliest known diseases
3180 BC
1900 BC
1500 BC
1122 BC
790-640 BC
430 BC 1493
0 2015
Egypt:
First recorded pestilence
Tro...
Historical background
• Once upon a time…
Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 1
… they had no idea
Antoni van Leeuwenhoek
• Dutch merchant
• Godfather of Microbiology
– First to see live bacteria
– Quote from Microbe Hunt...
Leeuwenhoek’s microscopes
• Simple or single-lens microscope
– One magnifying lens
– Magnifying power of x 300
– Tiny glas...
Robert Koch
• German Physician
– Germ theory of disease: “specific
microbes cause specific disease”
– Developed fixing, st...
Koch’s Postulates
After fulfilling Koch’s Postulates: prove that microbe is cause of particular disease
Burton’s Microbiol...
Edward Jenner
• British physician and scientist
• 1976: Developed smallpox vaccine
– Hypothesis:
“Having cowpox protects f...
Louis Pasteur
• French Chemist
– Fermentation process
– Disproved abiogenesis
(sponteneous generation)
– Aerobes/Anaerobes...
Joseph Lister
• British surgeon
– Asepsis (without infection)
– Antisepsis (against infection)
• “Phenol as antiseptic”
– ...
Alexander Fleming
• Scottish bacteriologist
• First antibiotic
– Accident: mould (fungi) on bacteria
culture plate
– Antib...
Ronald Ross
• British medical doctor (born in India)
– Discovered malarial parasite in
mosquito
– Realization: “Malaria tr...
Ignaz Semmelweis
• Hungarian physician
• The Father of Handwashing
– Many women died from puerperal fever
(childbed fever)...
Career in Health Care
• Bacteriologist (Bacteria)
• Phycologist (Algae)
• Protozoologist (Protozoa)
• Mycologyst (Fungi)
•...
The End
Microbiology Unit 1: Introduction
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×
Upcoming SlideShare
introduction to biology .chapter 1 (1st year )
Next
Download to read offline and view in fullscreen.

19

Share

Download to read offline

Microbiology Unit 1: Introduction

Download to read offline

Microbiology Unit 1: Introduction

Related Books

Free with a 30 day trial from Scribd

See all

Microbiology Unit 1: Introduction

  1. 1. Microbiology and Parasitology UNIT 1: INTRODUCTION
  2. 2. Some rules • Listen when others are talking • Show respect for other opinions • If you don’t understand, don’t hesitate to ask (raise hand) • No cellphones in the class room • Full participation is asked
  3. 3. Microbiology Virus: Ebola Fungi: Mushroom Bacteria: Salmonella ENEMY OR… …FRIEND Algae: Algal bloom MICROBES
  4. 4. Course content • Theory – Burton’s Microbiology for the Health Sciences – P.G. Engelkirk & J. Duben – Microbiology and Infection – T.J.J. Inglis • Practice: demonstrations in laboratory science – Growth of bacteria – Growth of fungi • Tests • Assignments • Final examination
  5. 5. Website • http://pson-biochemphys.yurls.net/en/page/
  6. 6. Today • Microbes – Definition – Presence – Variety – Enemy or friend? • Historical Background – Earliest known diseases – Fouding fathers • Microbiology in health care – Possible careers
  7. 7. Definition? • MICRO – BIO – LOGY – μικρος = micros = “small” – βιος = bios = “life” – λογος = logos = “science” – “The study of very small living organisms” • or: MICROBIOLOGY – “The study of microorganisms (microbes) usually less then 1 mm in diameter which requires some sort of magnification to be seen clearly” Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 1
  8. 8. Presence of Microbes • Microbes are ubiquitous: virtually everywhere – Water (photosynthetic algae, plankton) – Dead or decaying materials (decomposers/saprophytes) – Soil (bacteria used in microbial ecology) – Animals/plants (bacteria and protozoa in intestinal tract) – Food/drinks (yeast in bread and beer) – Laboratory (study or to produce antibiotics, insulin, hormones) Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 1 MANY MICROBES ARE USEFUL (FRIENDLY)
  9. 9. Variety of Microbes • Categories – Acellar: Viroids, Virus, Prion – Prokaryotes (cellular without nucleus): Bacteria, Archaea, Cyanobacteria – Eukaryotes (cellular with nucleus): Algae, Fungi, Protozoa Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 1 Microbes Acellular Viroids Prions Virusus Cellular Prokaryotes Archaea Bacteria Cyanobacteria Eukaryotes Algae Fungi Protozoa
  10. 10. Microflora Indigenous microflora (100 trillion) Nonpathogens (97%) Opportunistic pathogens Pathogens / infectious agents (3%) FRIENDS MICROBIAL ALLIES ENEMIES MICROBIAL ENEMIES “GERMS” USED-TO-BE-FRIENDS POTENTIAL ENEMIES Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 1 • All microbes living on our bodies: Indigenous Microflora
  11. 11. Disease • Microbial enemies… – …cause disease – “Pathogens” – Two categories • Infectious diseases – 50.000 deaths/day – Majority in developing countries • Be aware of… – Infectious diseases – Pathogens – Source – Transmission – Protection/prevention Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 1
  12. 12. Earliest known diseases 3180 BC 1900 BC 1500 BC 1122 BC 790-640 BC 430 BC 1493 0 2015 Egypt: First recorded pestilence Troy: Bubonic plague Egypt: Epidemic fevers China: Smallpox Rome: Epidemics of plague Greece: Epidemics of plague Europe: Syphilis Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 1
  13. 13. Historical background • Once upon a time… Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 1 … they had no idea
  14. 14. Antoni van Leeuwenhoek • Dutch merchant • Godfather of Microbiology – First to see live bacteria – Quote from Microbe Hunters • Inventor microscope (hobby) – Examined water, blood, sperm, teeth, stool, etc. – Observed tiny living creatures: “ANIMALCULES” • No scientist – No speculation on origin – No association with disease Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 1
  15. 15. Leeuwenhoek’s microscopes • Simple or single-lens microscope – One magnifying lens – Magnifying power of x 300 – Tiny glass lens mounted in a plate – Specimen placed on small pin – Screws used to adjust position Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 2 Drawings of van Leeuwenhoek
  16. 16. Robert Koch • German Physician – Germ theory of disease: “specific microbes cause specific disease” – Developed fixing, staining, photographing bacteria – Contributed to TB skin test – Cultivate bacteria on solid agar • obtain pure culture (one type) • Developed Koch’s postulates – Experimental procedure – Proof germ theory of disease: “specific microbes cause specific disease” – e.g. Antrax bacillus  Antrax Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 1
  17. 17. Koch’s Postulates After fulfilling Koch’s Postulates: prove that microbe is cause of particular disease Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 1
  18. 18. Edward Jenner • British physician and scientist • 1976: Developed smallpox vaccine – Hypothesis: “Having cowpox protects from smallpox” – Vaccin: sample from milder cowpox – First to publish results of vaccination – Origin of immunology? Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 16
  19. 19. Louis Pasteur • French Chemist – Fermentation process – Disproved abiogenesis (sponteneous generation) – Aerobes/Anaerobes – Developed Pasteurization – Germ theory of disease: “specific microbes cause specific disease” – Championed changes in hosptial practices: minimize spread disease – Vaccins for chicken cholora, antrax and rabies. • Research center for infectious disease Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 1
  20. 20. Joseph Lister • British surgeon – Asepsis (without infection) – Antisepsis (against infection) • “Phenol as antiseptic” – Apply to wounds, hands, instruments, wound dressings – Perform surgery in phenol mist (irritating) • Use of sterile equipment • ↓ wound infections/mortality • First pure culture (in liquid medium) Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 8,12
  21. 21. Alexander Fleming • Scottish bacteriologist • First antibiotic – Accident: mould (fungi) on bacteria culture plate – Antibiotic (Penicillin) produced by mould inhibited growth of bacteria! • WWII: Penicillin saved thousands of lifes Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 9
  22. 22. Ronald Ross • British medical doctor (born in India) – Discovered malarial parasite in mosquito – Realization: “Malaria transmitted by mosquitos”
  23. 23. Ignaz Semmelweis • Hungarian physician • The Father of Handwashing – Many women died from puerperal fever (childbed fever) – Physicians directly from autopsy room to delivery clinic – Spread by hands of physicians/students – Rule: “wash hands with antiseptics” – ↓ Maternal mortality rate Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 12
  24. 24. Career in Health Care • Bacteriologist (Bacteria) • Phycologist (Algae) • Protozoologist (Protozoa) • Mycologyst (Fungi) • Virologist (Viruses) • Pursue career in medical microbiology? – Study pathogens, infectious diseases and body’s defense mechanisms – Development of vaccines – Epidemiology (public health) – Immunology (immune system) – Clinical/diagnostic microbiology (laboratory diagnosis) Burton’s Microbiology: Chapter 1
  25. 25. The End
  • DrxMIkkhan

    Sep. 2, 2021
  • EsmeraldaBurton

    Feb. 13, 2021
  • TusharVekariya1

    Jan. 9, 2021
  • surabhithakur5

    Dec. 19, 2020
  • carlalui

    Jan. 13, 2020
  • AndreaJeanelle

    Dec. 15, 2019
  • stephaneeCahayagan

    Jul. 31, 2019
  • AaronCole17

    Oct. 22, 2018
  • MohamedTharwat56

    Oct. 11, 2018
  • ManishChoudhary148

    Mar. 15, 2018
  • MeryllPaculanang

    Aug. 21, 2017
  • mirigura

    Jun. 29, 2017
  • MelvinDiosma

    Sep. 29, 2016
  • KrissyDy1

    Aug. 23, 2016
  • IzenMaxwel

    Jun. 26, 2016
  • BiankiiPinedaAbella

    Jun. 25, 2016
  • paljom

    Dec. 16, 2015
  • ElsonDkingJr

    Nov. 22, 2015
  • imsarawr

    Aug. 12, 2015

Microbiology Unit 1: Introduction

Views

Total views

3,623

On Slideshare

0

From embeds

0

Number of embeds

10

Actions

Downloads

135

Shares

0

Comments

0

Likes

19

×